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1\documentclass[12pt,openbib]{article}
2\usepackage{german,graphicx,eurosym,amssymb,amsmath,wasysym,stmaryrd,times,a4wide,wrapfig,exscale,xspace,url,fancyhdr}
3\usepackage[round]{natbib}
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5%\renewcommand{\familydefault}{\sfdefault}
6%\usepackage{helvet}
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8\originalTeX
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36
37\title{Neuantrag auf Gew\"{a}hrung einer Sachbeihilfe\\Proposal for a new research project}
38\author{Prof.\ Dr.\ Karl\ Mannheim\\Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode}
39
40\begin{document}
41
42\maketitle
43\newpage
44\mbox{}
45\thispagestyle{empty}
46\cleardoublepage
47\newpage
48
49\section[1]{General Information (Allgemeine Angaben)}
50
51\subsection[1.1]{Applicants (Antragsteller)}
52\germanTeX
53\begin{tabular}{|p{0.44\textwidth}|p{0.22\textwidth}|p{0.22\textwidth}|}\hline
54{\bf Name}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\bf Akademischer Grad}\\
55{\sc Rhode, Wolfgang, Prof.~Dr.~Dr.}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Universit"atsprofessor (C3)}\\\hline\hline
56{\ }&{\bf Birthday}&{\bf Nationality}\\
57{\ }&Oct 17 1961&German\\\hline
58\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{\bf Institut, Lehrstuhl}\\
59\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{Institut f"ur Physik}\\
60\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{Experimentelle Physik V (Astroteilchenphysik)}\\\hline
61{\bf Address at work        }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\bf Home address}\\[0.5ex]
62{Universit"at Dortmund      }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{                }\\
63{                           }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Am Schilken 28  }\\
64{44221 Dortmund             }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{58285 Gevelsberg}\\
65{Germany                    }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Germany         }\\[0.5ex]
66{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(231)\,755-3550}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(173)\,284\,79\,10}\\
67{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Fax:}+49\,(231)\,755-4547}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{~}\\\hline\hline
68\multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: wolfgang.rhode@udo.edu}\\\hline
69
70\multicolumn{3}{c}{~}\\[1ex]\hline
71
72{\bf Name}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\bf Akademischer Grad}\\
73{\sc Mannheim, Karl, Prof.~Dr.}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Universit"atsprofessor (C4)}\\\hline\hline
74{\ }&{\bf Birthday}&{\bf Nationality}\\
75{\ }&Jan 4 1963&German\\\hline
76\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{\bf Institut, Lehrstuhl}\\
77\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{Institut f"ur Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik}\\
78\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{Lehrstuhl f"ur Astronomie}\\\hline
79{\bf Address at work        }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\bf Home address}\\[0.5ex]
80{Julius-Maximilians-Universit"at}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{                }\\
81{                           }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Oswald-Kunzemann-Str. 12}\\
82{97074 W"urzburg            }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{97299 Zell am Main      }\\
83{Germany                    }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Germany                 }\\[0.5ex]
84{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(931)\,888-5031}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone: +49\,(931)\,404\,81\,90} }\\
85{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Fax:}+49\,(931)\,888-4603}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{~}\\\hline\hline
86\multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: mannheim@astro.uni-wuerzbueg.de}\\\hline
87\end{tabular}
88\originalTeX
89\newpage
90
91\paragraph{1.2 Topic}~\\
92%\subsection[1.2]{Topic}
93Long-term VHE $\gamma$-ray monitoring of bright blazars with a dedicated Cherenkov telescope
94
95\paragraph{1.2 Thema}~\\
96%\subsection[1.2]{Thema}
97Langzeitbeobachtung von hellen VHE $\gamma$-Blazaren mit einem dedizierten Cherenkov Teleskop
98
99\paragraph{1.3 Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}~\\
100%\subsection[1.3]{Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}
101Astronomy and Astrophysics, Particle Astrophysics
102
103\paragraph{\bf 1.4 Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}~\\
104%\subsection[1.4]{Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}
105After successful completion of the three-year work plan developed in
106this proposal, we will ask for an extension of the project for another
107two years to carry out an observation program centered on the signatures
108of supermassive binary black holes.
109
110\paragraph{\bf 1.5 Application period (Antragszeitraum)}~\\
111%\subsection[1.5]{Application period (Antragszeitraum)}
1123\,years. The work on the project will begin immediately after the
113funding.
114
115\newpage
116\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Summary}~\\
117%\subsection[1.6]{Summary}
118We propose to set up a robotic imaging air-Cherenkov telescope with low
119cost, but a high performance design for remote operation. The goal is
120the long-term monitoring observations of nearby, bright blazars at very
121high energies. We will (i) search for orbital modulation of the blazar
122emission due to supermassive black hole binaries, (ii) study the
123statistics of flares and their physical origin, and (iii) correlate the
124data with corresponding data from the neutrino observatory IceCube to
125search for evidence of hadronic emission processes. The observations
126will furthermore trigger follow-up observations of flares with higher
127sensitivity telescopes such as MAGIC, \mbox{VERITAS} and H.E.S.S. Joint
128observations with the Whipple monitoring telescope will start a future
129\mbox{24\,h-monitoring} of selected sources with a distributed network of
130robotic telescopes. The telescope design is based on a complete
131technological upgrade of one of the former telescopes of the HEGRA
132collaboration (CT3) still located at the Observatorio del Roque de los
133Muchachos on the Canary Island La Palma (Spain). After this upgrade,
134the telescope will be operated robotically, a much lower energy
135threshold below 350\,GeV will be achieved, and the observation time
136required for gaining the same signal as with CT3 will be reduced by a
137factor of six.
138
139\germanTeX
140\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Zusammenfassung}~\\
141%\subsection[1.6]{Zusammenfassung}
142Das Ziel unseres Vorhabens ist es, ein abbildendes
143Luft-Cherenkov-Teleskop mit geringen Kosten, aber hoher Leistung f"ur
144den ferngesteuerten Betrieb aufzubauen. Die Motivation ist die
145kontinuierliche Langzeitbeobachtung von hellen, nahen Blazaren bei sehr
146hohen Energien. Mit diesen Beobachtungen werden wir nach
147bahndynamischen Modulationen suchen, welche von Bin"arsystemen
148supermassiver schwarzer L"ocher in der emittierten Strahlung
149hervorgerufen werden. Au"serdem werden die gewonnenen Daten mit den
150entsprechenden Daten des Neutrinoteleskops IceCube korreliert, um nach
151Hinweisen f"ur hadroninduzierte Emissionsprozesse zu suchen. Die
152kontinuierliche "Uberwachung ausgew"ahlter Quellen wird zudem besser
153aufgel"oste Beobachtungen und Nachbeobachtungen von
154Strahlungsausbr"uchen durch Teleskope h"oherer Sensitivit"at, wie z.B.\
155MAGIC, VERITAS und H.E.S.S., erlauben. Die zeitversetzten, gemeinsamen
156Beobachtungen zusammen mit dem Whipple-Teleskop stellen den Beginn
157ununterbrochener Beobachtungen mit einem weltweiten Netzwerk
158robotischer Teleskope dar. Unser Teleskopdesign basiert auf einer
159technischen Runderneuerung eines Teleskops der fr"uheren
160HEGRA-Kollaboration (CT3), welches noch immer am Observatorio del Roque de
161los Muchachos auf der Kanarischen Insel La Palma (Spanien) steht. Nach
162dieser Aufr"ustung wird das Teleskop vollst"andig ferngesteuert
163betrieben werden, eine viel niedrigere Energieschwelle von unter
164350\,GeV erreichen und die Beobachtungszeit, um ein gleichstarkes
165Signal wie mit CT3 zu erhalten, wird um einen Faktor sechs k"urzer
166sein.
167\originalTeX 
168\newpage
169
170\section[2]{Science case, preliminary work by proposer\\(Stand der Forschung, eigene Vorarbeiten)}
171
172\subsection[2.1]{Science case (Stand der Forschung)}
173
174Since the termination of the HEGRA observations, the succeeding
175experiments MAGIC and H.E.S.S.\ have impressively extended the physical
176scope of gamma-ray astronomy detecting tens of formerly unknown gamma-ray
177sources and analyzing their energy spectra, morphology and
178temporal behavior. This became possible by lowering the energy
179threshold from 700\,GeV to less than 100\,GeV and increasing at the same
180time the sensitivity by a factor of five. A diversity of astrophysical
181source types such as pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants,
182micro-quasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Gamma-Ray
183Bursts and blazars have been studied with these telescopes.
184
185The main class of extragalactic, very high energy gamma-rays sources
186detected with imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes are blazars, i.e.\
187accreting supermassive black holes exhibiting a relativistic jet that
188is closely aligned with the line of sight. The non-thermal blazar
189spectrum covers up to 20 orders of magnitude in energy, from
190long-wavelength radio waves to multi-TeV gamma-rays. In addition,
191blazars are characterized by rapid variability, high degrees of
192polarization, and superluminal motion of knots in their
193high-resolution radio images. The observed behavior can readily be
194explained assuming relativistic bulk motion and in situ particle
195acceleration, e.g.\ at shock waves, leading to synchrotron
196(radio-to-x-ray) and self-Compton (gamma-ray) emission \citep{Blandford}.
197Additionally, inverse Compton scattering of external photons may play a
198role in producing the observed gamma-rays \citep{Dermer,Begelman}.
199Variability may hold the key to understanding the details of the
200emission processes and the source geometry. The development of
201time-dependent models is currently under investigation
202worldwide.
203
204Although particle acceleration inevitably affects electrons and protons
205(ions), the electrons are commonly believed to be responsible for
206producing the observed emission owing to their lower mass and thus much
207stronger energy losses (at the same energy). The relativistic protons,
208which could either originate from the accretion flow or from entrained
209ambient matter, will quickly dominate the momentum flow of the jet.
210This {\em baryon pollution} has been suggested to solve the energy
211transport problem in Gamma-Ray Bursts and is probably present in
212blazar jets as well, even if they originate as pair jets in a black
213hole ergosphere \citep{Meszaros}. Protons and ions accelerated in the
214jets of blazars can reach extremely high energies, before energy losses
215become important \citep{Mannheim:1993}. Escaping particles contribute
216to the observed flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in a major way.
217Blazars and their unbeamed hosts, the radio galaxies, are thus the
218prime candidates for origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays
219\citep{Rachen}. This can be investigated with the IceCube and AUGER
220experiments. Recent results of the AUGER experiment show a significant
221anisotropy of the highest energy cosmic rays and point at either nearby
222AGN or sources with a similar spacial distribution as their origin
223\citep{AUGER-AGN}.
224
225In some flares, a large ratio of the gamma-ray to optical luminosity is
226observed. This is difficult to reconcile with the primary leptonic
227origin of the emission, since the accelerated electron pressure would
228largely exceed the magnetic field pressure. For shock acceleration to
229work efficiently, particles must be confined by the magnetic field for
230a time longer than the cooling time. The problem vanishes in the
231following model: Photo-hadronic interactions of accelerated protons and
232synchrotron photons induce electromagnetic cascades, which in turn
233produce secondary electrons causing high energy synchrotron
234gamma-radiation. This demands much stronger magnetic fields in line
235with magnetic confinement \citep{Mannheim:1995}. Short variability time
236scales can result from dynamical changes of the emission zone, running
237e.g.\ through an inhomogeneous environment.
238
239The contemporaneous spectral energy distributions for hadronic and
240leptonic models bear many similarities, but also marked differences,
241such as multiple bumps which are possible even in a one-zone hadronic
242model \citep{Mannheim:1999}. These properties allow conclusions
243about the accelerated particles. Noteworthy, even for nearby blazars
244the spectrum must be corrected for attenuation of the gamma-rays due to
245pair production in collisions with low-energy photons from the
246extragalactic background radiation field \citep{Kneiske}.
247Ultimately, the hadronic origin of the emission must be probed with
248correlated gamma-ray and neutrino observations, since the pion decay
249initiating the cascades involves a fixed ratio of electron-positron
250pairs, gamma-rays, and neutrinos. A dedicated monitoring campaign
251jointly with IceCube has the best chance for success. Pilot studies
252done with MAGIC and IceCube indicate that the investigation of neutrino
253event triggered gamma-ray observations are statistically
254inconclusive \citep{Leier:2006}.
255
256The variability time scale of blazars ranges from minutes to months,
257generally showing the largest amplitudes and the shortest time scales
258at the highest energies. Recently, a doubling time scale of two minutes
259has been observed in a flare of Mrk\,501 with the MAGIC telescope
260\citep{Albert:501}. A giant flare of PKS\,2155-304 discovered by
261H.E.S.S.\ \citep{Aharonian:2007pks} has shown similarly short doubling
262time scales and a flux of up to 16 times the flux of the Crab Nebula.
263Indications for TeV flares without evidence for an accompanying x-ray
264flare, coined orphan flares, have been observed, questioning the
265synchrotron-self-Compton mechanism being responsible for the
266gamma-rays. Model ramifications involving several emission components,
267external seed photons, or hadronically induced emission may solve the
268problem \citep{Blazejowski}. Certainly, the database for
269contemporaneous multi-wavelength observations is still far from proving
270the synchrotron-self-Compton model.
271
272Generally, observations of flares are prompted by optical or x-ray
273alerts, leading to a strong selection bias. The variability presumably
274reflects the non-steady feeding of the jets and the changing interplay
275between particle acceleration and cooling. In this situation,
276perturbations of the electron density or the bulk plasma velocity are
277traveling down the jet. The variability could also reflect the changing
278conditions of the external medium to which the jet flow adapts during
279its passage through it. In fact, a clumpy, highly inhomogeneous
280external medium is typical for active galactic nuclei, as indicated by
281their clumpy emission line regions, if visible against the
282Doppler-enhanced blazar emission. Often the jets bend with a large
283angle indicating shocks resulting from reflections off intervening
284high-density clouds. Changes in the direction of the jet flow lead to
285large flux variations due to differential Doppler boosting.
286
287Helical trajectories, as seen in high-resolution radio maps resulting
288from the orbital modulation of the jet base in supermassive black hole
289binaries, would lead to periodic variability on time scales of months
290to years \citep{Rieger:2007}. Binaries are expected to be the most
291common outcome of the repeated mergers of galaxies which have
292originally built up the blazar host galaxy. Each progenitor galaxy
293brings its own supermassive black hole as expected from the
294Magorrian-Kormendy relations. It is subject to stellar dynamical
295evolution in the core of the merger galaxy, of which only one pair of
296black holes is expected to survive near the center of gravity.
297Supermassive black hole binaries close to coalescence are thus expected
298to be generic in blazars. Angular momentum transport by collective
299stellar dynamical processes is efficient to bring them to distances
300close to where the emission of gravitational waves begins to dominate
301their further evolution until coalescence. Their expected gravitational
302wave luminosity is spectacularly high, even long before final
303coalescence and the frequencies are favorable for the detectors under
304consideration (LISA). The detection of gravitational waves relies on exact
305templates to filter out the signals and the templates can be computed
306from astrophysical constraints on the orbits and masses of the black
307holes. TeV gamma-rays, showing the shortest variability time scales,
308probe deepest into the jet and are thus the most sensitive probe of the
309orbital modulation at the jet base. Relativistic aberration is helpful
310in bringing down the observed periods to below the time scale of years.
311A tentative hint for a 23-day periodicity of the TeV emission from
312Mrk\,501 during a phase of high activity in 1997 was reported by
313HEGRA \citep{Kranich}, and was later confirmed including x-ray and
314Telescope Array data \citep{Osone}. The observations can be explained in
315a supermassive black hole binary scenario \citep{Rieger:2000}.
316Indications for helical trajectories and periodic modulation of optical
317and radio lightcurves on time scales of tens of years have also been
318described in the literature (e.g. \cite{Hong,Merrit}).
319
320To overcome the limitations of biased sampling, a complete monitoring
321database for a few representative bright sources needs to be obtained.
322Space missions with all-sky observations at lower photon energies, such
323as GLAST, GRIPS, or eROSITA, will provide significant multi-wavelength
324exposure simultaneous to the VHE observations, and this is a new
325qualitative step for blazar research. For the same reasons, the VERITAS
326collaboration keeps the Whipple telescope alive, albeit its
327performance seems to have strongly degraded. It is obvious that the
328large Cherenkov telescopes such as MAGIC, H.E.S.S.\ or VERITAS are mainly
329used to discover new sources at the sensitivity limit. Thus they will
330not perform monitoring observations of bright sources with complete
331sampling during their visibility. However, these telescopes will be
332triggered by monitoring telescopes and thus improve the described
333investigations. In turn, operating a smaller but robotic telescope is
334an essential and cost-effective contribution to the plans for
335next-generation instruments in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy.
336Know-how for the operation of future networks of robotic Cherenkov
337telescopes, e.g. a monitoring array around the globe or a single-place
338array like CTA, is certainly needed given the high operating shift
339demands of the current installations.
340
341In summary, there are strong reasons to make an effort for the
342continuous monitoring of the few exceptionally bright blazars. This can
343be achieved by operating a dedicated monitoring telescope of the
344HEGRA-type, referred to in the following as DWARF (Dedicated
345multiWavelength Agn Research Facility). Its robotic design will keep
346the demands on personal and infrastructure on the low side, rendering
347it compatible with the resources of University groups. The approach is
348also optimal to educate students in the strongly expanding field of
349astroparticle physics.
350
351Assuming conservatively the performance of a single HEGRA-type
352telescope, long-term monitor\-ing of at least the following known
353blazars is possible: Mrk\,421, Mrk\,501, 1ES\,2344+514, 1ES\,1959+650,
354H\,1426+428, PKS\,2155-304. We emphasize, that DWARF will run as a
355facility dedicated to these targets only, providing a maximum
356observation time for the program. Utilizing recent developments, such
357as improvements of the light collection efficiency due to an improved
358mirror reflectivity and a better PM quantum efficiency, a 30\%
359improvement in sensitivity and a lower energy-threshold is reasonable.
360Current studies show that with a good timing resolution (2\,GHz) a
361further 40\% increase in sensitivity (compared to a 300\,MHz system) is
362feasible. Together with an extended mirror area and a large camera, a
363sensitivity improvement compared to a single HEGRA telescope of a
364factor of 2.5 and an energy threshold below 350\,GeV is possible.
365
366\subsection[2.2]{Preliminary work by proposers (Eigene Vorarbeiten)}
367
368From the experience with the construction, operation and data analysis
369of Amanda, IceCube, HEGRA and MAGIC the proposing groups contribute the
370necessary knowledge and experience to build and operate a small imaging
371air-Cherenkov telescope.
372
373\paragraph{Hardware}
374
375The Dortmund group is working on experimental and phenomenological
376astroparticle physics. In the past, the following hardware components
377were successfully developed: a Flash-ADC based DAQ (TWR, transient
378waveform recorder), currently in operation for data acquisition in the
379AMANDA subdetector within the IceCube telescope \citep{Wagner:PhD}, an
380online software Trigger for the TWR-DAQ system \citep{Messarius:PhD},
381online data compression mechanisms (TWR DAQ) \citep{Refflinghaus:Dipl},
382monitoring software for the TWR-DAQ-data \citep{Dreyer:Dipl} and
383in-ice-HV-power-supply for IceCube. This development was done with the
384companies CAEN, Pisa, Italy and Iseg, Rossendorf, Germany. The HV
385modules were long time tested under different temperature conditions
386connected to operating photomultipliers \citep{Bartelt:Dipl}. Prototypes
387for the scintillator counters of the planned Air Shower Array {\em
388SkyView} were developed and operated for two years \citep{Deeg:Dipl}.
389Members of the group (engineers) were involved in the fast trigger
390development for H1 and are involved in the FPGA-programming for the
391LHCb data read out. The group may further use the well equipped
392mechanical and electronic workshops in Dortmund and the electronic
393development departure of the faculty.
394
395The ultra fast drive system of the MAGIC telescopes, suitable for fast
396repositioning in case of Gamma-Ray Bursts, has been developed,
397commissioned and programmed by the W\"{u}rzburg group
398\citep{Bretz:2003drive,Bretz:2005drive}. To correct for axis
399misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g.\ bending
400of camera holding masts), a pointing correction algorithm was developed
401\citep{Dorner:Diploma}. Its calibration is done by measurement of the
402reflection of bright guide stars on the camera surface and ensures a
403pointing accuracy well below the pixel diameter. Hardware and software
404(CCD readout, image processing and pointing correction algorithms) have
405also been developed and are in operation successfully since more than
406three years \citep{Riegel:2005icrc2}.
407
408Mirror structures made of plastic material have been developed as
409Winston cones for balloon flight experiments previously by the group of
410Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge. W\"{u}rzburg has also participated in the development of
411a HPD test bench, which has been setup in Munich and W\"{u}rzburg. With
412this setup, HPDs for future improvement of the sensitivity of the MAGIC
413camera are investigated.
414
415\paragraph{Software}
416
417The W\"{u}rzburg group has developed a full MAGIC analysis package,
418flexible and modular enough to easily process DWARF data
419\citep{Bretz:2005paris,Riegel:2005icrc,Bretz:2005mars}. A method for
420absolute light calibration of the PMs based on Muon images, especially
421important for long-term monitoring, has been
422adapted and further improved for the MAGIC telescope
423\citep{Meyer:Diploma,Goebel:2005}. Both, data analysis and Monte Carlo
424production, have been fully automatized, such that both can run with
425sparse user interaction \citep{Dorner:2005icrc}. The analysis was
426developed to be powerful and as robust as possible to be best suited
427for automatic processing \citep{Dorner:2005paris}. Experience with
428large amount of data (up to 8\,TB/month) has been gained since 2004.
429The datacenter is equipped with a professional multi-stage
430(hierarchical) storage system. Two operators are paid by the physics
431faculty. Currently efforts in W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund are ongoing to
432turn the old, inflexible Monte Carlo programs, used by the MAGIC
433collaboration, into modular packages allowing for easy simulation of
434other setups. Experience with Monte Carlo simulations, especially
435CORSIKA, is contributed by the Dortmund group, which has actively
436implemented changes into the CORSIKA program, such as an extension to
437large zenith angles, prompt meson production and a new atmospheric
438model \citep{Haffke:Dipl,Schroeder:PhD} for the local atmosphere of La
439Palma. Furthermore the group has developed high precision Monte Carlos
440for Lepton propagation in different media \citep{Chirkin:2004}.
441An energy unfolding method and program has been adapted for IceCube and
442MAGIC data analysis \citep{Curtef:CM,Muenich:ICRC}.
443
444\paragraph{Phenomenology}
445
446Both groups have experience with source models and theoretical
447computations of gamma-ray and neutrino spectra expected from blazars.
448The relation between the two messengers is a prime focus of interest.
449Experience with corresponding multi-messenger data analyses involving
450MAGIC and IceCube data is available in the Dortmund group. Research
451activities are also related with relativistic particle acceleration
452\citep{Meli} and gamma-ray attenuation \citep{Kneiske}. The W\"{u}rzburg
453group has organized and carried out multi-wavelength observations of
454bright blazars involving MAGIC, Suzaku, the IRAM telescopes and the
455KVA optical telescope \citep{Ruegamer}. Signatures of supermassive
456black hole binaries, which are most relevant also for gravitational
457wave detectors, are investigated jointly with the German LISA
458consortium (Burkart, Elbracht ongoing research, funded by DLR).
459\mbox{Secondary} gamma-rays due to dark matter annihilation events are
460investigated both from their particle physics and astrophysics aspects.
461Another main focus of research is on models of radiation and particle
462acceleration processes in blazar jets (hadronic and leptonic models),
463leading to predictions of correlated neutrino emission \citep{Rueger}.
464This includes simulations of particle acceleration due to the Weibel
465instability \citep{Burkart}. Much of this research at W\"{u}rzburg is
466carried out in the context of the research training school GRK\,1147
467{\em Theoretical Astrophysics and Particle Physics}.
468
469\section[3]{Goals and Work Schedule (Ziele und Arbeitsprogramm)}
470
471\subsection[3.1]{Goals (Ziele)}
472
473The aim of the project is to put the former CT3 of the HEGRA
474collaboration on the Roque de los Muchachos back into operation. It
475will be setup, under the name DWARF, with an enlarged mirror surface
476(fig.~\ref{DWARF}), a new camera with higher quantum efficiency and new
477fast data acquisition system. The energy threshold will be lowered, and
478the sensitivity of DWARF will be greatly improved compared to HEGRA CT3
479(see fig.~\ref{sensitivity}). Commissioning and the first year of data
480taking should be carried out within the three years of the requested
481funding period.
482
483\begin{figure}[ht]
484\begin{center}
485 \includegraphics*[width=0.496\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{CT3.eps}
486 \includegraphics*[width=0.496\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{DWARF.eps}
487 \caption{The old CT3 telescope as operated within the
488 HEGRA System (left) and a photomontage of the revised CT3 telescope
489 with more and hexagonal mirrors (right).}
490\label{CT3}
491\label{DWARF}
492\end{center}
493\end{figure}
494
495The telescope will be operated robotically to reduce costs and man
496power demands. Furthermore, we seek to obtain know-how for the
497operation of future networks of robotic Cherenkov telescopes (e.g. a
498monitoring array around the globe or CTA) or telescopes at sited
499difficult to access. From the experience with the construction and
500operation of MAGIC or HEGRA, the proposing groups consider the planned
501focused approach (small number of experienced scientists) as optimal
502for achieving the project goals. The available automatic analysis
503package developed by the W\"{u}rzburg group for MAGIC is modular and
504flexible, and can thus be used with minor changes for the DWARF
505project.
506
507\begin{figure}[htb]
508\begin{center}
509 \includegraphics*[width=0.7\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{visibility.eps}
510 \caption{Source visibility in hours per night versus month of the year
511 considering a maximum observation zenith angle of 65$^\circ$
512 for all sources which we want to monitor including the Crab Nebula,
513 necessary for calibration and quality assurance.}
514\label{visibility}
515\end{center}
516\end{figure}
517
518The scientific focus of the project will be on the long-term monitoring
519of bright, nearby VHE emitting blazars. At least one of the proposed
520targets will be visible any time of the year (see
521fig.~\ref{visibility}). For calibration purposes, some time will be
522scheduled for observations of the Crab \mbox{Nebula}.\\
523
524The blazar observations will allow
525\begin{itemize}
526\item to determine the baseline emission, the duty cycle and the power
527spectrum of flux variations.
528\item to cooperate with the Whipple monitoring telescope for an
529extended time coverage.
530\item to prompt Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) observations with MAGIC in
531the case of flares increasing time resolution. Corresponding
532ToO proposals to H.E.S.S.\ and VERITAS are in preparation.
533\item to observe simultaneously with MAGIC which will provide an
534extended bandwidth from below 100\,GeV to multi-TeV energies.
535\item to obtain multi-frequency observations together with the
536Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory and the optical telescopes of the
537Tuorla Observatory. The measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL
538and GLAST results, when available. X-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and
539Suzaku facilities will be proposed.
540
541\end{itemize}
542
543Interpretation of the data will yield crucial information about
544\begin{itemize}
545\item the nature of the emission processes going on in relativistic
546jets. We plan to interpret the data with models currently developed in
547the context of the Research Training Group {\em Theoretical
548Astrophysics} in W\"{u}rzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK\,1147), including
549particle-in-cell and hybrid MHD models.
550\item the black hole mass and accretion rate fitting the data with
551emission models. Results will be compared with estimates of the black
552hole mass from the Magorrian relation.
553\item the flux of relativistic protons (ions) by correlating the rate
554of neutrinos detected with the neutrino telescope IceCube and the rate
555of gamma-ray photons detected with DWARF, and thus the rate of escaping
556cosmic rays.
557\item the orbital modulation owing to a supermassive binary black hole.
558Constraints on the binary system will allow to compute most accurate
559templates of gravitational waves, which is a connected project at
560W\"{u}rzburg in the German LISA consortium funded by DLR.
561\end{itemize}
562
563\subsection[3.2]{Work schedule (Arbeitsprogramm)}
564
565To complete the mount to a functional Cherenkov telescope within a
566period of one year, the following steps are necessary:
567
568The work schedule assumes, that the work will begin in January 2008,
569immediately after funding. Later funding would accordingly shift the
570schedule. Each year is divided into quarters (see fig.~\ref{schedule}).
571
572\begin{figure}[htb]
573\begin{center}
574 \includegraphics*[width=\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{schedule.eps}
575 \caption{Work schedule for the expected funding period of three years.
576  More details about the work distribution is given in the text.}
577\label{schedule}
578%\label{DWARF}
579\end{center}
580\end{figure}
581
582\paragraph{Software}
583\begin{itemize}
584\item MC adaption (Do/W\"{u}): Due to the large similarities with the
585MAGIC telescope, within half a year new Monte Carlo code can be
586programmed using parts of the existing MAGIC Monte Carlo code. For
587tests and cross-checks another period of six months is necessary.
588\item Analysis adaption (W\"{u}): The modular concept of the Magic
589Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) allows a very fast adaption
590of the telescope setup, camera and data acquisition properties within
591half a year.
592\item Adaption Drive software (W\"{u}): Since the new drive electronics
593will be based on the design of the MAGIC~II drive system the control
594software can be reused unchanged. The integration into the new slow
595control system will take about half a year. It has to be finished at
596the time of arrival of the drive system components in 2009/1.
597\item Slow control/DAQ (Do): A new data acquisition and slow control
598system for camera and auxiliary systems has to be developed. Based on
599experiences with the AMANDA DAQ, the Domino DAQ developed for MAGIC~II
600will be adapted and the slow control integrated within three quarters
601of a year. Commissioning will take place with the full system in
6022009/3.
603\end{itemize}
604
605\paragraph{Mirrors (W\"{u})} First prototypes for the mirrors are
606already available. After testing (six months), the production will
607start in summer 2008, and the shipment will be finished before the full
608system assembly 2009/2.
609\paragraph{Drive (W\"{u})} After a planning phase of half a year to
610simplify the MAGIC~II drive system for a smaller telescope (together
611with the delivering company), ordering, production and shipment should
612be finished in 2009/1. The MAGIC~I and~II drive systems have been
613planned and implemented successfully by the W\"{u}rzburg group.
614\paragraph{Auxiliary (W\"{u})} Before the final setup in 2009/1, all
615auxiliary systems (weather station, computers, etc.) will have been
616specified, ordered and shipped.
617\paragraph{Camera (Do)} The camera has to be ready six month after the
618shipment of the other mechanical parts of the telescope. For this
619purpose camera tests have to take place in 2009/2, which requires the
620assembly of the camera within six months before. By now, a PM test
621bench is set up in Dortmund, which allows to finish planning and
622ordering of parts of the camera, including the PMs, until summer 2008,
623before the construction begins.
624In addition to the manpower permanently provided by Dortmund
625for production and commissioning, two engineers will participate in the
626construction phase.
627\paragraph{Full System (Do/W\"{u})} The full system will be assembled
628after the delivery of all parts in the beginning of spring 2009. Start of
629the commissioning is planned four months later. First light is expected
630in autumn 2009. This would allow an immediate full system test with a
631well measured, strong and steady source (Crab Nebula). After the
632commissioning phase will have been finished in spring 2010, complete
633robotic operation will be provided.
634
635Based on the experience with setting up the MAGIC telescope we estimate
636this workschedule as conservative.
637
638\subsection[3.3]{Experiments with humans (Untersuchungen am Menschen)}
639none
640\subsection[3.4]{Experiments with animals (Tierversuche)}
641none
642\subsection[3.5]{Experiments with recombinant DNA (Gentechnologische Experimente)}
643none
644
645\clearpage                                                                 
646
647\section[4]{Funds requested (Beantragte Mittel)}
648
649Summarizing, the expenses for the telescope are dominated by the camera
650and data acquisition. We request funding for a total of three years.
651%The financial volume for the complete hardware inclusive
652%transport amounts to {\bf 372.985,-\,\euro}.
653
654\subsection[4.1]{Required Staff (Personalkosten)}
655
656For this period, we request funding for two postdocs and two PhD
657students, one in Dortmund and one in W\"{u}rzburg each (3\,x\,TV-L13).The
658staff members shall fulfill the tasks given in the work schedule above.
659To cover these tasks completely, one additional PhD and a various
660number of Diploma students will complete the working group.
661
662Suitable candidates interested in these positions are Dr.\ Thomas
663Bretz, Dr.\ dest.\ Daniela Dorner, Dr.\ dest.\ Kirsten M\"{u}nich,
664cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes, cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch and cand.\
665phys.\ Dominik Neise.
666
667\subsection[4.2]{Scientific equipment (Wissenschaftliche Ger\"{a}te)}
668
669At the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site,
670the mount of the former HEGRA telescope CT3 now owned by the MAGIC
671collaboration is still serviceable. One hut for electronics close to
672the telescope is available. Additional space is available in the MAGIC
673counting house. The MAGIC Memorandum of Understanding allows for
674operating DWARF as an auxiliary instrument (see appendix). Also
675emergency support from the shift crew is guaranteed, although
676autonomous robotic operation is the primary goal.
677
678\begin{figure}[hb]
679\centering{
680%\includegraphics[width=0.605\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps}
681\includegraphics[width=0.70\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps}
682\caption{Integral flux sensitivity of several telescopes
683\citep{Juan:2000,MAGICsensi,Vassiliev:1999} 
684and the expectation for DWARF, with both a PMT- and a
685GAPD-camera, scaled from the sensitivity of
686HEGRA~CT1 by the improvements mentioned in the text.
687} \label{sensitivity} } 
688\end{figure}
689
690To achieve the planned sensitivity and threshold
691(fig.~\ref{sensitivity}), the following components have to be bought.
692To obtain reliable results as fast as possible well known components
693have been chosen.\\
694
695{\bf Camera}\dotfill 206.450,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
696\begin{quote}
697   To setup a camera with 313 pixels the following components are needed:\\
698   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
699   Photomultiplier Tube EMI\,9083B\hfill 220,-\,\euro\\
700   Active voltage divider (EMI)\hfill 80,-\,\euro\\
701   High voltage support and control\hfill 300,-\,\euro\\
702   Preamplifier\hfill 50,-\,\euro\\
703   Spare parts (overall)\hfill 3000,-\,\euro\\
704   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
705%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
706For long-term observations, the stability of the camera is a major
707criterion. To keep the systematic errors small, a good background
708estimation is mandatory. The only possibility for a synchronous
709determination of the background is the measurement from the night-sky
710observed in the same field-of-view with the same instrument. To achieve
711this, the observed position is moved out of the camera center which
712allows the estimation of the background from positions symmetric with
713respect to the camera center (so called Wobble mode). This observation
714mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because
715spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes
716obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This
717ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources.\\
718A further increase in sensitivity can be achieved by better background
719statistics from not only one but several independent positions for the
720background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. To allow for
721this the source position in Wobble mode should be shifted
722$0.6^\circ-0.7^\circ$ out of the camera center.
723
724A camera completely containing the shower images of events in the energy
725region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of
7265$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera
727geometry, a camera layout as symmetric as possible will be chosen.
728Consequently a camera allowing to fulfill these requirements should be
729round and have a diameter of $4.5^\circ-5.0^\circ$.
730\begin{figure}[th]
731\begin{center}
732 \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam271.eps}
733 \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam313.eps}
734 \caption{Left: Schematic picture of the 271 pixel CT3 camera with a field of view of 4.6$^\circ$.
735 Right: Schematic picture of the 313 pixel camera for DWARF with a field of view of 5$^\circ$.}
736\label{camCT3}
737\label{camDWARF}
738\end{center}
739\end{figure}
740
741Therefore a camera with 313 pixel camera (see fig.~\ref{camDWARF}) is
742chosen. The camera will be built based on the experience with HEGRA and
743MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083B/KFLA-UD)
744will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). They have
745a quantum efficiency improved by 25\% (see fig.~\ref{qe}) and ensure a
746granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the
747energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be
748equipped with a preamplifier, an active high-voltage supply and
749control. The total expense for a single pixel will be in the order of
750650,-\,\euro.
751
752All possibilities of borrowing one of the old HEGRA cameras for a
753transition time have been probed and refused by the owners of the
754cameras.
755
756At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the
757ability, i.e.\ stability, aging, quantum efficiency, etc., of using
758Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon detectors in the camera of a
759Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are an extremely high quantum
760efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and simplified
761application compared to classical PMs. If these test measurements are
762successfully finished until 8/2008, we consider to use GAPDs in favor
763of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take place at
764University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts from ETH.
765The construction would also take place at the electronics workshop of
766Dortmund.
767
768\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
769
770{\bf Camera support}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
771\begin{quote}
772For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500,-\,\euro)
773The camera chassis must be water tight and will be equipped with an
774automatic lid, protecting the PMs at daytime. For further protection, a
775plexi-glass window will be installed in front of the camera. By coating
776this window with an anti-reflex layer of magnesium-fluoride, a gain in
777transmission of 5\% is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a
778light-guide (Winston cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in
779operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000,-\,\euro\ for all Winston cones). The
780current design will be improved by using a high reflectivity aluminized
781Mylar mirror-foil, coated with a dialectical layer ($Si\,O_2$
782alternated with Niobium Oxide), to reach a reflectivity in the order of
78398\%. An electric and optical shielding of the individual PMs is
784planned.
785
786In total a gain of $\sim$15\% in light-collection
787efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be achieved.
788\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
789
790\newpage
791{\bf Data acquisition}\dotfill 61.035,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
792\begin{quote}
793313 pixels a\\
794   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
795   Readout\hfill 95,-\,\euro\\
796   Trigger\hfill 100,-\,\euro\\
797   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
798%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
799For the data acquisition system a hardware readout based on an analog
800ring buffer (Domino\ II/IV), currently developed for the MAGIC~II
801readout, will be used \citep{Barcelo}. This technology allows to sample
802the pulses with high frequencies and readout several channels with a
803single Flash-ADC resulting in low costs. The low power consumption will
804allow to include the digitization near the signal source making
805the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. This results in less
806pick-up noise and reduces the signal dispersion. By high sampling rates
807(1.2\,GHz), additional information about the pulse shape can be
808obtained. This increases the over-all sensitivity further, because the
809short integration time allows for almost perfect suppression of noise
810due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger-, i.e.\
811readout-rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which
812allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system,
813like USB\,2.0.
814
815%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
816Current results obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC
817data acquisition show, that for a single telescope a sensitivity
818improvement of 40\% with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}.
819
820Like for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is
821sufficient, but also a simple neighbor-logic could be programmed (both
822cases $\sim$100,-\,\euro/channel).
823
824Additional data reduction and preprocessing within the readout chain is
825provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz, the storage
826space needed will be less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount
827of data can easily be stored and processed by the W\"{u}rzburg
828Datacenter (current capacity $>$80\,TB, $>$40\,CPUs).
829\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
830
831{\bf Mirrors}\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
832%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
833\begin{quote}
834The existing mirrors will be replaced by new plastic mirrors currently
835developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and light-weight
836material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon
837experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master and coated with a
838reflecting and a protective material. Tests have given promising
839results. By a change of the mirror geometry, the mirror area can be
840increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture~\ref{CT3} and
841montage~\ref{DWARF}). This includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per
842mirror by using a hexagonal layout instead of a round one. A further
843increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of
844the mount and will therefore be considered only in a later phase of the
845experiment.
846
847If the current development of the plastic mirrors cannot be finished in
848time, a re-machining of the old glass mirrors (8.5\,m$^2$) is possible
849with high purity aluminum and quartz coating.
850
851In both cases the mirrors can be coated with the same high reflectivity
852aluminized Mylar mirror-foil and a dialectical layer of $SiO_2$ as for
853the Winston cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is
854achieved, see fig.~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}. Both
855solutions would require the same expenses.
856
857To keep track of the alignment, reflectivity and optical quality of the
858individual mirrors and the point-spread function of the total mirror
859during long-term observations, the application of an automatic mirror
860adjustment system, as developed by ETH~Z\"{u}rich and successfully
861operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended.
862
863%<grey>The system
864%will be provided by ETH Z"urich.</grey>
865
866%{\bf For a diameter mirror of less than 2.4\,m, the delay between an
867%parabolic (isochronous) and a spherical mirror shape at the edge is well
868%below 1ns (see figure). Thus for a sampling rate of 1.2\,GHz parabolic
869%individual mirrors are not needed. Due to their small size the
870%individual mirrors can have a spherical shape.}
871%}\\[2ex]
872\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
873
874{\bf Calibration System}\dotfill 9.650,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
875\begin{quote}
876Components\\
877   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
878   Absolute light calibration\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
879   Individual pixel rate control\hfill 3.000,-\,\euro\\
880   Weather station\hfill 500,-\,\euro\\
881   GPS clock\hfill 1.500,-\,\euro\\
882   CCD cameras with readout\hfill 2.650,-\,\euro\\
883   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
884%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
885For the absolute light calibration (gain-calibration) of the PMs a
886calibration box, as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope, will be
887produced.
888
889To ensure a homogeneous acceptance of the camera, essential for
890Wobble mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels
891will be measured and controlled.
892
893For a correction of axis misalignments and possible deformations of the
894structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts) a pointing correction
895algorithm will be applied, as used in the MAGIC tracking system. It is
896calibrated by measurements of the reflection of bright guide stars on
897the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel
898diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as for
899MAGIC\ I and~II, (300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics,
900300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ frame grabber) will be installed.
901
902A second identical CCD camera for online monitoring (starguider) will
903be bought.
904
905For an accurate tracking a GPS clock is necessary. The weather station
906helps judging the data quality.
907%}\\[2ex]
908\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
909
910{\bf Computing}\dotfill 12.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
911\begin{quote}
912   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
913   Three PCs\hfill 8.000,-\,\euro\\
914   SATA RAID 3TB\hfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\
915   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
916%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
917For on-site computing three standard PCs are needed ($\sim$8.000,-\,\euro).
918This includes readout and storage, preprocessing and telescope control.
919For safety reasons, a firewall is mandatory. For local cache-storage
920and backup, two RAID\,5 SATA disk arrays with one Terabyte capacity
921each will fulfill the requirement ($\sim$4.000,-\,\euro). The data will be
922transmitted as soon as possible after data taking via Internet to the
923W\"{u}rzburg Datacenter. Enough storage capacity and computing power
924is available there and already reserved for this purpose.
925
926Monte Carlo production and storage will take place at University
927Dortmund.%}\\[2ex]
928\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
929
930%%%%%%%%%%%%%% PLOTS HERE???? %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
931
932{\bf Mount and Drive}\dotfill 17.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
933\begin{quote}
934%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
935The present mount is used. Only a smaller investment for safety,
936corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro).
937
938Motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of
93910.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with
940the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF drive
941system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three
942reasons: (i)~Fast movement might be mandatory for future ToO
943observations. (ii)~Wobble mode observations will be done changing the
944Wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons.
945(iii)~To ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at
946the same time, the observed source will be changed in constant time
947intervals.
948
949For the drive system three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A
950micro-controller based motion control unit (Siemens SPS L\,20) similar to
951the one of the current MAGIC~II drive system will be used. For
952communication with the readout-system, a standard Ethernet connection
953based on the TCP/IP- and UDP-protocol will be setup.
954%}\\[2ex]
955\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
956
957{\bf Security}\dotfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
958\begin{quote}
959   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
960   Uninterruptable power-supply (UPS)\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
961   Security fence\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
962   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
963%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
964A UPS with 5\,kW-10\,kW will be
965installed to protect the equipment against power cuts and ensure a safe
966telescope position at the time of sunrise.
967
968For protection in case of robotic movement a fence will be
969installed.%}\\[2ex]
970\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
971
972{\bf Other expenses}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
973\begin{quote}
974%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
975%   Robotics\hfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\
976%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
977%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
978For remote, robotic operation a variety of remote controllable electronic
979components such as Ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be
980bought. Monitoring equipment, for example different kind of sensors, is
981also mandatory.%}\\[2ex]
982\end{quote}
983\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
984\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.2:\hfill{\bf
985341.135,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
986\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
987\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
988
989\begin{figure}[p]
990\centering{
991\includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{cherenkov.eps}
992\includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{reflectivity.eps}
993\includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{qe.eps}
994\caption{Top to bottom: The Cherenkov spectrum as observed by a
995telescope located at 2000\,m above sea level. The mirror's reflectivity
996of a 300\,nm thick aluminum layer with a protection layer of 10\,nm and
997100\,nm thickness respectively. For comparison the reflectivity of
998HEGRA CT1's mirrors \citep{Kestel:2000} are shown. The bottom plot depicts
999the quantum efficiency of the preferred PMs (EMI) together with the
1000predecessor used in CT1. A proper coating \citep{Paneque:2004} will
1001further enhance its efficiency. An even better increase would be the
1002usage of Geiger-mode APDs.}
1003
1004\label{cherenkov}
1005\label{reflectivity}
1006\label{qe}
1007}
1008\end{figure}
1009
1010\subsection[4.3]{Consumables (Verbrauchsmaterial)}
1011
1012\begin{quote}
1013%   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.9\textwidth}
1014   10 LTO\,4 tapes (8\,TB)\dotfill 750,-\,\euro\\
1015   Consumables (overalls): tools and materials\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro
1016%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1017\end{quote}
1018
1019\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1020\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.3:\hfill{\bf
102110.750,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1022\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1023\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1024
1025\subsection[4.4]{Travel expenses (Reisen)}
1026The large amount of travel funding is required due to the very close
1027cooperation between Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg and the work demands on
1028the construction site.\\[-2ex]
1029
1030\begin{quote}
1031%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1032Per year one senior group member from Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg should
1033present the status of the work in progress at an international workshop
1034or conference:\\
10352 x 3\,years x 1.500,-\,\euro\dotfill 9.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1036
1037One participation at the biannual MAGIC collaboration meeting:\\
10382 x 3\,years x 1.000,-\,\euro\dotfill 6.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1039
1040PhD student exchange between W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund:\\
10411\,student x 1\,week x 24 (every six weeks) x 800,-\,\euro\dotfill
104219.200,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1043
1044For setup of the telescope at La Palma the following travel expenses
1045are necessary:\\
10464 x 2\,weeks at La Palma x 2\,persons x 1.800,-\,\euro\dotfill
104728.800,-\,\euro
1048%}
1049\end{quote}
1050
1051\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1052\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.4:\hfill{\bf
105363.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1054\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1055\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1056
1057
1058\subsection[4.5]{Publication costs (Publikationskosten)}
1059Will be covered by the proposing institutes.
1060
1061
1062\subsection[4.6]{Other costs (Sonstige Kosten)}
1063\begin{quote}
1064Storage container (for shipment of the mirrors)\dotfill 5.000,-\,\euro\\
1065Transport\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\
1066Dismantling (will be covered by proposing institutes)\dotfill n/a
1067\end{quote}
1068
1069\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1070\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.6:\hfill{\bf
107120.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1072\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1073\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1074
1075\newpage
1076\germanTeX
1077\section[5]{Preconditions for carrying out the project\\(Voraussetzungen f"ur die Durchf"uhrung des Vorhabens)}
1078none
1079
1080\subsection[5.1]{The research team (Zusammensetzung der Arbeitsgruppe)}
1081
1082\paragraph{Dortmund}
1083\begin{itemize}
1084\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}
1085\setlength{\parsep}{0pt}
1086\item Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode (Grundauststattung)
1087\item Dr.\ Tanja Kneiske (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), DFG-Forschungsstipendium)
1088\item Dr.\ Julia Becker (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), Drittmittel)
1089\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Kirsten M"unich (Doktorand (IceCube), Drittmittel)
1090\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jens Dreyer (Doktorand (IceCube), Grundauststattung)
1091\item M.Sc.\ Valentin Curtef (Doktorand (MAGIC), Grundausstattung)
1092\item cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes (Diplomand (MAGIC), zum F"orderbeginn diplomiert)
1093\item cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch (Diplomand (MAGIC))
1094\item cand.\ phys.\ Anne Wiedemann (Diplomand (IceCube))
1095\item cand.\ phys.\ Dominik Neise (Diplomand (MAGIC))
1096\item Dipl.-Ing.\ Kai Warda (Elektronik)
1097\item PTA Matthias Domke (Systemadministration)
1098\end{itemize}
1099
1100\paragraph{W\"{u}rzburg}
1101\begin{itemize}
1102\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}
1103\setlength{\parsep}{0pt}
1104\item Prof.\ Dr.\ Karl Mannheim (Landesmittel)
1105\item Prof.\ Dr.\ Thomas Trefzger (Landesmittel)
1106\item Prof.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Dr"oge (Landesmittel)
1107\item Dr.\ Thomas Bretz (Postdoc (MAGIC), BMBF)
1108\item Dr.\ Felix Spanier (Postdoc, Landesmittel)
1109\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jordi Albert (Doktorand, DFG-GRK1147)
1110\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Karsten Berger (Doktorand (MAGIC), Landesmittel)
1111\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Thomas Burkart (Doktorand (LISA), DLR)
1112\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Oliver Elbracht (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern)
1113\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Dominik Els"asser (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern)
1114\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Daniela Dorner (Doktorand (MAGIC), BMBF)
1115\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Daniel H"ohne (Doktorand (MAGIC), Landesmittel)
1116\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Markus Meyer (Doktorand, DFG-GRK1147)
1117\item M.Sc.\ Surajit Paul (Doktorand, DFG-GRK1147)
1118\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Stefan R"ugamer (Doktorand (MAGIC), Landesmittel)
1119\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Michael R"uger (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern)
1120\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Martina Wei"s (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern)
1121\item cand.\ phys.\ Sebastian Huber
1122\item cand.\ phys.\ Tobias Hein
1123\item cand.\ phys.\ Tobias Viering
1124\end{itemize}
1125\originalTeX
1126
1127\subsection[5.2]{Cooperation with other scientists\\(Zusammenarbeit mit
1128anderen Wissenschaftlern)}
1129
1130Both applying groups cooperate with the international
1131MAGIC collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W\"{u}rzburg
1132funded by the BMBF, Dortmund by means of appointment for the moment).
1133
1134W\"{u}rzburg is also in close scientific exchange with the group of
1135Prof.~Dr.~Victoria Fonseca, UCM Madrid and the University of Turku
1136(Finland) operating the KVA optical telescope at La Palma. Other
1137cooperations refer to the projects JEM-EUSO (science case), GRIPS
1138(simulation), LISA (astrophysical input for templates), STEREO (data
1139analysis), and SOLAR ORBITER (electron-proton telescope). A cooperation
1140with GLAST science team members (Dr.~Anita and Dr.~Olaf Reimer,
1141Stanford) is also relevant for the proposed project.
1142
1143The group in Dortmund is involved in the IceCube experiment (BMBF
1144funding) and maintains close contacts to the collaboration partners.
1145Moreover on the field of phenomenology good working contacts exist to
1146the groups of Prof.~Dr.~Reinhard Schlickeiser, Ruhr-Universit\"{a}t
1147Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter Biermann, MPIfR Bonn. There are furthermore
1148intense contacts to Prof.~Dr.~Francis Halzen, Madison, Wisconsin.
1149
1150The telescope design will be worked out in close cooperation with the
1151group of Prof.~Dr.~Felicitas Pauss, Dr.~Adrian Biland and
1152Prof.~Dr.~Eckart Lorenz (ETH~Z\"{u}rich). They will provide help in design
1153studies, construction and software development. The DAQ design will be
1154contributed by the group of Prof.~Dr.~Riccardo Paoletti (Universit\`{a} di
1155Siena and INFN sez.\ di Pisa, Italy).
1156
1157The group of the newly appointed {\em Lehrstuhl f\"{u}r Physik und ihre
1158Didaktik} (Prof.~Dr.~Thomas Trefzger) has expressed their interest to
1159join the project. They bring in a laboratory for photo-sensor testing,
1160know-how from former contributions to ATLAS and a joint interest in
1161operating a data pipeline using GRID technologies.
1162
1163\subsection[5.3]{Work outside Germany, Cooperation with foreign
1164partners\\(Arbeiten im Ausland, Kooperation mit Partnern im Ausland)}
1165
1166The work on DWARF will take place at the ORM on the Spanish island La
1167Palma. It will be performed in close collaboration with the
1168MAGIC collaboration.
1169
1170\subsection[5.4]{Scientific equipment available (Apparative
1171Ausstattung)}
1172In Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg extensive computer capacities for data
1173storage as well as for data analysis are available.
1174
1175The faculty of physics at the University Dortmund has modern
1176equipped mechanical and electrical workshops including a department for
1177development of electronics at its command. The chair of astroparticle
1178physics possesses common technical equipment required for constructing
1179modern DAQ.
1180
1181The faculty of physics at the University of W\"{u}rzburg comes with a
1182mechanical and an electronic workshop, as well as a special laboratory
1183of the chair for astronomy suitable for photosensor testing.
1184
1185\subsection[5.5]{The institution's general contribution\\(Laufende
1186Mittel f\"{u}r Sachausgaben)}
1187
1188Current total institute budget from the University Dortmund
1189$\sim$20.000,-\,\euro\ per year.
1190
1191Current total institute budget from the University W\"{u}rzburg
1192$\sim$30.000,-\,\euro\ per year.
1193
1194%\paragraph{5.6 Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit\"aten}~\\
1195\subsection[5.6]{Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\(Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit\"{a}ten)}~\\
1196none
1197
1198\subsection[5.7]{Other requirements (Sonstige Voraussetzungen)}~\\
1199none
1200
1201\newpage
1202\thispagestyle{empty}
1203
1204\paragraph{6 Declarations (Erkl\"{a}rungen)}
1205
1206A request for funding this project has not been submitted to
1207any other addressee. In case we submit such a request we will inform
1208the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft immediately. \\
1209
1210The corresponding persons (Vertrauensdozenten) at the
1211Universit\"{a}t Dortmund (Prof.\ Dr.\ Gather) and at the Universit\"{a}t
1212W\"{u}rzburg (Prof.\ Dr.\ G.\ Bringmann) have been informed about the
1213submission of this proposal.
1214
1215\paragraph{7 Signatures (Unterschriften)}~\\
1216
1217\vspace{2.5 cm}
1218
1219\hfill
1220\begin{minipage}[t]{6cm}
1221W\"{u}rzburg,\\[3.0cm]
1222\parbox[t]{6cm}{\hrulefill}\\
1223\parbox[t]{6cm}{~\hfill Prof.\ Dr.\ Karl Mannheim\hfill~}\\
1224\end{minipage}
1225\hfill
1226\begin{minipage}[t]{6cm}
1227Dortmund,\\[3.0cm]
1228\parbox[t]{6cm}{\hrulefill}\\
1229\parbox[t]{6cm}{~\hfill Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode\hfill~}\\
1230\end{minipage}\hfill~
1231
1232\thispagestyle{empty}
1233\newpage
1234\mbox{}
1235\thispagestyle{empty}
1236\newpage
1237\paragraph{8 List of appendices (Verzeichnis der Anlagen)}
1238
1239\begin{itemize}
1240\item
1241%Schriftenverzeichnis der Antragsteller seit dem Jahr 2000
1242List of refereed publications of the applicants since 2000
1243\item Appendix A: Chapter 4 in German
1244\item CV of Karl Mannheim
1245\item CV of Wolfgang Rhode
1246\item Letter of Support from the MAGIC collaboration
1247\item Letter of Support from Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory
1248\item Letter of Support from the IceCube collaboration
1249\item Letter of Support from KVA optical telescope
1250\item Email with offer from EMI for the PMs
1251\end{itemize}
1252\newpage
1253\mbox{}
1254\thispagestyle{empty}
1255\newpage
1256
1257\appendix
1258\germanTeX
1259\section[4]{Beantragte Mittel}
1260
1261Die beantragten Mittel werden durch die Ausgaben f"ur die Kamera und
1262die Datennahme dominiert. Wir beantragen eine F"orderung von drei Jahren.
1263
1264\subsection[4.1]{Personalkosten}
1265
1266F"ur diesen Zeitraum beantragen wir die Finanzierung von zwei Postdocs
1267und zwei Doktoranden, jeweils einer in Dortmund und einer in W"urzburg
1268(3\,x\,TV-L13). Mit den besetzten Stellen sollen die erw"ahnten Arbeiten
1269zur Planung und zum Bau des Teleskops durchgef"uhrt werden. Zus"atzlich
1270wird noch eine schwankende Zahl an Doktoranden und Diplomanden
1271zur Verf"ugung stehen.
1272
1273Interessierte Kandidaten sind Dr.\ Thomas
1274Bretz, Dr.\ dest.\ Daniela Dorner, Dr.\ dest.\ Kirsten M\"{u}nich,
1275cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes, cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch und cand.\
1276phys.\ Dominik Neise.
1277
1278\subsection[4.2]{Wissenschaftliche Ger\"{a}te}
1279
1280Am Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), nahe dem MAGIC
1281Teleskop, steht noch das ehemalige HEGRA-Teleskop (CT3) zur Verf"ugung.
1282Es ist noch immer nutzbar und geh"ort jetzt der MAGIC Kollaboration.
1283Au"serdem ist noch ein Container zur Unterbringung von Elektronik,
1284sowie weiterer Platz im MAGIC-eignenen Haus vorhanden. Der Memorandum
1285of Understanding der MAGIC-Kollaboration erlaubt uns den Betrieb des
1286Teleskops als DWARF (see Anlage). F"ur Notfallsituationen steht die
1287MAGIC Schichtmannschaft zur Verf"ugung.
1288
1289Um die angestrebte Sensitivit"at und Energieschwelle (fig.~\ref{sensitivity})
1290in m"oglichgst kurzer Zeit zu erreichen, wurden die folgenden
1291Komponenten ausgew"ahlt. Einzelheiten zu den Auswahlkriterien k"onnen
1292im Kapitel~4 nachgelesen werden.\\
1293
1294{\bf Kamera}\dotfill 206.450,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1295\begin{quote}
1296   F"ur eine Kamera mit 313 Pixel werden folgende Komponenten ben"otigt:\\
1297   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1298   Photomultiplier R"ohre EMI\,9083B\hfill 220,-\,\euro\\
1299   Aktiver Spannungsteiler (EMI)\hfill 80,-\,\euro\\
1300   Hochspannungsversorgung und -kontrolle\hfill 300,-\,\euro\\
1301   Vorverst"arker\hfill 50,-\,\euro\\
1302   Ersatzteile (pauschal)\hfill 3000,-\,\euro\\
1303   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1304%For long-term observations, the stability of the camera is a major
1305%criterion. To keep the systematic errors small, a good background
1306%estimation is mandatory. The only possibility for a synchronous
1307%determination of the background is the measurement from the night-sky
1308%observed in the same field-of-view with the same instrument. To achieve
1309%this, the observed position is moved out of the camera center which
1310%allows the estimation of the background from positions symmetric with
1311%respect to the camera center (so called Wobble mode). This observation
1312%mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because
1313%spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes
1314%obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This
1315%ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources.\\
1316%A further increase in sensitivity can be achieved by better background
1317%statistics from not only one but several independent positions for the
1318%background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. To allow for
1319%this the source position in Wobble mode should be shifted
1320%$0.6^\circ-0.7^\circ$ out of the camera center.
1321%
1322%A camera completely containing the shower images of events in the energy
1323%region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of
1324%5$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera
1325%geometry, a camera layout as symmetric as possible will be chosen.
1326%Consequently a camera allowing to fulfill these requirements should be
1327%round and have a diameter of $4.5^\circ-5.0^\circ$.
1328%
1329%Therefore a camera with 313 pixel camera (see fig.~\ref{camDWARF}) is
1330%chosen. The camera will be built based on the experience with HEGRA and
1331%MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083B/KFLA-UD)
1332%will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). They have
1333%a quantum efficiency improved by 25\% (see fig.~\ref{qe}) and ensure a
1334%granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the
1335%energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be
1336%equipped with a preamplifier, an active high-voltage supply and
1337%control. The total expense for a single pixel will be in the order of
1338%650,-\,\euro.
1339%
1340%All possibilities of borrowing one of the old HEGRA cameras for a
1341%transition time have been probed and refused by the owners of the
1342%cameras.
1343%
1344%At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the
1345%ability, i.e.\ stability, aging, quantum efficiency, etc., of using
1346%Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon detectors in the camera of a
1347%Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are an extremely high quantum
1348%efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and simplified
1349%application compared to classical PMs. If these test measurements are
1350%successfully finished until 8/2008, we consider to use GAPDs in favor
1351%of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take place at
1352%University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts from ETH.
1353%The construction would also take place at the electronics workshop of
1354%Dortmund.
1355\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1356\newpage
1357{\bf Kameraaufh"angung und -geh"ause}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1358\begin{quote}
1359%For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500,-\,\euro)
1360%The camera chassis must be water tight and will be equipped with an
1361%automatic lid, protecting the PMs at daytime. For further protection, a
1362%plexi-glass window will be installed in front of the camera. By coating
1363%this window with an anti-reflex layer of magnesium-fluoride, a gain in
1364%transmission of 5\% is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a
1365%light-guide (Winston cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in
1366%operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000,-\,\euro\ for all Winston cones). The
1367%current design will be improved by using a high reflectivity aluminized
1368%Mylar mirror-foil, coated with a dialectical layer ($Si\,O_2$
1369%alternated with Niobium Oxide), to reach a reflectivity in the order of
1370%98\%. An electric and optical shielding of the individual PMs is
1371%planned.
1372%
1373%In total a gain of $\sim$15\% in light-collection
1374%efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be achieved.
1375\end{quote}%\vspace{1ex}
1376{\bf Datanahme}\dotfill 61.035,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1377\begin{quote}
1378313 Pixels\\
1379   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1380   Auslese\hfill 95,-\,\euro\\
1381   Triggerelektronik\hfill 100,-\,\euro\\
1382   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1383%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1384%For the data acquisition system a hardware readout based on an analog
1385%ring buffer (Domino\ II/IV), currently developed for the MAGIC~II
1386%readout, will be used \citep{Barcelo}. This technology allows to sample
1387%the pulses with high frequencies and readout several channels with a
1388%single Flash-ADC resulting in low costs. The low power consumption will
1389%allow to include the digitization near the signal source making
1390%the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. This results in less
1391%pick-up noise and reduces the signal dispersion. By high sampling rates
1392%(1.2\,GHz), additional information about the pulse shape can be
1393%obtained. This increases the over-all sensitivity further, because the
1394%short integration time allows for almost perfect suppression of noise
1395%due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger-, i.e.\
1396%readout-rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which
1397%allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system,
1398%like USB\,2.0.
1399%
1400%Current results obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC
1401%data acquisition show, that for a single telescope a sensitivity
1402%improvement of 40\% with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}.
1403%
1404%Like for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is
1405%sufficient, but also a simple neighbor-logic could be programmed (both
1406%cases $\sim$100,-\,\euro/channel).
1407%
1408%Additional data reduction and preprocessing within the readout chain is
1409%provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz, the storage
1410%space needed will be less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount
1411%of data can easily be stored and processed by the W\"{u}rzburg
1412%Datacenter (current capacity $>$80\,TB, $>$40\,CPUs).
1413\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1414
1415{\bf Spiegel}\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1416%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1417\begin{quote}
1418%The existing mirrors will be replaced by new plastic mirrors currently
1419%developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and light-weight
1420%material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon
1421%experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master and coated with a
1422%reflecting and a protective material. Tests have given promising
1423%results. By a change of the mirror geometry, the mirror area can be
1424%increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture~\ref{CT3} and
1425%montage~\ref{DWARF}). This includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per
1426%mirror by using a hexagonal layout instead of a round one. A further
1427%increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of
1428%the mount and will therefore be considered only in a later phase of the
1429%experiment.
1430%
1431%If the current development of the plastic mirrors cannot be finished in
1432%time, a re-machining of the old glass mirrors (8.5\,m$^2$) is possible
1433%with high purity aluminum and quartz coating.
1434%
1435%In both cases the mirrors can be coated with the same high reflectivity
1436%aluminized Mylar mirror-foil and a dialectical layer of $SiO_2$ as for
1437%the Winston cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is
1438%achieved, see fig.~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}. Both
1439%solutions would require the same expenses.
1440%
1441%To keep track of the alignment, reflectivity and optical quality of the
1442%individual mirrors and the point-spread function of the total mirror
1443%during long-term observations, the application of an automatic mirror
1444%adjustment system, as developed by ETH~Z\"{u}rich and successfully
1445%operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended.
1446\end{quote}%\vspace{3ex}
1447{\bf Kalibrationssystem}\dotfill 9.650,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1448\begin{quote}
1449Einzelkomponenten\\
1450   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1451   Absolute Lichtkalibration\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
1452   Messung der Trigger Rate einzelner Pixel\hfill 3.000,-\,\euro\\
1453   Wetterstation\hfill 500,-\,\euro\\
1454   GPS gesteuerte Uhr\hfill 1.500,-\,\euro\\
1455   CCD Kameras mit Auslese\hfill 2.650,-\,\euro\\
1456   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1457%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1458%For the absolute light calibration (gain-calibration) of the PMs a
1459%calibration box, as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope, will be
1460%produced.
1461%
1462%To ensure a homogeneous acceptance of the camera, essential for
1463%Wobble mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels
1464%will be measured and controlled.
1465%
1466%For a correction of axis misalignments and possible deformations of the
1467%structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts) a pointing correction
1468%algorithm will be applied, as used in the MAGIC tracking system. It is
1469%calibrated by measurements of the reflection of bright guide stars on
1470%the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel
1471%diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as for
1472%MAGIC\ I and~II, (300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics,
1473%300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ frame grabber) will be installed.
1474%
1475%A second identical CCD camera for online monitoring (starguider) will
1476%be bought.
1477%
1478%For an accurate tracking a GPS clock is necessary. The weather station
1479%helps judging the data quality.
1480%}\\[2ex]
1481\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1482
1483{\bf Computing}\dotfill 12.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1484\begin{quote}
1485   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1486   Drei PCs\hfill 8.000,-\,\euro\\
1487   SATA RAID 3TB\hfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\
1488   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1489%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1490%For on-site computing three standard PCs are needed ($\sim$8.000,-\,\euro).
1491%This includes readout and storage, preprocessing and telescope control.
1492%For safety reasons, a firewall is mandatory. For local cache-storage
1493%and backup, two RAID\,5 SATA disk arrays with one Terabyte capacity
1494%each will fulfill the requirement ($\sim$4.000,-\,\euro). The data will be
1495%transmitted as soon as possible after data taking via Internet to the
1496%W\"{u}rzburg Datacenter. Enough storage capacity and computing power
1497%is available there and already reserved for this purpose.
1498%
1499%Monte Carlo production and storage will take place at University
1500%Dortmund.%}\\[2ex]
1501\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1502
1503{\bf Antrieb und Positionsauslese}\dotfill 17.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1504\begin{quote}
1505%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1506%The present mount is used. Only a smaller investment for safety,
1507%corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro).
1508%
1509%Motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of
1510%10.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with
1511%the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF drive
1512%system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three
1513%reasons: (i)~Fast movement might be mandatory for future ToO
1514%observations. (ii)~Wobble mode observations will be done changing the
1515%Wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons.
1516%(iii)~To ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at
1517%the same time, the observed source will be changed in constant time
1518%intervals.
1519%
1520%For the drive system three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A
1521%micro-controller based motion control unit (Siemens SPS L\,20) similar to
1522%the one of the current MAGIC~II drive system will be used. For
1523%communication with the readout-system, a standard Ethernet connection
1524%based on the TCP/IP- and UDP-protocol will be setup.
1525%}\\[2ex]
1526\end{quote}%\vspace{3ex}
1527%
1528{\bf Sicherheit}\dotfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1529\begin{quote}
1530   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1531   Unterbrechungsfreie Stromversorgung (UPS)\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
1532   Sicherheitszaun\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
1533   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1534%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1535%A UPS with 5\,kW-10\,kW will be
1536%installed to protect the equipment against power cuts and ensure a safe
1537%telescope position at the time of sunrise.
1538%
1539%For protection in case of robotic movement a fence will be
1540%installed.%}\\[2ex]
1541\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1542
1543{\bf Andere Ausgaben}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1544\begin{quote}
1545%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1546%   Robotics\hfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\
1547%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1548%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1549F"ur den Betrieb in Fernsteuerung
1550werden verschiedene fernbedienbare Komponenten, wie z.B.\
1551Ethernet steuerbare Steckdosen und "Uberwachungselektronik, gekauft.
1552\end{quote}
1553\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1554\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.2:\hfill{\bf
1555341.135,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1556\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1557\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1558
1559\subsection[4.3]{Verbrauchsmaterial}
1560
1561\begin{quote}
1562%   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.9\textwidth}
1563   10 LTO\,4 B"ander (8\,TB)\dotfill 750,-\,\euro\\
1564   Verbrauchsgegenst"ande (pauschal): Werkzeug und Meterialien\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro
1565%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1566\end{quote}
1567
1568\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1569\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.3:\hfill{\bf
157010.750,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1571\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1572\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1573
1574\subsection[4.4]{Reisen}
1575Die hohen Reisekosten sind in der engen Zusammenarbeit zwischen
1576Dortmund und W"urzburg, sowie den notwendigen Aufenthalten in La Palma
1577begr"undet.\\[-2ex]
1578
1579\begin{quote}
1580%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1581Jedes Jahr sollte ein erfahrenes Gruppenmitglied aus Dortmund und
1582W"urzburg den Status des Projektes bei einer internationalen Konferenz
1583vorstellen:\\
15842 x 3\,Jahre x 1.500,-\,\euro\dotfill 9.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1585
1586Teilnahme am MAGIC Kollaborationstreffen (zweimal j"ahrlich):\\
15872 x 3\,Jahre x 1.000,-\,\euro\dotfill 6.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1588
1589Austausch von Doktoranden zwischen W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund:\\
15901\,Student x 1\,Woche x 24 (alle sechs Wochen) x 800,-\,\euro\dotfill
159119.200,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1592
1593Zum Aufbau des Teleskops vor Ort werden sind Ausgaben n"otig:\\
15944 x 2\,Wochen auf La Palma x 2\,Personen x 1.800,-\,\euro\dotfill
159528.800,-\,\euro
1596%}
1597\end{quote}
1598
1599\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1600\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.4:\hfill{\bf
160163.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1602\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1603\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1604
1605
1606\subsection[4.5]{Publikationskosten}
1607Werden von den beantragenden Universit"aten "ubernommen.
1608
1609
1610\subsection[4.6]{Sonstige Kosten}
1611\begin{quote}
1612Euro-Container (zum Versandt der Spiegel)\dotfill 5.000,-\,\euro\\
1613Transport\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\
1614Abbau (wird von den Antragstellern "ubernommen)\dotfill n/a
1615\end{quote}
1616
1617\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1618\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.6:\hfill{\bf
161920.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1620\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1621\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1622
1623\newpage
1624\thispagestyle{empty}
1625\mbox{}
1626\newpage
1627
1628\originalTeX
1629
1630%(References of our groups are marked by an asterix *)
1631\bibliography{application}
1632\bibliographystyle{plainnat}
1633%\bibliographystyle{alpha}
1634%\bibliographystyle{plain}
1635
1636\end{document}
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