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1\documentclass[12pt,openbib]{article}
2\usepackage{german,graphicx,eurosym,amssymb,amsmath,wasysym,stmaryrd,times,a4wide,wrapfig,exscale,xspace,url,fancyhdr}
3\usepackage[round]{natbib}
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8\originalTeX
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31%\textwidth17cm
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36
37\title{Neuantrag auf Gew\"{a}hrung einer Sachbeihilfe\\Proposal for a new research project}
38\author{Prof.\ Dr.\ Karl\ Mannheim\\Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode}
39
40\begin{document}
41
42\maketitle
43\thispagestyle{empty}
44%\begin{figure}[ht]
45\vspace{2.7cm}
46\begin{center}
47 \includegraphics*[width=0.496\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{DWARF.eps}
48\end{center}
49%\end{figure}
50\newpage
51\mbox{}
52\thispagestyle{empty}
53\cleardoublepage
54\newpage
55
56\section[1]{General Information (Allgemeine Angaben)}
57
58\subsection[1.1]{Applicants (Antragsteller)}
59\germanTeX
60\begin{tabular}{|p{0.44\textwidth}|p{0.22\textwidth}|p{0.22\textwidth}|}\hline
61{\bf Name}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\bf Akademischer Grad}\\
62{\sc Rhode, Wolfgang, Prof.~Dr.~Dr.}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Universit"atsprofessor (C3)}\\\hline\hline
63{\ }&{\bf Birthday}&{\bf Nationality}\\
64{\ }&Oct 17 1961&German\\\hline
65\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{\bf Institut, Lehrstuhl}\\
66\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{Institut f"ur Physik}\\
67\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{Experimentelle Physik V (Astroteilchenphysik)}\\\hline
68{\bf Address at work        }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\bf Home address}\\[0.5ex]
69{Universit"at Dortmund      }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{                }\\
70{                           }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Am Schilken 28  }\\
71{44221 Dortmund             }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{58285 Gevelsberg}\\
72{Germany                    }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Germany         }\\[0.5ex]
73{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(231)\,755-3550}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(173)\,284\,79\,10}\\
74{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Fax:}+49\,(231)\,755-4547}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{~}\\\hline\hline
75\multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: wolfgang.rhode@udo.edu}\\\hline
76
77\multicolumn{3}{c}{~}\\[1ex]\hline
78
79{\bf Name}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\bf Akademischer Grad}\\
80{\sc Mannheim, Karl, Prof.~Dr.}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Universit"atsprofessor (C4)}\\\hline\hline
81{\ }&{\bf Birthday}&{\bf Nationality}\\
82{\ }&Jan 4 1963&German\\\hline
83\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{\bf Institut, Lehrstuhl}\\
84\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{Institut f"ur Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik}\\
85\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{Lehrstuhl f"ur Astronomie}\\\hline
86{\bf Address at work        }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\bf Home address}\\[0.5ex]
87{Julius-Maximilians-Universit"at}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{                }\\
88{                           }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Oswald-Kunzemann-Str. 12}\\
89{97074 W"urzburg            }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{97299 Zell am Main      }\\
90{Germany                    }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Germany                 }\\[0.5ex]
91{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(931)\,888-5031}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone: +49\,(931)\,404\,81\,90} }\\
92{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Fax:}+49\,(931)\,888-4603}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{~}\\\hline\hline
93\multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: mannheim@astro.uni-wuerzbueg.de}\\\hline
94\end{tabular}
95\originalTeX
96\newpage
97
98\paragraph{1.2 Topic}~\\
99%\subsection[1.2]{Topic}
100Long-term VHE $\gamma$-ray monitoring of bright blazars with a dedicated Cherenkov telescope
101
102\paragraph{1.2 Thema}~\\
103%\subsection[1.2]{Thema}
104Langzeitbeobachtung von hellen VHE $\gamma$-Blazaren mit einem dedizierten Cherenkov Teleskop
105
106\paragraph{1.3 Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}~\\
107%\subsection[1.3]{Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}
108Astronomy and Astrophysics, Particle Astrophysics
109
110\paragraph{\bf 1.4 Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}~\\
111%\subsection[1.4]{Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}
112After successful completion of the three-year work plan developed in
113this proposal, we will ask for an extension of the project for another
114two years to carry out an observation program centered on the signatures
115of supermassive binary black holes.
116
117\paragraph{\bf 1.5 Application period (Antragszeitraum)}~\\
118%\subsection[1.5]{Application period (Antragszeitraum)}
1193\,years. The work on the project will begin immediately after the
120funding.
121
122\newpage
123\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Summary}~\\
124%\subsection[1.6]{Summary}
125We propose to set up a robotic imaging air-Cherenkov telescope with low
126cost, but a high performance design for remote operation. The goal is
127the long-term monitoring observations of nearby, bright blazars at very
128high energies. We will (i) search for orbital modulation of the blazar
129emission due to supermassive black hole binaries, (ii) study the
130statistics of flares and their physical origin, and (iii) correlate the
131data with corresponding data from the neutrino observatory IceCube to
132search for evidence of hadronic emission processes. The observations
133will furthermore trigger follow-up observations of flares with higher
134sensitivity telescopes such as MAGIC, \mbox{VERITAS} and H.E.S.S. Joint
135observations with the Whipple monitoring telescope will start a future
136\mbox{24\,h-monitoring} of selected sources with a distributed network of
137robotic telescopes. The telescope design is based on a complete
138technological upgrade of one of the former telescopes of the HEGRA
139collaboration (CT3) still located at the Observatorio del Roque de los
140Muchachos on the Canary Island La Palma (Spain). After this upgrade,
141the telescope will be operated robotically, a much lower energy
142threshold below 350\,GeV will be achieved, and the observation time
143required for gaining the same signal as with CT3 will be reduced by a
144factor of six.
145
146\germanTeX
147\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Zusammenfassung}~\\
148%\subsection[1.6]{Zusammenfassung}
149Das Ziel unseres Vorhabens ist es, ein abbildendes
150Luft-Cherenkov-Teleskop mit geringen Kosten, aber hoher Leistung f"ur
151den ferngesteuerten Betrieb aufzubauen. Die Motivation ist die
152kontinuierliche Langzeitbeobachtung von hellen, nahen Blazaren bei sehr
153hohen Energien. Mit diesen Beobachtungen werden wir nach
154bahndynamischen Modulationen suchen, welche von Bin"arsystemen
155supermassiver schwarzer L"ocher in der emittierten Strahlung
156hervorgerufen werden. Au"serdem werden die gewonnenen Daten mit den
157entsprechenden Daten des Neutrinoteleskops IceCube korreliert, um nach
158Hinweisen f"ur hadroninduzierte Emissionsprozesse zu suchen. Die
159kontinuierliche "Uberwachung ausgew"ahlter Quellen wird zudem besser
160aufgel"oste Beobachtungen und Nachbeobachtungen von
161Strahlungsausbr"uchen durch Teleskope h"oherer Sensitivit"at, wie z.B.\
162MAGIC, VERITAS und H.E.S.S., erlauben. Die zeitversetzten, gemeinsamen
163Beobachtungen zusammen mit dem Whipple-Teleskop stellen den Beginn
164ununterbrochener Beobachtungen mit einem weltweiten Netzwerk
165robotischer Teleskope dar. Unser Teleskopdesign basiert auf einer
166technischen Runderneuerung eines Teleskops der fr"uheren
167HEGRA-Kollaboration (CT3), welches noch immer am Observatorio del Roque de
168los Muchachos auf der Kanarischen Insel La Palma (Spanien) steht. Nach
169dieser Aufr"ustung wird das Teleskop vollst"andig ferngesteuert
170betrieben werden, eine viel niedrigere Energieschwelle von unter
171350\,GeV erreichen und die Beobachtungszeit, um ein gleichstarkes
172Signal wie mit CT3 zu erhalten, wird um einen Faktor sechs k"urzer
173sein.
174\originalTeX 
175\newpage
176
177\section[2]{Science case, preliminary work by proposer\\(Stand der Forschung, eigene Vorarbeiten)}
178
179\subsection[2.1]{Science case (Stand der Forschung)}
180
181Since the termination of the HEGRA observations, the succeeding
182experiments MAGIC and H.E.S.S.\ have impressively extended the physical
183scope of gamma-ray astronomy detecting tens of formerly unknown gamma-ray
184sources and analyzing their energy spectra, morphology and
185temporal behavior. This became possible by lowering the energy
186threshold from 700\,GeV to less than 100\,GeV and increasing at the same
187time the sensitivity by a factor of five. A diversity of astrophysical
188source types such as pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants,
189micro-quasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Gamma-Ray
190Bursts and blazars have been studied with these telescopes.
191
192The main class of extragalactic, very high energy gamma-rays sources
193detected with imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes are blazars, i.e.\
194accreting supermassive black holes exhibiting a relativistic jet that
195is closely aligned with the line of sight. The non-thermal blazar
196spectrum covers up to 20 orders of magnitude in energy, from
197long-wavelength radio waves to multi-TeV gamma-rays. In addition,
198blazars are characterized by rapid variability, high degrees of
199polarization, and superluminal motion of knots in their
200high-resolution radio images. The observed behavior can readily be
201explained assuming relativistic bulk motion and in situ particle
202acceleration, e.g.\ at shock waves, leading to synchrotron
203(radio-to-x-ray) and self-Compton (gamma-ray) emission \citep{Blandford}.
204Additionally, inverse Compton scattering of external photons may play a
205role in producing the observed gamma-rays \citep{Dermer,Begelman}.
206Variability may hold the key to understanding the details of the
207emission processes and the source geometry. The development of
208time-dependent models is currently under investigation
209worldwide.
210
211Although particle acceleration inevitably affects electrons and protons
212(ions), the electrons are commonly believed to be responsible for
213producing the observed emission owing to their lower mass and thus much
214stronger energy losses (at the same energy). The relativistic protons,
215which could either originate from the accretion flow or from entrained
216ambient matter, will quickly dominate the momentum flow of the jet.
217This {\em baryon pollution} has been suggested to solve the energy
218transport problem in Gamma-Ray Bursts and is probably present in
219blazar jets as well, even if they originate as pair jets in a black
220hole ergosphere \citep{Meszaros}. Protons and ions accelerated in the
221jets of blazars can reach extremely high energies, before energy losses
222become important \citep{Mannheim:1993}. Escaping particles contribute
223to the observed flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in a major way.
224Blazars and their unbeamed hosts, the radio galaxies, are thus the
225prime candidates for origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays
226\citep{Rachen}. This can be investigated with the IceCube and AUGER
227experiments. Recent results of the AUGER experiment show a significant
228anisotropy of the highest energy cosmic rays and point at either nearby
229AGN or sources with a similar spacial distribution as their origin
230\citep{AUGER-AGN}.
231
232In some flares, a large ratio of the gamma-ray to optical luminosity is
233observed. This is difficult to reconcile with the primary leptonic
234origin of the emission, since the accelerated electron pressure would
235largely exceed the magnetic field pressure. For shock acceleration to
236work efficiently, particles must be confined by the magnetic field for
237a time longer than the cooling time. The problem vanishes in the
238following model: Photo-hadronic interactions of accelerated protons and
239synchrotron photons induce electromagnetic cascades, which in turn
240produce secondary electrons causing high energy synchrotron
241gamma-radiation. This demands much stronger magnetic fields in line
242with magnetic confinement \citep{Mannheim:1995}. Short variability time
243scales can result from dynamical changes of the emission zone, running
244e.g.\ through an inhomogeneous environment.
245
246The contemporaneous spectral energy distributions for hadronic and
247leptonic models bear many similarities, but also marked differences,
248such as multiple bumps which are possible even in a one-zone hadronic
249model \citep{Mannheim:1999}. These properties allow conclusions
250about the accelerated particles. Noteworthy, even for nearby blazars
251the spectrum must be corrected for attenuation of the gamma-rays due to
252pair production in collisions with low-energy photons from the
253extragalactic background radiation field \citep{Kneiske}.
254Ultimately, the hadronic origin of the emission must be probed with
255correlated gamma-ray and neutrino observations, since the pion decay
256initiating the cascades involves a fixed ratio of electron-positron
257pairs, gamma-rays, and neutrinos. A dedicated monitoring campaign
258jointly with IceCube has the best chance for success. Pilot studies
259done with MAGIC and IceCube indicate that the investigation of neutrino
260event triggered gamma-ray observations are statistically
261inconclusive \citep{Leier:2006}.
262
263The variability time scale of blazars ranges from minutes to months,
264generally showing the largest amplitudes and the shortest time scales
265at the highest energies. Recently, a doubling time scale of two minutes
266has been observed in a flare of Mrk\,501 with the MAGIC telescope
267\citep{Albert:501}. A giant flare of PKS\,2155-304 discovered by
268H.E.S.S.\ \citep{Aharonian:2007pks} has shown similarly short doubling
269time scales and a flux of up to 16 times the flux of the Crab Nebula.
270Indications for TeV flares without evidence for an accompanying x-ray
271flare, coined orphan flares, have been observed, questioning the
272synchrotron-self-Compton mechanism being responsible for the
273gamma-rays. Model ramifications involving several emission components,
274external seed photons, or hadronically induced emission may solve the
275problem \citep{Blazejowski}. Certainly, the database for
276contemporaneous multi-wavelength observations is still far from proving
277the synchrotron-self-Compton model.
278
279Generally, observations of flares are prompted by optical or x-ray
280alerts, leading to a strong selection bias. The variability presumably
281reflects the non-steady feeding of the jets and the changing interplay
282between particle acceleration and cooling. In this situation,
283perturbations of the electron density or the bulk plasma velocity are
284traveling down the jet. The variability could also reflect the changing
285conditions of the external medium to which the jet flow adapts during
286its passage through it. In fact, a clumpy, highly inhomogeneous
287external medium is typical for active galactic nuclei, as indicated by
288their clumpy emission line regions, if visible against the
289Doppler-enhanced blazar emission. Often the jets bend with a large
290angle indicating shocks resulting from reflections off intervening
291high-density clouds. Changes in the direction of the jet flow lead to
292large flux variations due to differential Doppler boosting.
293
294Helical trajectories, as seen in high-resolution radio maps resulting
295from the orbital modulation of the jet base in supermassive black hole
296binaries, would lead to periodic variability on time scales of months
297to years \citep{Rieger:2007}. Binaries are expected to be the most
298common outcome of the repeated mergers of galaxies which have
299originally built up the blazar host galaxy. Each progenitor galaxy
300brings its own supermassive black hole as expected from the
301Magorrian-Kormendy relations. It is subject to stellar dynamical
302evolution in the core of the merger galaxy, of which only one pair of
303black holes is expected to survive near the center of gravity.
304Supermassive black hole binaries close to coalescence are thus expected
305to be generic in blazars. Angular momentum transport by collective
306stellar dynamical processes is efficient to bring them to distances
307close to where the emission of gravitational waves begins to dominate
308their further evolution until coalescence. Their expected gravitational
309wave luminosity is spectacularly high, even long before final
310coalescence and the frequencies are favorable for the detectors under
311consideration (LISA). The detection of gravitational waves relies on exact
312templates to filter out the signals and the templates can be computed
313from astrophysical constraints on the orbits and masses of the black
314holes. TeV gamma-rays, showing the shortest variability time scales,
315probe deepest into the jet and are thus the most sensitive probe of the
316orbital modulation at the jet base. Relativistic aberration is helpful
317in bringing down the observed periods to below the time scale of years.
318A tentative hint for a 23-day periodicity of the TeV emission from
319Mrk\,501 during a phase of high activity in 1997 was reported by
320HEGRA \citep{Kranich}, and was later confirmed including x-ray and
321Telescope Array data \citep{Osone}. The observations can be explained in
322a supermassive black hole binary scenario \citep{Rieger:2000}.
323Indications for helical trajectories and periodic modulation of optical
324and radio lightcurves on time scales of tens of years have also been
325described in the literature (e.g. \cite{Hong,Merrit}).
326
327To overcome the limitations of biased sampling, a complete monitoring
328database for a few representative bright sources needs to be obtained.
329Space missions with all-sky observations at lower photon energies, such
330as GLAST, GRIPS, or eROSITA, will provide significant multi-wavelength
331exposure simultaneous to the VHE observations, and this is a new
332qualitative step for blazar research. For the same reasons, the VERITAS
333collaboration keeps the Whipple telescope alive. It is obvious that the
334large Cherenkov telescopes such as MAGIC, H.E.S.S.\ or VERITAS are mainly
335used to discover new sources at the sensitivity limit. Thus they will
336not perform monitoring observations of bright sources with complete
337sampling during their visibility. However, these telescopes will be
338triggered by monitoring telescopes and thus improve the described
339investigations. In turn, operating a smaller but robotic telescope is
340an essential and cost-effective contribution to the plans for
341next-generation instruments in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy.
342Know-how for the operation of future networks of robotic Cherenkov
343telescopes, e.g. a monitoring array around the globe or a single-place
344array like CTA, is certainly needed given the high operating shift
345demands of the current installations.
346
347In summary, there are strong reasons to make an effort for the
348continuous monitoring of the few exceptionally bright blazars. This can
349be achieved by operating a dedicated monitoring telescope of the
350HEGRA-type, referred to in the following as DWARF (Dedicated
351multiWavelength Agn Research Facility). Its robotic design will keep
352the demands on personal and infrastructure on the low side, rendering
353it compatible with the resources of University groups. The approach is
354also optimal to educate students in the strongly expanding field of
355astroparticle physics.
356
357Assuming conservatively the performance of a single HEGRA-type
358telescope, long-term monitor\-ing of at least the following known
359blazars is possible: Mrk\,421, Mrk\,501, 1ES\,2344+514, 1ES\,1959+650,
360H\,1426+428, PKS\,2155-304. We emphasize, that DWARF will run as a
361facility dedicated to these targets only, providing a maximum
362observation time for the program. Utilizing recent developments, such
363as improvements of the light collection efficiency due to an improved
364mirror reflectivity and a better PM quantum efficiency, a 30\%
365improvement in sensitivity and a lower energy-threshold is reasonable.
366Current studies show that with a good timing resolution (2\,GHz) a
367further 40\% increase in sensitivity (compared to a 300\,MHz system) is
368feasible. Together with an extended mirror area and a large camera, a
369sensitivity improvement compared to a single HEGRA telescope of a
370factor of 2.5 and an energy threshold below 350\,GeV is possible.
371
372\subsection[2.2]{Preliminary work by proposers (Eigene Vorarbeiten)}
373
374From the experience with the construction, operation and data analysis
375of Amanda, IceCube, HEGRA and MAGIC the proposing groups contribute the
376necessary knowledge and experience to build and operate a small imaging
377air-Cherenkov telescope.
378
379\paragraph{Hardware}
380
381The Dortmund group is working on experimental and phenomenological
382astroparticle physics. In the past, the following hardware components
383were successfully developed: a Flash-ADC based DAQ (TWR, transient
384waveform recorder), currently in operation for data acquisition in the
385AMANDA subdetector within the IceCube telescope \citep{Wagner:PhD}, an
386online software Trigger for the TWR-DAQ system \citep{Messarius:PhD},
387online data compression mechanisms (TWR DAQ) \citep{Refflinghaus:Dipl},
388monitoring software for the TWR-DAQ-data \citep{Dreyer:Dipl} and
389in-ice-HV-power-supply for IceCube. This development was done with the
390companies CAEN, Pisa, Italy and Iseg, Rossendorf, Germany. The HV
391modules were long time tested under different temperature conditions
392connected to operating photomultipliers \citep{Bartelt:Dipl}. Prototypes
393for the scintillator counters of the planned Air Shower Array {\em
394SkyView} were developed and operated for two years \citep{Deeg:Dipl}.
395Members of the group (engineers) were involved in the fast trigger
396development for H1 and are involved in the FPGA-programming for the
397LHCb data read out. The group may further use the well equipped
398mechanical and electronic workshops in Dortmund and the electronic
399development departure of the faculty.
400
401The ultra fast drive system of the MAGIC telescopes, suitable for fast
402repositioning in case of Gamma-Ray Bursts, has been developed,
403commissioned and programmed by the W\"{u}rzburg group
404\citep{Bretz:2003drive,Bretz:2005drive}. To correct for axis
405misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g.\ bending
406of camera holding masts), a pointing correction algorithm was developed
407\citep{Dorner:Diploma}. Its calibration is done by measurement of the
408reflection of bright guide stars on the camera surface and ensures a
409pointing accuracy well below the pixel diameter. Hardware and software
410(CCD readout, image processing and pointing correction algorithms) have
411also been developed and are in operation successfully since more than
412three years \citep{Riegel:2005icrc2}.
413
414Mirror structures made of plastic material have been developed as
415Winston cones for balloon flight experiments previously by the group of
416Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge. W\"{u}rzburg has also participated in the development of
417a HPD test bench, which has been setup in Munich and W\"{u}rzburg. With
418this setup, HPDs for future improvement of the sensitivity of the MAGIC
419camera are investigated.
420
421\paragraph{Software}
422
423The W\"{u}rzburg group has developed a full MAGIC analysis package,
424flexible and modular enough to easily process DWARF data
425\citep{Bretz:2005paris,Riegel:2005icrc,Bretz:2005mars}. A method for
426absolute light calibration of the PMs based on Muon images, especially
427important for long-term monitoring, has been
428adapted and further improved for the MAGIC telescope
429\citep{Meyer:Diploma,Goebel:2005}. Both, data analysis and Monte Carlo
430production, have been fully automatized, such that both can run with
431sparse user interaction \citep{Dorner:2005icrc}. The analysis was
432developed to be powerful and as robust as possible to be best suited
433for automatic processing \citep{Dorner:2005paris}. Experience with
434large amount of data (up to 8\,TB/month) has been gained since 2004.
435The datacenter is equipped with a professional multi-stage
436(hierarchical) storage system. Two operators are paid by the physics
437faculty. Currently efforts in W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund are ongoing to
438turn the old, inflexible Monte Carlo programs, used by the MAGIC
439collaboration, into modular packages allowing for easy simulation of
440other setups. Experience with Monte Carlo simulations, especially
441CORSIKA, is contributed by the Dortmund group, which has actively
442implemented changes into the CORSIKA program, such as an extension to
443large zenith angles, prompt meson production and a new atmospheric
444model \citep{Haffke:Dipl,Schroeder:PhD} for the local atmosphere of La
445Palma. Furthermore the group has developed high precision Monte Carlos
446for Lepton propagation in different media \citep{Chirkin:2004}.
447An energy unfolding method and program has been adapted for IceCube and
448MAGIC data analysis \citep{Curtef:CM,Muenich:ICRC}.
449
450\paragraph{Phenomenology}
451
452Both groups have experience with source models and theoretical
453computations of gamma-ray and neutrino spectra expected from blazars.
454The relation between the two messengers is a prime focus of interest.
455Experience with corresponding multi-messenger data analyses involving
456MAGIC and IceCube data is available in the Dortmund group. Research
457activities are also related with relativistic particle acceleration
458\citep{Meli} and gamma-ray attenuation \citep{Kneiske}. The W\"{u}rzburg
459group has organized and carried out multi-wavelength observations of
460bright blazars involving MAGIC, Suzaku, the IRAM telescopes and the
461KVA optical telescope \citep{Ruegamer}. Signatures of supermassive
462black hole binaries, which are most relevant also for gravitational
463wave detectors, are investigated jointly with the German LISA
464consortium (Burkart, Elbracht ongoing research, funded by DLR).
465\mbox{Secondary} gamma-rays due to dark matter annihilation events are
466investigated both from their particle physics and astrophysics aspects.
467Another main focus of research is on models of radiation and particle
468acceleration processes in blazar jets (hadronic and leptonic models),
469leading to predictions of correlated neutrino emission \citep{Rueger}.
470This includes simulations of particle acceleration due to the Weibel
471instability \citep{Burkart}. Much of this research at W\"{u}rzburg is
472carried out in the context of the research training school GRK\,1147
473{\em Theoretical Astrophysics and Particle Physics}.
474
475\section[3]{Goals and Work Schedule (Ziele und Arbeitsprogramm)}
476
477\subsection[3.1]{Goals (Ziele)}
478
479The aim of the project is to put the former CT3 of the HEGRA
480collaboration on the Roque de los Muchachos back into operation. It
481will be setup, under the name DWARF, with an enlarged mirror surface
482(fig.~\ref{DWARF}), a new camera with higher quantum efficiency and new
483fast data acquisition system. The energy threshold will be lowered, and
484the sensitivity of DWARF will be greatly improved compared to HEGRA CT3
485(see fig.~\ref{sensitivity}). Commissioning and the first year of data
486taking should be carried out within the three years of the requested
487funding period.
488
489\begin{figure}[ht]
490\begin{center}
491 \includegraphics*[width=0.496\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{CT3.eps}
492 \includegraphics*[width=0.496\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{DWARF.eps}
493 \caption{The old CT3 telescope as operated within the
494 HEGRA System (left) and a photomontage of the revised CT3 telescope
495 with more and hexagonal mirrors (right).}
496\label{CT3}
497\label{DWARF}
498\end{center}
499\end{figure}
500
501The telescope will be operated robotically to reduce costs and man
502power demands. Furthermore, we seek to obtain know-how for the
503operation of future networks of robotic Cherenkov telescopes (e.g. a
504monitoring array around the globe or CTA) or telescopes at sited
505difficult to access. From the experience with the construction and
506operation of MAGIC or HEGRA, the proposing groups consider the planned
507focused approach (small number of experienced scientists) as optimal
508for achieving the project goals. The available automatic analysis
509package developed by the W\"{u}rzburg group for MAGIC is modular and
510flexible, and can thus be used with minor changes for the DWARF
511project.
512
513\begin{figure}[htb]
514\begin{center}
515 \includegraphics*[width=0.7\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{visibility.eps}
516 \caption{Source visibility in hours per night versus month of the year
517 considering a maximum observation zenith angle of 65$^\circ$
518 for all sources which we want to monitor including the Crab Nebula,
519 necessary for calibration and quality assurance.}
520\label{visibility}
521\end{center}
522\end{figure}
523
524The scientific focus of the project will be on the long-term monitoring
525of bright, nearby VHE emitting blazars. At least one of the proposed
526targets will be visible any time of the year (see
527fig.~\ref{visibility}). For calibration purposes, some time will be
528scheduled for observations of the Crab \mbox{Nebula}.\\
529
530The blazar observations will allow
531\begin{itemize}
532\item to determine the baseline emission, the duty cycle and the power
533spectrum of flux variations.
534\item to cooperate with the Whipple monitoring telescope for an
535extended time coverage.
536\item to prompt Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) observations with MAGIC in
537the case of flares increasing time resolution. Corresponding
538ToO proposals to H.E.S.S.\ and VERITAS are in preparation.
539\item to observe simultaneously with MAGIC which will provide an
540extended bandwidth from below 100\,GeV to multi-TeV energies.
541\item to obtain multi-frequency observations together with the
542Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory and the optical telescopes of the
543Tuorla Observatory. The measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL
544and GLAST results, when available. X-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and
545Suzaku facilities will be proposed.
546
547\end{itemize}
548
549Interpretation of the data will yield crucial information about
550\begin{itemize}
551\item the nature of the emission processes going on in relativistic
552jets. We plan to interpret the data with models currently developed in
553the context of the Research Training Group {\em Theoretical
554Astrophysics} in W\"{u}rzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK\,1147), including
555particle-in-cell and hybrid MHD models.
556\item the black hole mass and accretion rate fitting the data with
557emission models. Results will be compared with estimates of the black
558hole mass from the Magorrian relation.
559\item the flux of relativistic protons (ions) by correlating the rate
560of neutrinos detected with the neutrino telescope IceCube and the rate
561of gamma-ray photons detected with DWARF, and thus the rate of escaping
562cosmic rays.
563\item the orbital modulation owing to a supermassive binary black hole.
564Constraints on the binary system will allow to compute most accurate
565templates of gravitational waves, which is a connected project at
566W\"{u}rzburg in the German LISA consortium funded by DLR.
567\end{itemize}
568
569\subsection[3.2]{Work schedule (Arbeitsprogramm)}
570
571To complete the mount to a functional Cherenkov telescope within a
572period of one year, the following steps are necessary:
573
574The work schedule assumes, that the work will begin in January 2008,
575immediately after funding. Later funding would accordingly shift the
576schedule. Each year is divided into quarters (see fig.~\ref{schedule}).
577
578\begin{figure}[htb]
579\begin{center}
580 \includegraphics*[width=\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{schedule.eps}
581 \caption{Work schedule for the expected funding period of three years.
582  More details about the work distribution is given in the text.}
583\label{schedule}
584%\label{DWARF}
585\end{center}
586\end{figure}
587
588\paragraph{Software}
589\begin{itemize}
590\item MC adaption (Do/W\"{u}): Due to the large similarities with the
591MAGIC telescope, within half a year new Monte Carlo code can be
592programmed using parts of the existing MAGIC Monte Carlo code. For
593tests and cross-checks another period of six months is necessary.
594\item Analysis adaption (W\"{u}): The modular concept of the Magic
595Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) allows a very fast adaption
596of the telescope setup, camera and data acquisition properties within
597half a year.
598\item Adaption Drive software (W\"{u}): Since the new drive electronics
599will be based on the design of the MAGIC~II drive system the control
600software can be reused unchanged. The integration into the new slow
601control system will take about half a year. It has to be finished at
602the time of arrival of the drive system components in 2009/1.
603\item Slow control/DAQ (Do): A new data acquisition and slow control
604system for camera and auxiliary systems has to be developed. Based on
605experiences with the AMANDA DAQ, the Domino DAQ developed for MAGIC~II
606will be adapted and the slow control integrated within three quarters
607of a year. Commissioning will take place with the full system in
6082009/3.
609\end{itemize}
610
611\paragraph{Mirrors (W\"{u})} First prototypes for the mirrors are
612already available. After testing (six months), the production will
613start in summer 2008, and the shipment will be finished before the full
614system assembly 2009/2.
615\paragraph{Drive (W\"{u})} After a planning phase of half a year to
616simplify the MAGIC~II drive system for a smaller telescope (together
617with the delivering company), ordering, production and shipment should
618be finished in 2009/1. The MAGIC~I and~II drive systems have been
619planned and implemented successfully by the W\"{u}rzburg group.
620\paragraph{Auxiliary (W\"{u})} Before the final setup in 2009/1, all
621auxiliary systems (weather station, computers, etc.) will have been
622specified, ordered and shipped.
623\paragraph{Camera (Do)} The camera has to be ready six month after the
624shipment of the other mechanical parts of the telescope. For this
625purpose camera tests have to take place in 2009/2, which requires the
626assembly of the camera within six months before. By now, a PM test
627bench is set up in Dortmund, which allows to finish planning and
628ordering of parts of the camera, including the PMs, until summer 2008,
629before the construction begins.
630In addition to the manpower permanently provided by Dortmund
631for production and commissioning, two engineers will participate in the
632construction phase.
633\paragraph{Full System (Do/W\"{u})} The full system will be assembled
634after the delivery of all parts in the beginning of spring 2009. Start of
635the commissioning is planned four months later. First light is expected
636in autumn 2009. This would allow an immediate full system test with a
637well measured, strong and steady source (Crab Nebula). After the
638commissioning phase will have been finished in spring 2010, complete
639robotic operation will be provided.
640
641Based on the experience with setting up the MAGIC telescope we estimate
642this workschedule as conservative.
643
644\subsection[3.3]{Experiments with humans (Untersuchungen am Menschen)}
645none
646\subsection[3.4]{Experiments with animals (Tierversuche)}
647none
648\subsection[3.5]{Experiments with recombinant DNA (Gentechnologische Experimente)}
649none
650
651\clearpage                                                                 
652
653\section[4]{Funds requested (Beantragte Mittel)}
654
655Summarizing, the expenses for the telescope are dominated by the camera
656and data acquisition. We request funding for a total of three years.
657%The financial volume for the complete hardware inclusive
658%transport amounts to {\bf 372.985,-\,\euro}.
659
660\subsection[4.1]{Required Staff (Personalkosten)}
661
662For this period, we request funding for two postdocs and two PhD
663students, one in Dortmund and one in W\"{u}rzburg each (3\,x\,TV-L13).The
664staff members shall fulfill the tasks given in the work schedule above.
665To cover these tasks completely, one additional PhD and a various
666number of Diploma students will complete the working group.
667
668Suitable candidates interested in these positions are Dr.\ Thomas
669Bretz, Dr.\ dest.\ Daniela Dorner, Dr.\ dest.\ Kirsten M\"{u}nich,
670cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes, cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch and cand.\
671phys.\ Dominik Neise.
672
673\subsection[4.2]{Scientific equipment (Wissenschaftliche Ger\"{a}te)}
674
675At the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site,
676the mount of the former HEGRA telescope CT3 now owned by the MAGIC
677collaboration is still serviceable. One hut for electronics close to
678the telescope is available. Additional space is available in the MAGIC
679counting house. The MAGIC Memorandum of Understanding allows for
680operating DWARF as an auxiliary instrument (see appendix). Also
681emergency support from the shift crew is guaranteed, although
682autonomous robotic operation is the primary goal.
683\begin{figure}[hb]
684\centering{
685%\includegraphics[width=0.605\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps}
686\includegraphics[width=0.70\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps}
687\caption{Integral flux sensitivity of several telescopes
688\citep{Juan:2000,MAGICsensi,Vassiliev:1999} 
689and the expectation for DWARF, with both a PMT- and a
690GAPD-camera, scaled from the sensitivity of
691HEGRA~CT1 by the improvements mentioned in the text.
692} \label{sensitivity} } 
693\end{figure}
694
695To achieve the planned sensitivity and threshold
696(fig.~\ref{sensitivity}), the following components have to be bought.
697To obtain reliable results as fast as possible well known components
698have been chosen.\\
699
700{\bf Camera}\dotfill 206.450,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
701\begin{quote}
702   To setup a camera with 313 pixels the following components are needed:\\
703   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
704   Photomultiplier Tube EMI\,9083B\hfill 220,-\,\euro\\
705   Active voltage divider (EMI)\hfill 80,-\,\euro\\
706   High voltage support and control\hfill 300,-\,\euro\\
707   Preamplifier\hfill 50,-\,\euro\\
708   Spare parts (overall)\hfill 3000,-\,\euro\\
709   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
710%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
711For long-term observations, the stability of the camera is a major
712criterion. To keep the systematic errors small, a good background
713estimation is mandatory. The only possibility for a synchronous
714determination of the background is the measurement from the night-sky
715observed in the same field-of-view with the same instrument. To achieve
716this, the observed position is moved out of the camera center which
717allows the estimation of the background from positions symmetric with
718respect to the camera center (so called Wobble mode). This observation
719mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because
720spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes
721obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This
722ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources.\\
723A further increase in sensitivity can be achieved by better background
724statistics from not only one but several independent positions for the
725background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. To allow for
726this the source position in Wobble mode should be shifted
727$0.6^\circ-0.7^\circ$ out of the camera center.
728
729A camera completely containing the shower images of events in the energy
730region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of
7315$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera
732geometry, a camera layout as symmetric as possible will be chosen.
733Consequently a camera allowing to fulfill these requirements should be
734round and have a diameter of $4.5^\circ-5.0^\circ$.
735\begin{figure}[th]
736\begin{center}
737 \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam271.eps}
738 \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam313.eps}
739 \caption{Left: Schematic picture of the 271 pixel CT3 camera with a field of view of 4.6$^\circ$.
740 Right: Schematic picture of the 313 pixel camera for DWARF with a field of view of 5$^\circ$.}
741\label{camCT3}
742\label{camDWARF}
743\end{center}
744\end{figure}
745
746Therefore a camera with 313 pixel camera (see fig.~\ref{camDWARF}) is
747chosen. The camera will be built based on the experience with HEGRA and
748MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083B/KFLA-UD)
749will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). They have
750a quantum efficiency improved by 25\% (see fig.~\ref{qe}) and ensure a
751granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the
752energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be
753equipped with a preamplifier, an active high-voltage supply and
754control. The total expense for a single pixel will be in the order of
755650,-\,\euro.
756
757All possibilities of borrowing one of the old HEGRA cameras for a
758transition time have been probed and refused by the owners of the
759cameras.
760
761At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the
762ability, i.e.\ stability, aging, quantum efficiency, etc., of using
763Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon detectors in the camera of a
764Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are an extremely high quantum
765efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and simplified
766application compared to classical PMs. If these test measurements are
767successfully finished until 8/2008, we consider to use GAPDs in favor
768of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take place at
769University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts from ETH.
770The construction would also take place at the electronics workshop of
771Dortmund.
772
773\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
774
775{\bf Camera support}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
776\begin{quote}
777For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500,-\,\euro)
778The camera chassis must be water tight and will be equipped with an
779automatic lid, protecting the PMs at daytime. For further protection, a
780plexi-glass window will be installed in front of the camera. By coating
781this window with an anti-reflex layer of magnesium-fluoride, a gain in
782transmission of 5\% is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a
783light-guide (Winston cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in
784operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000,-\,\euro\ for all Winston cones). The
785current design will be improved by using a high reflectivity aluminized
786Mylar mirror-foil, coated with a dialectical layer ($Si\,O_2$
787alternated with Niobium Oxide), to reach a reflectivity in the order of
78898\%. An electric and optical shielding of the individual PMs is
789planned.
790
791In total a gain of $\sim$15\% in light-collection
792efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be achieved.
793\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
794
795\newpage
796{\bf Data acquisition}\dotfill 61.035,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
797\begin{quote}
798313 pixels a\\
799   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
800   Readout\hfill 95,-\,\euro\\
801   Trigger\hfill 100,-\,\euro\\
802   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
803%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
804For the data acquisition system a hardware readout based on an analog
805ring buffer (Domino\ II/IV), currently developed for the MAGIC~II
806readout, will be used \citep{Barcelo}. This technology allows to sample
807the pulses with high frequencies and readout several channels with a
808single Flash-ADC resulting in low costs. The low power consumption will
809allow to include the digitization near the signal source making
810the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. This results in less
811pick-up noise and reduces the signal dispersion. By high sampling rates
812(1.2\,GHz), additional information about the pulse shape can be
813obtained. This increases the over-all sensitivity further, because the
814short integration time allows for almost perfect suppression of noise
815due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger-, i.e.\
816readout-rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which
817allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system,
818like USB\,2.0.
819
820%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
821Current results obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC
822data acquisition show, that for a single telescope a sensitivity
823improvement of 40\% with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}.
824
825Like for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is
826sufficient, but also a simple neighbor-logic could be programmed (both
827cases $\sim$100,-\,\euro/channel).
828
829Additional data reduction and preprocessing within the readout chain is
830provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz, the storage
831space needed will be less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount
832of data can easily be stored and processed by the W\"{u}rzburg
833Datacenter (current capacity $>$80\,TB, $>$40\,CPUs).
834\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
835
836{\bf Mirrors}\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
837%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
838\begin{quote}
839The existing mirrors will be replaced by new plastic mirrors currently
840developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and light-weight
841material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon
842experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master and coated with a
843reflecting and a protective material. Tests have given promising
844results. By a change of the mirror geometry, the mirror area can be
845increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture~\ref{CT3} and
846montage~\ref{DWARF}). This includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per
847mirror by using a hexagonal layout instead of a round one. A further
848increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of
849the mount and will therefore be considered only in a later phase of the
850experiment.
851
852If the current development of the plastic mirrors cannot be finished in
853time, a re-machining of the old glass mirrors (8.5\,m$^2$) is possible
854with high purity aluminum and quartz coating.
855
856In both cases the mirrors can be coated with the same high reflectivity
857aluminized Mylar mirror-foil and a dialectical layer of $SiO_2$ as for
858the Winston cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is
859achieved, see fig.~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}. Both
860solutions would require the same expenses.
861
862To keep track of the alignment, reflectivity and optical quality of the
863individual mirrors and the point-spread function of the total mirror
864during long-term observations, the application of an automatic mirror
865adjustment system, as developed by ETH~Z\"{u}rich and successfully
866operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended.
867
868%<grey>The system
869%will be provided by ETH Z"urich.</grey>
870
871%{\bf For a diameter mirror of less than 2.4\,m, the delay between an
872%parabolic (isochronous) and a spherical mirror shape at the edge is well
873%below 1ns (see figure). Thus for a sampling rate of 1.2\,GHz parabolic
874%individual mirrors are not needed. Due to their small size the
875%individual mirrors can have a spherical shape.}
876%}\\[2ex]
877\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
878
879{\bf Calibration System}\dotfill 9.650,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
880\begin{quote}
881Components\\
882   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
883   Absolute light calibration\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
884   Individual pixel rate control\hfill 3.000,-\,\euro\\
885   Weather station\hfill 500,-\,\euro\\
886   GPS clock\hfill 1.500,-\,\euro\\
887   CCD cameras with readout\hfill 2.650,-\,\euro\\
888   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
889%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
890For the absolute light calibration (gain-calibration) of the PMs a
891calibration box, as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope, will be
892produced.
893
894To ensure a homogeneous acceptance of the camera, essential for
895Wobble mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels
896will be measured and controlled.
897
898For a correction of axis misalignments and possible deformations of the
899structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts) a pointing correction
900algorithm will be applied, as used in the MAGIC tracking system. It is
901calibrated by measurements of the reflection of bright guide stars on
902the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel
903diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as for
904MAGIC\ I and~II, (300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics,
905300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ frame grabber) will be installed.
906
907A second identical CCD camera for online monitoring (starguider) will
908be bought.
909
910For an accurate tracking a GPS clock is necessary. The weather station
911helps judging the data quality.
912%}\\[2ex]
913\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
914
915{\bf Computing}\dotfill 12.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
916\begin{quote}
917   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
918   Three PCs\hfill 8.000,-\,\euro\\
919   SATA RAID 3TB\hfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\
920   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
921%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
922For on-site computing three standard PCs are needed ($\sim$8.000,-\,\euro).
923This includes readout and storage, preprocessing and telescope control.
924For safety reasons, a firewall is mandatory. For local cache-storage
925and backup, two RAID\,5 SATA disk arrays with one Terabyte capacity
926each will fulfill the requirement ($\sim$4.000,-\,\euro). The data will be
927transmitted as soon as possible after data taking via Internet to the
928W\"{u}rzburg Datacenter. Enough storage capacity and computing power
929is available there and already reserved for this purpose.
930
931Monte Carlo production and storage will take place at University
932Dortmund.%}\\[2ex]
933\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
934
935%%%%%%%%%%%%%% PLOTS HERE???? %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
936
937{\bf Mount and Drive}\dotfill 17.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
938\begin{quote}
939%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
940The present mount is used. Only a smaller investment for safety,
941corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro).
942
943Motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of
94410.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with
945the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF drive
946system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three
947reasons: (i)~Fast movement might be mandatory for future ToO
948observations. (ii)~Wobble mode observations will be done changing the
949Wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons.
950(iii)~To ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at
951the same time, the observed source will be changed in constant time
952intervals.
953
954For the drive system three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A
955micro-controller based motion control unit (Siemens SPS L\,20) similar to
956the one of the current MAGIC~II drive system will be used. For
957communication with the readout-system, a standard Ethernet connection
958based on the TCP/IP- and UDP-protocol will be setup.
959%}\\[2ex]
960\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
961
962{\bf Security}\dotfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
963\begin{quote}
964   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
965   Uninterruptable power-supply (UPS)\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
966   Security fence\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
967   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
968%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
969A UPS with 5\,kW-10\,kW will be
970installed to protect the equipment against power cuts and ensure a safe
971telescope position at the time of sunrise.
972
973For protection in case of robotic movement a fence will be
974installed.%}\\[2ex]
975\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
976
977{\bf Other expenses}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
978\begin{quote}
979%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
980%   Robotics\hfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\
981%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
982%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
983For remote, robotic operation a variety of remote controllable electronic
984components such as Ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be
985bought. Monitoring equipment, for example different kind of sensors, is
986also mandatory.%}\\[2ex]
987\end{quote}
988\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
989\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.2:\hfill{\bf
990341.135,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
991\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
992\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
993
994\begin{figure}[p]
995\centering{
996\includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{cherenkov.eps}
997\includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{reflectivity.eps}
998\includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{qe.eps}
999\caption{Top to bottom: The Cherenkov spectrum as observed by a
1000telescope located at 2000\,m above sea level. The mirror's reflectivity
1001of a 300\,nm thick aluminum layer with a protection layer of 10\,nm and
1002100\,nm thickness respectively. For comparison the reflectivity of
1003HEGRA CT1's mirrors \citep{Kestel:2000} are shown. The bottom plot depicts
1004the quantum efficiency of the preferred PMs (EMI) together with the
1005predecessor used in CT1. A proper coating \citep{Paneque:2004} will
1006further enhance its efficiency. An even better increase would be the
1007usage of Geiger-mode APDs.}
1008
1009\label{cherenkov}
1010\label{reflectivity}
1011\label{qe}
1012}
1013\end{figure}
1014
1015\subsection[4.3]{Consumables (Verbrauchsmaterial)}
1016
1017\begin{quote}
1018%   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.9\textwidth}
1019   10 LTO\,4 tapes (8\,TB)\dotfill 750,-\,\euro\\
1020   Consumables (overalls): tools and materials\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro
1021%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1022\end{quote}
1023
1024\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1025\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.3:\hfill{\bf
102610.750,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1027\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1028\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1029
1030\subsection[4.4]{Travel expenses (Reisen)}
1031The large amount of travel funding is required due to the very close
1032cooperation between Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg and the work demands on
1033the construction site.\\[-2ex]
1034
1035\begin{quote}
1036%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1037Per year one senior group member from Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg should
1038present the status of the work in progress at an international workshop
1039or conference:\\
10402 x 3\,years x 1.500,-\,\euro\dotfill 9.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1041
1042One participation at the biannual MAGIC collaboration meeting:\\
10432 x 3\,years x 1.000,-\,\euro\dotfill 6.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1044
1045PhD student exchange between W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund:\\
10461\,student x 1\,week x 24 (every six weeks) x 800,-\,\euro\dotfill
104719.200,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1048
1049For setup of the telescope at La Palma the following travel expenses
1050are necessary:\\
10514 x 2\,weeks at La Palma x 2\,persons x 1.800,-\,\euro\dotfill
105228.800,-\,\euro
1053%}
1054\end{quote}
1055
1056\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1057\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.4:\hfill{\bf
105863.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1059\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1060\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1061
1062
1063\subsection[4.5]{Publication costs (Publikationskosten)}
1064Will be covered by the proposing institutes.
1065
1066
1067\subsection[4.6]{Other costs (Sonstige Kosten)}
1068\begin{quote}
1069Storage container (for shipment of the mirrors)\dotfill 5.000,-\,\euro\\
1070Transport\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\
1071Dismantling (will be covered by proposing institutes)\dotfill n/a
1072\end{quote}
1073
1074\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1075\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.6:\hfill{\bf
107620.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1077\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1078\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1079
1080\newpage
1081\germanTeX
1082\section[5]{Preconditions for carrying out the project\\(Voraussetzungen f"ur die Durchf"uhrung des Vorhabens)}
1083none
1084
1085\subsection[5.1]{The research team (Zusammensetzung der Arbeitsgruppe)}
1086
1087\paragraph{Dortmund}
1088\begin{itemize}
1089\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}
1090\setlength{\parsep}{0pt}
1091\item Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode (Grundauststattung)
1092\item Dr.\ Tanja Kneiske (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), DFG-Forschungsstipendium)
1093\item Dr.\ Julia Becker (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), Drittmittel)
1094\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Kirsten M"unich (Doktorand (IceCube), Drittmittel)
1095\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jens Dreyer (Doktorand (IceCube), Grundauststattung)
1096\item M.Sc.\ Valentin Curtef (Doktorand (MAGIC), Grundausstattung)
1097\item cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes (Diplomand (MAGIC), zum F"orderbeginn diplomiert)
1098\item cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch (Diplomand (MAGIC))
1099\item cand.\ phys.\ Anne Wiedemann (Diplomand (IceCube))
1100\item cand.\ phys.\ Dominik Neise (Diplomand (MAGIC))
1101\item Dipl.-Ing.\ Kai Warda (Elektronik)
1102\item PTA Matthias Domke (Systemadministration)
1103\end{itemize}
1104
1105\paragraph{W\"{u}rzburg}
1106\begin{itemize}
1107\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}
1108\setlength{\parsep}{0pt}
1109\item Prof.\ Dr.\ Karl Mannheim (Landesmittel)
1110\item Prof.\ Dr.\ Thomas Trefzger (Landesmittel)
1111\item Prof.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Dr"oge (Landesmittel)
1112\item Dr.\ Thomas Bretz (Postdoc (MAGIC), BMBF)
1113\item Dr.\ Felix Spanier (Postdoc, Landesmittel)
1114\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jordi Albert (Doktorand, DFG-GRK1147)
1115\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Karsten Berger (Doktorand (MAGIC), Landesmittel)
1116\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Thomas Burkart (Doktorand (LISA), DLR)
1117\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Oliver Elbracht (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern)
1118\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Dominik Els"asser (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern)
1119\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Daniela Dorner (Doktorand (MAGIC), BMBF)
1120\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Daniel H"ohne (Doktorand (MAGIC), Landesmittel)
1121\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Markus Meyer (Doktorand, DFG-GRK1147)
1122\item M.Sc.\ Surajit Paul (Doktorand, DFG-GRK1147)
1123\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Stefan R"ugamer (Doktorand (MAGIC), Landesmittel)
1124\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Michael R"uger (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern)
1125\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Martina Wei"s (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern)
1126\item cand.\ phys.\ Sebastian Huber
1127\item cand.\ phys.\ Tobias Hein
1128\item cand.\ phys.\ Tobias Viering
1129\end{itemize}
1130\originalTeX
1131
1132\subsection[5.2]{Cooperation with other scientists\\(Zusammenarbeit mit
1133anderen Wissenschaftlern)}
1134
1135Both applying groups cooperate with the international
1136MAGIC collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W\"{u}rzburg
1137funded by the BMBF, Dortmund by means of appointment for the moment).
1138
1139W\"{u}rzburg is also in close scientific exchange with the group of
1140Prof.~Dr.~Victoria Fonseca, UCM Madrid and the University of Turku
1141(Finland) operating the KVA optical telescope at La Palma. Other
1142cooperations refer to the projects JEM-EUSO (science case), GRIPS
1143(simulation), LISA (astrophysical input for templates), STEREO (data
1144analysis), and SOLAR ORBITER (electron-proton telescope). A cooperation
1145with GLAST science team members (Dr.~Anita and Dr.~Olaf Reimer,
1146Stanford) is also relevant for the proposed project.
1147
1148The group in Dortmund is involved in the IceCube experiment (BMBF
1149funding) and maintains close contacts to the collaboration partners.
1150Moreover on the field of phenomenology good working contacts exist to
1151the groups of Prof.~Dr.~Reinhard Schlickeiser, Ruhr-Universit\"{a}t
1152Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter Biermann, MPIfR Bonn. There are furthermore
1153intense contacts to Prof.~Dr.~Francis Halzen, Madison, Wisconsin.
1154
1155The telescope design will be worked out in close cooperation with the
1156group of Prof.~Dr.~Felicitas Pauss, Dr.~Adrian Biland and
1157Prof.~Dr.~Eckart Lorenz (ETH~Z\"{u}rich). They will provide help in design
1158studies, construction and software development. The DAQ design will be
1159contributed by the group of Prof.~Dr.~Riccardo Paoletti (Universit\`{a} di
1160Siena and INFN sez.\ di Pisa, Italy).
1161
1162The group of the newly appointed {\em Lehrstuhl f\"{u}r Physik und ihre
1163Didaktik} (Prof.~Dr.~Thomas Trefzger) has expressed their interest to
1164join the project. They bring in a laboratory for photo-sensor testing,
1165know-how from former contributions to ATLAS and a joint interest in
1166operating a data pipeline using GRID technologies.
1167
1168\subsection[5.3]{Work outside Germany, Cooperation with foreign
1169partners\\(Arbeiten im Ausland, Kooperation mit Partnern im Ausland)}
1170
1171The work on DWARF will take place at the ORM on the Spanish island La
1172Palma. It will be performed in close collaboration with the
1173MAGIC collaboration.
1174
1175\subsection[5.4]{Scientific equipment available (Apparative
1176Ausstattung)}
1177In Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg extensive computer capacities for data
1178storage as well as for data analysis are available.
1179
1180The faculty of physics at the University Dortmund has modern
1181equipped mechanical and electrical workshops including a department for
1182development of electronics at its command. The chair of astroparticle
1183physics possesses common technical equipment required for constructing
1184modern DAQ.
1185
1186The faculty of physics at the University of W\"{u}rzburg comes with a
1187mechanical and an electronic workshop, as well as a special laboratory
1188of the chair for astronomy suitable for photosensor testing.
1189
1190\subsection[5.5]{The institution's general contribution\\(Laufende
1191Mittel f\"{u}r Sachausgaben)}
1192
1193Current total institute budget from the University Dortmund
1194$\sim$20.000,-\,\euro\ per year.
1195
1196Current total institute budget from the University W\"{u}rzburg
1197$\sim$30.000,-\,\euro\ per year.
1198
1199%\paragraph{5.6 Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit\"aten}~\\
1200\subsection[5.6]{Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\(Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit\"{a}ten)}~\\
1201none
1202
1203\subsection[5.7]{Other requirements (Sonstige Voraussetzungen)}~\\
1204none
1205
1206\newpage
1207\thispagestyle{empty}
1208
1209\paragraph{6 Declarations (Erkl\"{a}rungen)}
1210
1211A request for funding this project has not been submitted to
1212any other addressee. In case we submit such a request we will inform
1213the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft immediately. \\
1214
1215The corresponding persons (Vertrauensdozenten) at the
1216Universit\"{a}t Dortmund (Prof.\ Dr.\ Gather) and at the Universit\"{a}t
1217W\"{u}rzburg (Prof.\ Dr.\ G.\ Bringmann) have been informed about the
1218submission of this proposal.
1219
1220\paragraph{7 Signatures (Unterschriften)}~\\
1221
1222\vspace{2.5 cm}
1223
1224\hfill
1225\begin{minipage}[t]{6cm}
1226W\"{u}rzburg,\\[3.0cm]
1227\parbox[t]{6cm}{\hrulefill}\\
1228\parbox[t]{6cm}{~\hfill Prof.\ Dr.\ Karl Mannheim\hfill~}\\
1229\end{minipage}
1230\hfill
1231\begin{minipage}[t]{6cm}
1232Dortmund,\\[3.0cm]
1233\parbox[t]{6cm}{\hrulefill}\\
1234\parbox[t]{6cm}{~\hfill Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode\hfill~}\\
1235\end{minipage}\hfill~
1236
1237\thispagestyle{empty}
1238\newpage
1239\mbox{}
1240\thispagestyle{empty}
1241\newpage
1242\paragraph{8 List of appendices (Verzeichnis der Anlagen)}
1243
1244\begin{itemize}
1245\item
1246%Schriftenverzeichnis der Antragsteller seit dem Jahr 2000
1247List of refereed publications of the applicants since 2000
1248\item Appendix A: Chapter 4 in German
1249\item CV of Karl Mannheim
1250\item CV of Wolfgang Rhode
1251\item Letter of Support from the MAGIC collaboration
1252\item Letter of Support from Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory
1253\item Letter of Support from the IceCube collaboration
1254\item Letter of Support from KVA optical telescope
1255\item Email with offer from EMI for the PMs
1256\end{itemize}
1257\newpage
1258\mbox{}
1259\thispagestyle{empty}
1260\newpage
1261
1262\appendix
1263\germanTeX
1264\section[4]{Beantragte Mittel}
1265
1266Die beantragten Mittel werden durch die Ausgaben f"ur die Kamera und
1267die Datennahme dominiert. Wir beantragen eine F"orderung von drei Jahren.
1268
1269\subsection[4.1]{Personalkosten}
1270
1271F"ur diesen Zeitraum beantragen wir die Finanzierung von zwei Postdocs
1272und zwei Doktoranden, jeweils einer in Dortmund und einer in W"urzburg
1273(3\,x\,TV-L13). Mit den besetzten Stellen sollen die erw"ahnten Arbeiten
1274zur Planung und zum Bau des Teleskops durchgef"uhrt werden. Zus"atzlich
1275wird noch eine schwankende Zahl an Doktoranden und Diplomanden
1276zur Verf"ugung stehen.
1277
1278Interessierte Kandidaten sind Dr.\ Thomas
1279Bretz, Dr.\ dest.\ Daniela Dorner, Dr.\ dest.\ Kirsten M\"{u}nich,
1280cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes, cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch und cand.\
1281phys.\ Dominik Neise.
1282
1283\subsection[4.2]{Wissenschaftliche Ger\"{a}te}
1284
1285Am Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), nahe dem MAGIC
1286Teleskop, steht noch das ehemalige HEGRA-Teleskop (CT3) zur Verf"ugung.
1287Es ist noch immer nutzbar und geh"ort jetzt der MAGIC Kollaboration.
1288Au"serdem ist noch ein Container zur Unterbringung von Elektronik,
1289sowie weiterer Platz im MAGIC-eignenen Haus vorhanden. Der Memorandum
1290of Understanding der MAGIC-Kollaboration erlaubt uns den Betrieb des
1291Teleskops als DWARF (siehe Anlage). F"ur Notfallsituationen steht die
1292MAGIC Schichtmannschaft zur Verf"ugung.
1293
1294Um die angestrebte Sensitivit"at und Energieschwelle (Abb.~\ref{sensitivity})
1295in m"oglichgst kurzer Zeit zu erreichen, wurden die folgenden
1296Komponenten ausgew"ahlt. Einzelheiten zu den Auswahlkriterien k"onnen
1297im Kapitel~4 nachgelesen werden.\\
1298
1299{\bf Kamera}\dotfill 206.450,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1300\begin{quote}
1301   F"ur eine Kamera mit 313 Pixel werden folgende Komponenten ben"otigt:\\
1302   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1303   Photomultiplier R"ohre EMI\,9083B\hfill 220,-\,\euro\\
1304   Aktiver Spannungsteiler (EMI)\hfill 80,-\,\euro\\
1305   Hochspannungsversorgung und -kontrolle\hfill 300,-\,\euro\\
1306   Vorverst"arker\hfill 50,-\,\euro\\
1307   Ersatzteile (pauschal)\hfill 3000,-\,\euro\\
1308   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1309%For long-term observations, the stability of the camera is a major
1310%criterion. To keep the systematic errors small, a good background
1311%estimation is mandatory. The only possibility for a synchronous
1312%determination of the background is the measurement from the night-sky
1313%observed in the same field-of-view with the same instrument. To achieve
1314%this, the observed position is moved out of the camera center which
1315%allows the estimation of the background from positions symmetric with
1316%respect to the camera center (so called Wobble mode). This observation
1317%mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because
1318%spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes
1319%obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This
1320%ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources.\\
1321%A further increase in sensitivity can be achieved by better background
1322%statistics from not only one but several independent positions for the
1323%background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. To allow for
1324%this the source position in Wobble mode should be shifted
1325%$0.6^\circ-0.7^\circ$ out of the camera center.
1326%
1327%A camera completely containing the shower images of events in the energy
1328%region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of
1329%5$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera
1330%geometry, a camera layout as symmetric as possible will be chosen.
1331%Consequently a camera allowing to fulfill these requirements should be
1332%round and have a diameter of $4.5^\circ-5.0^\circ$.
1333%
1334%Therefore a camera with 313 pixel camera (see fig.~\ref{camDWARF}) is
1335%chosen. The camera will be built based on the experience with HEGRA and
1336%MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083B/KFLA-UD)
1337%will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). They have
1338%a quantum efficiency improved by 25\% (see fig.~\ref{qe}) and ensure a
1339%granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the
1340%energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be
1341%equipped with a preamplifier, an active high-voltage supply and
1342%control. The total expense for a single pixel will be in the order of
1343%650,-\,\euro.
1344%
1345%All possibilities of borrowing one of the old HEGRA cameras for a
1346%transition time have been probed and refused by the owners of the
1347%cameras.
1348%
1349%At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the
1350%ability, i.e.\ stability, aging, quantum efficiency, etc., of using
1351%Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon detectors in the camera of a
1352%Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are an extremely high quantum
1353%efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and simplified
1354%application compared to classical PMs. If these test measurements are
1355%successfully finished until 8/2008, we consider to use GAPDs in favor
1356%of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take place at
1357%University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts from ETH.
1358%The construction would also take place at the electronics workshop of
1359%Dortmund.
1360\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1361\newpage
1362{\bf Kameraaufh"angung und -geh"ause}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1363\begin{quote}
1364%For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500,-\,\euro)
1365%The camera chassis must be water tight and will be equipped with an
1366%automatic lid, protecting the PMs at daytime. For further protection, a
1367%plexi-glass window will be installed in front of the camera. By coating
1368%this window with an anti-reflex layer of magnesium-fluoride, a gain in
1369%transmission of 5\% is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a
1370%light-guide (Winston cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in
1371%operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000,-\,\euro\ for all Winston cones). The
1372%current design will be improved by using a high reflectivity aluminized
1373%Mylar mirror-foil, coated with a dialectical layer ($Si\,O_2$
1374%alternated with Niobium Oxide), to reach a reflectivity in the order of
1375%98\%. An electric and optical shielding of the individual PMs is
1376%planned.
1377%
1378%In total a gain of $\sim$15\% in light-collection
1379%efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be achieved.
1380\end{quote}%\vspace{1ex}
1381{\bf Datennahme}\dotfill 61.035,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1382\begin{quote}
1383313 Pixel\\
1384   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1385   Auslese\hfill 95,-\,\euro\\
1386   Triggerelektronik\hfill 100,-\,\euro\\
1387   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1388%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1389%For the data acquisition system a hardware readout based on an analog
1390%ring buffer (Domino\ II/IV), currently developed for the MAGIC~II
1391%readout, will be used \citep{Barcelo}. This technology allows to sample
1392%the pulses with high frequencies and readout several channels with a
1393%single Flash-ADC resulting in low costs. The low power consumption will
1394%allow to include the digitization near the signal source making
1395%the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. This results in less
1396%pick-up noise and reduces the signal dispersion. By high sampling rates
1397%(1.2\,GHz), additional information about the pulse shape can be
1398%obtained. This increases the over-all sensitivity further, because the
1399%short integration time allows for almost perfect suppression of noise
1400%due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger-, i.e.\
1401%readout-rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which
1402%allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system,
1403%like USB\,2.0.
1404%
1405%Current results obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC
1406%data acquisition show, that for a single telescope a sensitivity
1407%improvement of 40\% with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}.
1408%
1409%Like for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is
1410%sufficient, but also a simple neighbor-logic could be programmed (both
1411%cases $\sim$100,-\,\euro/channel).
1412%
1413%Additional data reduction and preprocessing within the readout chain is
1414%provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz, the storage
1415%space needed will be less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount
1416%of data can easily be stored and processed by the W\"{u}rzburg
1417%Datacenter (current capacity $>$80\,TB, $>$40\,CPUs).
1418\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1419
1420{\bf Spiegel}\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1421%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1422\begin{quote}
1423%The existing mirrors will be replaced by new plastic mirrors currently
1424%developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and light-weight
1425%material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon
1426%experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master and coated with a
1427%reflecting and a protective material. Tests have given promising
1428%results. By a change of the mirror geometry, the mirror area can be
1429%increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture~\ref{CT3} and
1430%montage~\ref{DWARF}). This includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per
1431%mirror by using a hexagonal layout instead of a round one. A further
1432%increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of
1433%the mount and will therefore be considered only in a later phase of the
1434%experiment.
1435%
1436%If the current development of the plastic mirrors cannot be finished in
1437%time, a re-machining of the old glass mirrors (8.5\,m$^2$) is possible
1438%with high purity aluminum and quartz coating.
1439%
1440%In both cases the mirrors can be coated with the same high reflectivity
1441%aluminized Mylar mirror-foil and a dialectical layer of $SiO_2$ as for
1442%the Winston cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is
1443%achieved, see fig.~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}. Both
1444%solutions would require the same expenses.
1445%
1446%To keep track of the alignment, reflectivity and optical quality of the
1447%individual mirrors and the point-spread function of the total mirror
1448%during long-term observations, the application of an automatic mirror
1449%adjustment system, as developed by ETH~Z\"{u}rich and successfully
1450%operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended.
1451\end{quote}%\vspace{3ex}
1452{\bf Kalibrationssystem}\dotfill 9.650,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1453\begin{quote}
1454Einzelkomponenten\\
1455   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1456   Absolute Lichtkalibration\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
1457   Messung der Triggerrate einzelner Pixel\hfill 3.000,-\,\euro\\
1458   Wetterstation\hfill 500,-\,\euro\\
1459   GPS gesteuerte Uhr\hfill 1.500,-\,\euro\\
1460   CCD Kameras mit Auslese\hfill 2.650,-\,\euro\\
1461   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1462%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1463%For the absolute light calibration (gain-calibration) of the PMs a
1464%calibration box, as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope, will be
1465%produced.
1466%
1467%To ensure a homogeneous acceptance of the camera, essential for
1468%Wobble mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels
1469%will be measured and controlled.
1470%
1471%For a correction of axis misalignments and possible deformations of the
1472%structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts) a pointing correction
1473%algorithm will be applied, as used in the MAGIC tracking system. It is
1474%calibrated by measurements of the reflection of bright guide stars on
1475%the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel
1476%diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as for
1477%MAGIC\ I and~II, (300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics,
1478%300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ frame grabber) will be installed.
1479%
1480%A second identical CCD camera for online monitoring (starguider) will
1481%be bought.
1482%
1483%For an accurate tracking a GPS clock is necessary. The weather station
1484%helps judging the data quality.
1485%}\\[2ex]
1486\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1487
1488{\bf Computing}\dotfill 12.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1489\begin{quote}
1490   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1491   Drei PCs\hfill 8.000,-\,\euro\\
1492   SATA RAID 3TB\hfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\
1493   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1494%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1495%For on-site computing three standard PCs are needed ($\sim$8.000,-\,\euro).
1496%This includes readout and storage, preprocessing and telescope control.
1497%For safety reasons, a firewall is mandatory. For local cache-storage
1498%and backup, two RAID\,5 SATA disk arrays with one Terabyte capacity
1499%each will fulfill the requirement ($\sim$4.000,-\,\euro). The data will be
1500%transmitted as soon as possible after data taking via Internet to the
1501%W\"{u}rzburg Datacenter. Enough storage capacity and computing power
1502%is available there and already reserved for this purpose.
1503%
1504%Monte Carlo production and storage will take place at University
1505%Dortmund.%}\\[2ex]
1506\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1507
1508{\bf Antrieb und Positionsauslese}\dotfill 17.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1509\begin{quote}
1510%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1511%The present mount is used. Only a smaller investment for safety,
1512%corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro).
1513%
1514%Motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of
1515%10.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with
1516%the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF drive
1517%system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three
1518%reasons: (i)~Fast movement might be mandatory for future ToO
1519%observations. (ii)~Wobble mode observations will be done changing the
1520%Wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons.
1521%(iii)~To ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at
1522%the same time, the observed source will be changed in constant time
1523%intervals.
1524%
1525%For the drive system three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A
1526%micro-controller based motion control unit (Siemens SPS L\,20) similar to
1527%the one of the current MAGIC~II drive system will be used. For
1528%communication with the readout-system, a standard Ethernet connection
1529%based on the TCP/IP- and UDP-protocol will be setup.
1530%}\\[2ex]
1531\end{quote}%\vspace{3ex}
1532%
1533{\bf Sicherheit}\dotfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1534\begin{quote}
1535   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1536   Unterbrechungsfreie Stromversorgung (UPS)\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
1537   Sicherheitszaun\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
1538   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1539%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1540%A UPS with 5\,kW-10\,kW will be
1541%installed to protect the equipment against power cuts and ensure a safe
1542%telescope position at the time of sunrise.
1543%
1544%For protection in case of robotic movement a fence will be
1545%installed.%}\\[2ex]
1546\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
1547
1548{\bf Andere Ausgaben}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
1549\begin{quote}
1550%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
1551%   Robotics\hfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\
1552%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1553%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1554F"ur den Betrieb in Fernsteuerung
1555werden verschiedene fernbedienbare Komponenten, wie z.B.\
1556Ethernet steuerbare Steckdosen und "Uberwachungselektronik, gekauft.
1557\end{quote}
1558\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1559\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.2:\hfill{\bf
1560341.135,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1561\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1562\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1563
1564\subsection[4.3]{Verbrauchsmaterial}
1565
1566\begin{quote}
1567%   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.9\textwidth}
1568   10 LTO\,4 B"ander (8\,TB)\dotfill 750,-\,\euro\\
1569   Verbrauchsgegenst"ande (pauschal): Werkzeug und Materialien\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro
1570%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
1571\end{quote}
1572
1573\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1574\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.3:\hfill{\bf
157510.750,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1576\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1577\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1578
1579\subsection[4.4]{Reisen}
1580Die hohen Reisekosten sind in der engen Zusammenarbeit zwischen
1581Dortmund und W"urzburg, sowie den notwendigen Aufenthalten in La Palma
1582begr"undet.\\[-2ex]
1583
1584\begin{quote}
1585%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
1586Jedes Jahr sollte ein erfahrenes Gruppenmitglied aus Dortmund und
1587W"urzburg den Status des Projektes bei einer internationalen Konferenz
1588vorstellen:\\
15892 x 3\,Jahre x 1.500,-\,\euro\dotfill 9.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1590
1591Teilnahme am MAGIC Kollaborationstreffen (zweimal j"ahrlich):\\
15922 x 3\,Jahre x 1.000,-\,\euro\dotfill 6.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1593
1594Austausch von Doktoranden zwischen W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund:\\
15951\,Student x 1\,Woche x 24 (alle sechs Wochen) x 800,-\,\euro\dotfill
159619.200,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
1597
1598Zum Aufbau des Teleskops vor Ort sind folgende Reisekosten n"otig:\\
15994 x 2\,Wochen auf La Palma x 2\,Personen x 1.800,-\,\euro\dotfill
160028.800,-\,\euro
1601%}
1602\end{quote}
1603
1604\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1605\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.4:\hfill{\bf
160663.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1607\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1608\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1609
1610
1611\subsection[4.5]{Publikationskosten}
1612Werden von den beantragenden Universit"aten "ubernommen.
1613
1614
1615\subsection[4.6]{Sonstige Kosten}
1616\begin{quote}
1617Euro-Container (zum Versand der Spiegel)\dotfill 5.000,-\,\euro\\
1618Transport\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\
1619Abbau (wird von den Antragstellern "ubernommen)\dotfill n/a
1620\end{quote}
1621
1622\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
1623\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.6:\hfill{\bf
162420.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
1625\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
1626\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
1627
1628\newpage
1629\thispagestyle{empty}
1630\mbox{}
1631\newpage
1632
1633\originalTeX
1634
1635%(References of our groups are marked by an asterix *)
1636\bibliography{application}
1637\bibliographystyle{plainnat}
1638%\bibliographystyle{alpha}
1639%\bibliographystyle{plain}
1640
1641\end{document}
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