Changeset 8777


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Dec 7, 2007, 11:23:42 PM (13 years ago)
Author:
tbretz
Message:
*** empty log message ***
Location:
trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG
Files:
2 edited

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  • trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG/application.bib

    r8773 r8777  
    29332933@MASTERSTHESIS{Deeg:Dipl,
    29342934  author = {Deeg, M.},
    2935   title  = "{Prototypenentwicklung eines Detektorsystems für ultrahochenergetische Kosmische Strahlung}",
     2935  title  = "{Prototypenentwicklung eines Detektorsystems f\"ur ultrahochenergetische Kosmische Strahlung}",
    29362936  school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund},
    29372937  month  = {Feb},
     
    29832983
    29842984@INPROCEEDINGS{Rueger,
    2985    author = {Rueger, M. and Spanier, F.},
     2985   author = {R\"{u}ger, M. and Spanier, F.},
    29862986booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten},
    29872987   volume = 328,
     
    29972997
    29982998@INPROCEEDINGS{Ruegamer,
    2999    author = {Ruegamer, S. and others},
     2999   author = {R\"{u}gamer, S. and others},
    30003000   title  = {Wide Range Multifrequency Observations of Northern TeV Blazars},
    30013001booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten},
  • trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG/application.tex

    r8774 r8777  
    4141
    4242\maketitle
    43 
    44 %\tableofcontents
     43\newpage
     44x
     45\thispagestyle{empty}
     46\cleardoublepage
     47\newpage
    4548
    4649\section[1]{General Information (Allgemeine Angaben)}
     
    6164{44221 Dortmund             }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{58285 Gevelsberg}\\
    6265{Germany                    }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Germany         }\\[0.5ex]
    63 {\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(231)\,755-3550}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(931)\, }\\
     66{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(231)\,755-3550}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(173)\,284\,79\,10}\\
    6467{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Fax:}+49\,(231)\,755-4547}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{~}\\\hline\hline
    6568\multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: wolfgang.rhode@udo.edu}\\\hline
     
    7982{97074 W"urzburg            }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{97299 Zell am Main      }\\
    8083{Germany                    }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Germany                 }\\[0.5ex]
    81 {\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(931)\,888-5031}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:} }\\
     84{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(931)\,888-5031}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone: +49\,(931)\,404\,81\,90} }\\
    8285{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Fax:}+49\,(931)\,888-4603}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{~}\\\hline\hline
    83 \multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: mannhein@astro.uni-wuerzbueg.de}\\\hline
     86\multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: mannheim@astro.uni-wuerzbueg.de}\\\hline
    8487\end{tabular}
    8588\originalTeX
    8689\newpage
    8790
    88 %\paragraph{1.2 Topic}~\\
    89 \subsection[1.2]{Topic}
     91\paragraph{1.2 Topic}~\\
     92%\subsection[1.2]{Topic}
    9093Long-term VHE $\gamma$-ray monitoring of bright blazars with a dedicated Cherenkov telescope
    9194
    92 %\paragraph{1.2 Thema}~\\
    93 \subsection[1.2]{Thema}
     95\paragraph{1.2 Thema}~\\
     96%\subsection[1.2]{Thema}
    9497Langzeitbeobachtung von hellen VHE $\gamma$-Blazaren mit einem dedizierten Cherenkov Teleskop
    9598
    96 %\paragraph{1.3 Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}~\\
    97 \subsection[1.3]{Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}
     99\paragraph{1.3 Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}~\\
     100%\subsection[1.3]{Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}
    98101Astronomy and Astrophysics, Particle Astrophysics
    99102
    100 %\paragraph{\bf 1.4 Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}~\\
    101 \subsection[1.4]{Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}
     103\paragraph{\bf 1.4 Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}~\\
     104%\subsection[1.4]{Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}
    102105After successful completion of the three-year work plan developed in
    103106this proposal, we will ask for an extension of the project for another
     
    105108of supermassive binary black holes.
    106109
    107 %\paragraph{\bf 1.5 Application period (Antragszeitraum)}~\\
    108 \subsection[1.5]{Application period (Antragszeitraum)}
     110\paragraph{\bf 1.5 Application period (Antragszeitraum)}~\\
     111%\subsection[1.5]{Application period (Antragszeitraum)}
    1091123\,years. The work on the project will begin immediately after the
    110 funding. 
     113funding.
    111114
    112115\newpage
    113 %\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Summary}~\\
    114 \subsection[1.6]{Summary}
    115 We propose to set up a robotic imaging air Cherenkov telescope with low
    116 cost, but high performance design for remote operation. The goal is to
     116\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Summary}~\\
     117%\subsection[1.6]{Summary}
     118We propose to set up a robotic imaging air-Cherenkov telescope with low
     119cost, but a high performance design for remote operation. The goal is to
    117120dedicate this gamma-ray telescope to long-term monitoring observations
    118121of nearby, bright blazars at very high energies. We will (i) search for
     
    121124origin, and (iii) correlate the data with corresponding data from the
    122125neutrino observatory IceCube to search for evidence of hadronic
    123 emission processes. The observations will also trigger follow-up
     126emission processes. The observations will furthermore trigger follow-up
    124127observations of flares with higher sensitivity telescopes such as
    125 MAGIC, VERITAS, and H.E.S.S.\ Joint observations with the Whipple
     128MAGIC, VERITAS and H.E.S.S.\ Joint observations with the Whipple
    126129monitoring telescope will start a future 24\,h-monitoring of selected
    127130sources with a distributed network of robotic telescopes. The telescope
    128 design is based on a full technological upgrade of one of the former
     131design is based on a complete technological upgrade of one of the former
    129132telescopes of the HEGRA collaboration (CT3) still located at the
    130133Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos on the Canarian Island La Palma
     
    135138
    136139\germanTeX
    137 %\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Zusammenfassung}~\\
    138 \subsection[1.6]{Zusammenfassung}
     140\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Zusammenfassung}~\\
     141%\subsection[1.6]{Zusammenfassung}
    139142{\bf Unser Vorhaben besteht darin, ein robotisches Luft-Cherenkov-Teleskop
    140143mit geringen Kosten aber hoher Leistung fernsteuerbar in Betrieb zu
    141 nehmen. Das Ziel ist es, dieses gamma-ray Teleskop ganz der
     144nehmen. Das Ziel ist es, dieses Gammastrahlen Teleskop ganz der
    142145Langzeitbeobachtung von nahen, hellen Blazaren bei sehr hohen Energien
    143146zu widmen. Wir werden (i) nach Modulationen der Blazar-Emission durch
     
    145148Statistik von gamma-Ausbr"uchen und deren physikalischen Ursprung
    146149untersuchen und (iii) die Daten mit entsprechenden Daten von dem
    147 Neutrino-Telskop IceCube korrelieren, um Nachweise f"ur hadronische
     150Neutrino-Teleskop IceCube korrelieren, um Nachweise f"ur hadronische
    148151Emissionsprozesse zu finden. Die Beobachtungen werden zus"atzlich
    149152Nachfolgebeobachtungen von gamma-Ausbr"uchen mit h"ohersensitiven
    150 Teleskopen wie MAGIC, VERITAS und H.E.S.S.\ triggern. Auf einander
     153Teleskopen wie MAGIC, VERITAS und H.E.S.S.\ triggern. Aufeinander
    151154abgestimmte Beobachtungen zusammen mit dem Whipple Teleskop werden der
    152155Auftakt zu einer zuk"unftigen 24-Stunden-Beobachtung von selektierten
     
    163166\newpage
    164167
    165 \section[2]{Stand der Forschung, eigene Vorarbeiten\\(Science case, preliminary work by proposer)}
     168\section[2]{Science case, preliminary work by proposer\\(Stand der Forschung, eigene Vorarbeiten)}
    166169
    167170\subsection[2.1]{Science case (Stand der Forschung)}
    168171
    169172Since the termination of the HEGRA observations, the succeeding
    170 experiments MAGIC and H.E.S.S. have impressively extended the physical
    171 scope of gamma ray astronomy detecting tens of formerly unknown gamma
    172 ray sources and analyzing their energy spectra, morphology, and
     173experiments MAGIC and H.E.S.S.\ have impressively extended the physical
     174scope of gamma-ray astronomy detecting tens of formerly unknown gamma-ray
     175sources and analyzing their energy spectra, morphology and
    173176temporal behavior. This became possible by lowering the energy
    174177threshold from 700\,GeV to less than 100\,GeV and increasing at the same
    175178time the sensitivity by a factor of five. A diversity of astrophysical
    176179source types such as pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants,
    177 microquasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, clusters of galaxies, gamma ray
    178 bursts and blazars have been studied with these telescopes.
     180micro-quasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Gamma-Ray
     181Bursts and blazars have been studied with these telescopes.
    179182
    180183The main class of extragalactic, very high energy gamma-rays sources
     
    185188long-wavelength radio waves to multi-TeV gamma-rays. In addition,
    186189blazars are characterized by rapid variability, high degrees of
    187 polarization, and super-luminal motion of knots in their
     190polarization, and superluminal motion of knots in their
    188191high-resolution radio images. The observed behavior can readily be
    189192explained assuming relativistic bulk motion and in situ particle
    190 acceleration, e.g. at shock waves, leading to synchrotron
     193acceleration, e.g.\ at shock waves, leading to synchrotron
    191194(radio-to-x-ray) and self-Compton (gamma-ray) emission \citep{Blandford}.
    192195Additionally, inverse Compton scattering of external photons may play a
    193 role in producing the observed gamma rays \citep{Dermer,Begelman}.
     196role in producing the observed gamma-rays \citep{Dermer,Begelman}.
    194197Variability may hold the key to understanding the details of the
    195 emission processes and the source geometry, and the development of
    196 time-dependent models is currently on the agenda of model builders
     198emission processes and the source geometry. The development of
     199time-dependent models is currently under investigation
    197200worldwide.
    198201
     
    204207ambient matter, will quickly dominate the momentum flow of the jet.
    205208This {\em baryon pollution} has been suggested to solve the energy
    206 transport problem in gamma ray bursts, and is probably present in
     209transport problem in Gamma-Ray Bursts and is probably present in
    207210blazar jets as well, even if they originate as pair jets in a black
    208211hole ergosphere \citep{Meszaros}. Protons and ions accelerated in the
    209 jets of blazars can reach extremely high energies before energy losses
     212jets of blazars can reach extremely high energies, before energy losses
    210213become important \citep{Mannheim:1993}. Escaping particles contribute
    211214to the observed flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in a major way.
    212215Blazars and their unbeamed hosts, the radio galaxies, are thus the
    213216prime candidates for origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays
    214 \citep{Rachen}, and this can be investigated with the IceCube and AUGER
     217\citep{Rachen}. This can be investigated with the IceCube and AUGER
    215218experiments. Recent results of the AUGER experiment show a significant
    216219anisotropy of the highest energy cosmic rays and point at either nearby
     
    230233with magnetic confinement \citep{Mannheim:1995}. Short variability time
    231234scales can result from dynamical changes of the emission zone, running
    232 e.g. through an inhomogeneous environment.
     235e.g.\ through an inhomogeneous environment.
    233236
    234237The contemporaneous spectral energy distributions for hadronic and
     
    237240model \citep{Mannheim:1999}. These properties allow conclusions
    238241about the accelerated particles. Noteworthy, even for nearby blazars
    239 the spectrum must be corrected for attenuation of the gamma rays due to
     242the spectrum must be corrected for attenuation of the gamma-rays due to
    240243pair production in collisions with low-energy photons from the
    241244extragalactic background radiation field \citep{Kneiske}.
     
    252255generally showing the largest amplitudes and the shortest time scales
    253256at the highest energies. Recently, a doubling time scale of two minutes
    254 has been observed in a flare of Mrk\,501 with the MAGIC
    255 telescope \citep{Albert:501}. A giant flare of PKS\,2155-304 discovered by
    256 H.E.S.S.\ \citep{Aharonian:2007pks} has shown similarly short
    257 doubling time scales and a flux of up to 16 times the flux of the Crab
    258 Nebula. Indications for TeV flares without evidence for an accompanying
    259 x-ray flare, coined orphan flares, have been observed, questioning the
     257has been observed in a flare of Mrk\,501 with the MAGIC telescope
     258\citep{Albert:501}. A giant flare of PKS\,2155-304 discovered by
     259H.E.S.S.\ \citep{Aharonian:2007pks} has shown similarly short doubling
     260time scales and a flux of up to 16 times the flux of the Crab Nebula.
     261Indications for TeV flares without evidence for an accompanying x-ray
     262flare, coined orphan flares, have been observed, questioning the
    260263synchrotron-self-Compton mechanism being responsible for the
    261264gamma-rays. Model ramifications involving several emission components,
    262265external seed photons, or hadronically induced emission may solve the
    263 problem \citep{Blazejowski}. Certainly, the database for contemporaneous
    264 multi-wavelength observations is still far from proving the
    265 synchrotron-self-Compton model.
     266problem \citep{Blazejowski}. Certainly, the database for
     267contemporaneous multi-wavelength observations is still far from proving
     268the synchrotron-self-Compton model.
    266269
    267270Generally, observations of flares are prompted by optical or x-ray
     
    297300wave luminosity is spectacularly high, even long before final
    298301coalescence and the frequencies are favorable for the detectors under
    299 consideration (LISA). Detection of gravitational waves relies on exact
     302consideration (LISA). The detection of gravitational waves relies on exact
    300303templates to filter out the signals and the templates can be computed
    301304from astrophysical constraints on the orbits and masses of the black
     
    307310Mrk\,501 during a phase of high activity in 1997 was reported by
    308311HEGRA \citep{Kranich}, and was later confirmed including x-ray and
    309 Teleacope Array data \citep{Osone}. The observations can be explained in
     312Telescope Array data \citep{Osone}. The observations can be explained in
    310313a supermassive black hole binary scenario \citep{Rieger:2000}.
    311314Indications for helical trajectories and periodic modulation of optical
     
    319322exposure simultaneous to the VHE observations, and this is a new
    320323qualitative step for blazar research. For the same reasons, the VERITAS
    321 Collaboration keeps the former Whipple telescope alive, albeit its
     324collaboration keeps the former Whipple telescope alive, albeit its
    322325performance seems to have strongly degraded. It is obvious that the
    323326large Cherenkov telescopes such as MAGIC, H.E.S.S.\ or VERITAS are mainly
     
    345348
    346349Assuming conservatively the performance of a single HEGRA-type
    347 telescope, long-term monitoring of at least the following known blazars
    348 is possible: Mrk\,421, Mrk\,501, 1ES\,2344+514, 1ES\,1959+650,
    349 H\,1426+428, PKS\,2155-304. We emphasize that DWARF will run as a
     350telescope, long-term monitor\-ing of at least the following known
     351blazars is possible: Mrk\,421, Mrk\,501, 1ES\,2344+514, 1ES\,1959+650,
     352H\,1426+428, PKS\,2155-304. We emphasize, that DWARF will run as a
    350353facility dedicated to these targets only, providing a maximum
    351354observation time for the program. Utilizing recent developments, such
     
    364367of Amanda, IceCube, HEGRA and MAGIC the proposing groups contribute the
    365368necessary knowledge and experience to build and operate a small imaging
    366 air Cherenkov telescope.
     369air-Cherenkov telescope.
    367370
    368371\paragraph{Hardware}
     
    388391development departure of the faculty.
    389392
    390 The ultra fast drive system of the MAGIC telscopes, suitable for fast
     393The ultra fast drive system of the MAGIC telescopes, suitable for fast
    391394repositioning in case of Gamma-Ray Bursts, has been developed,
    392395commissioned and programmed by the W\"{u}rzburg group
     
    402405
    403406Mirror structures made of plastic material have been developed as
    404 Winston Cones for balloon flight experiments previously by the group of
     407Winston cones for balloon flight experiments previously by the group of
    405408Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge. W\"{u}rzburg has also participated in the development of
    406409a HPD test bench, which has been setup in Munich and W\"{u}rzburg. With
     
    413416flexible and modular enough to easily process DWARF data
    414417\citep{Bretz:2005paris,Riegel:2005icrc,Bretz:2005mars}. A method for
    415 absolute light calibration of the PMs based on Muon images has been
     418absolute light calibration of the PMs based on Muon images, especially
     419important for long-term monitoring, has been
    416420adapted and further improved for the MAGIC telescope
    417421\citep{Meyer:Diploma,Goebel:2005}. Both, data analysis and Monte Carlo
     
    420424developed to be powerful and as robust as possible to be best suited
    421425for automatic processing \citep{Dorner:2005paris}. Experience with
    422 large amount of data (up to 15\,TB/month) has been gained over five
    423 years now. The datacenter is equipped with a professional multi-stage
     426large amount of data (up to 8\,TB/month) has been gained since 2004.
     427The datacenter is equipped with a professional multi-stage
    424428(hierarchical) storage system. Two operators are paid by the physics
    425429faculty. Currently efforts in W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund are ongoing to
    426 turn the old inflexible Monte Carlo programs, used by the MAGIC
    427 collaboration, into modular packages which allows easy simulation of
     430turn the old, inflexible Monte Carlo programs, used by the MAGIC
     431collaboration, into modular packages allowing for easy simulation of
    428432other setups. Experience with Monte Carlo simulations, especially
    429433CORSIKA, is contributed by the Dortmund group, which has actively
     
    432436model \citep{Haffke:Dipl,Schroeder:PhD} for the local atmosphere of La
    433437Palma. Furthermore the group has developed high precision Monte Carlos
    434 for Lepton propagation in different media \citep{hepph0407075}. An
    435 energy unfolding method and program has been adapted for IceCube and
     438for Lepton propagation in different media
     439%\citep{hepph0407075}. An
     440\citep{xxx}.
     441An energy unfolding method and program has been adapted for IceCube and
    436442MAGIC data analysis \citep{Curtef:CM,Muenich:ICRC}.
    437443
    438444\paragraph{Phenomenology}
    439445
    440 Both groups further have experience with source models and theoretical
    441 computations of gamma ray and neutrino spectra expected from blazars.
     446Both groups have experience with source models and theoretical
     447computations of gamma-ray and neutrino spectra expected from blazars.
    442448The relation between the two messengers is a prime focus of interest.
    443449Experience with corresponding multi-messenger data analyses involving
    444450MAGIC and IceCube data is available in the Dortmund group. Research
    445451activities are also related with relativistic particle acceleration
    446 \citep{Meli} and gamma ray attenuation \citep{Kneiske}. The W\"{u}rzburg
     452\citep{Meli} and gamma-ray attenuation \citep{Kneiske}. The W\"{u}rzburg
    447453group has organized and carried out multi-wavelength observations of
    448 bright blazars involving MAGIC, Suzaku, the IRAM telescopes, and the
    449 optical KVA telescope \citep{Ruegamer}. Signatures of supermassive
     454bright blazars involving MAGIC, Suzaku, the IRAM telescopes and the
     455KVA optical telescope \citep{Ruegamer}. Signatures of supermassive
    450456black hole binaries, which are most relevant also for gravitational
    451457wave detectors, are investigated jointly with the German LISA
    452458consortium (Burkart, Elbracht ongoing research, funded by DLR).
    453 Secondary gamma rays due to dark matter annihilation events are
     459\mbox{Secondary} gamma-rays due to dark matter annihilation events are
    454460investigated both from their particle physics and astrophysics aspects.
    455461Another main focus of research is on models of radiation and particle
     
    466472
    467473The aim of the project is to put the former CT3 of the HEGRA
    468 collaboration on the Roque de los Muchachos back into operation - with
    469 an enlarged mirror surface, a new camera with higher quantum
    470 efficiency, and new fast data acquisition system, under the name of
    471 DWARF. The energy threshold will be lowered, and  the sensitivity of
    472 DWARF will be greatly improved compared to HEGRA CT3 (see
    473 figure~\ref{sensitivity}). Commissioning and the first year of data taking
    474 should be carried out within the three years of the requested funding
    475 period.
     474collaboration on the Roque de los Muchachos back into operation. It
     475will be setup, under the name DWARF, with an enlarged mirror surface
     476(fig.~\ref{DWARF}), a new camera with higher quantum efficiency and new
     477fast data acquisition system. The energy threshold will be lowered, and
     478the sensitivity of DWARF will be greatly improved compared to HEGRA CT3
     479(see fig.~\ref{sensitivity}). Commissioning and the first year of data
     480taking should be carried out within the three years of the requested
     481funding period.
    476482
    477483\begin{figure}[ht]
    478484\begin{center}
    479  \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{CT3.eps}
    480  \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{DWARF.eps}
    481  \caption{Left: The old HEGRA CT3 telescope as operated within the
    482  HEGRA Sytem. Right: A photomontage how the revised CT3 telescope
    483  could look like with more and hexagonal mirrors.}
     485 \includegraphics*[width=0.496\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{CT3.eps}
     486 \includegraphics*[width=0.496\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{DWARF.eps}
     487 \caption{The old CT3 telescope as operated within the
     488 HEGRA System (left) and a photomontage of the revised CT3 telescope
     489 with more and hexagonal mirrors (right).}
    484490\label{CT3}
    485491\label{DWARF}
     
    488494
    489495The telescope will be operated robotically to reduce costs and man
    490 power demands.  Furthermore, we seek to obtain know-how for the
     496power demands. Furthermore, we seek to obtain know-how for the
    491497operation of future networks of robotic Cherenkov telescopes (e.g. a
    492 monitoring array around the globe or CTA) or telescopes at inaccessible
    493 sites. From the experience with the construction and operation of MAGIC
    494 or HEGRA, the proposing groups consider the planned focused approach
    495 (small number of experienced scientists) as optimal for achieving the
    496 project goals. The available automatic analysis package developed by
    497 the W\"{u}rzburg group for MAGIC is modular and flexible, and can thus be
    498 used with minor changes for the DWARF project.
     498monitoring array around the globe or CTA) or telescopes at sited
     499difficult to access. From the experience with the construction and
     500operation of MAGIC or HEGRA, the proposing groups consider the planned
     501focused approach (small number of experienced scientists) as optimal
     502for achieving the project goals. The available automatic analysis
     503package developed by the W\"{u}rzburg group for MAGIC is modular and
     504flexible, and can thus be used with minor changes for the DWARF
     505project.
    499506
    500507\begin{figure}[htb]
     
    502509 \includegraphics*[width=0.7\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{visibility.eps}
    503510 \caption{Source visibility in hours per night versus month of the year
    504  for a maximum observation zenith angle of 65$^\circ$.
    505  Shown are all sources which we want to monitor including the CrabNebula
    506  necessary for calibration and quality assurance. }
     511 considering a maximum observation zenith angle of 65$^\circ$
     512 for all sources which we want to monitor including the Crab Nebula,
     513 necessary for calibration and quality assurance.}
    507514\label{visibility}
    508515\end{center}
     
    510517
    511518The scientific focus of the project will be on the long-term monitoring
    512 of bright, nearby VHE emitting blazars.  At least one of the proposed
    513 targets will be visible any time of the year (see figure~\ref{visibility}). For
    514 calibration purposes, some time will be scheduled for observations of
    515 the Crab nebula.  The blazar observations will allow
     519of bright, nearby VHE emitting blazars. At least one of the proposed
     520targets will be visible any time of the year (see
     521fig.~\ref{visibility}). For calibration purposes, some time will be
     522scheduled for observations of the Crab Nebula.\\
     523
     524The blazar observations will allow
    516525\begin{itemize}
    517 \item to determine the duty cycle, the baseline emission, and the power
     526\item to determine the baseline emission, the duty cycle and the power
    518527spectrum of flux variations.
    519528\item to cooperate with the Whipple monitoring telescope for an
     
    521530\item to prompt Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) observations with MAGIC in
    522531the case of flares increasing time resolution. Corresponding
    523 ToO proposals to H.E.S.S.\ and Veritas are in
    524 preparation.
     532ToO proposals to H.E.S.S.\ and VERITAS are in preparation.
    525533\item to observe simultaneously with MAGIC which will provide an
    526534extended bandwidth from below 100\,GeV to multi-TeV energies.
    527535\item to obtain multi-frequency observations together with the
    528 Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory and the optical Tuorla Observatory. The
    529 measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL and GLAST results, when
    530 available. x-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and Suzaku facilities will
    531 be proposed.
     536Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory and the optical telescopes of the
     537Tuorla Observatory. The measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL
     538and GLAST results, when available. X-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and
     539Suzaku facilities will be proposed.
     540
    532541\end{itemize}
    533542
     
    537546jets. We plan to interpret the data with models currently developed in
    538547the context of the Research Training Group {\em Theoretical
    539 Astrophysics} in W\"{u}rzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK\,1147), including 
     548Astrophysics} in W\"{u}rzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK\,1147), including
    540549particle-in-cell and hybrid MHD models.
    541550\item the black hole mass and accretion rate fitting the data with
    542 emission models.  Results will be compared with estimates of the black
    543 hole mass from  the Magorrian relation.
     551emission models. Results will be compared with estimates of the black
     552hole mass from the Magorrian relation.
    544553\item the flux of relativistic protons (ions) by correlating the rate
    545554of neutrinos detected with the neutrino telescope IceCube and the rate
    546 of gamma ray photons detected with DWARF, and thus the rate of escaping
     555of gamma-ray photons detected with DWARF, and thus the rate of escaping
    547556cosmic rays.
    548557\item the orbital modulation owing to a supermassive binary black hole.
     
    557566period of one year, the following steps are necessary:
    558567
    559 The work schedule assumes that the work will begin in January 2008,
     568The work schedule assumes, that the work will begin in January 2008,
    560569immediately after funding. Later funding would accordingly shift the
    561 schedule. Each year is divided into quarters (see figure~\ref{schedule}).
     570schedule. Each year is divided into quarters (see fig.~\ref{schedule}).
    562571
    563572\begin{figure}[htb]
    564573\begin{center}
    565  \includegraphics*[angle=0,clip]{schedule.eps}
     574 \includegraphics*[width=\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{schedule.eps}
    566575% \caption{Left: The old HEGRA CT3 telescope as operated within the
    567576% HEGRA Sytem. Right: A photomontage how the revised CT3 telescope
     
    574583\paragraph{Software}
    575584\begin{itemize}
    576 \item MC adaption (Do/W\"{u}): Due to the large similarities with the MAGIC telescope, within half a year new Monte Carlo code can be programmed using parts of the existing MAGIC Monte Carlo code. For tests and cross-checks another period of six months is necessary.
    577 \item Analysis adaption (W\"{u}): The modular concept of the Magic Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) allows a very fast adaption of the telescope setup, camera and data acquisition properties within half a year.
    578 \item Adaption Drive software (W\"{u}): Since the new drive electronics will be based on the design of the MAGIC II drive system the control software can be reused unchanged. The integration into the new slow control system will take about half a year. It has to be finished at the time of arrival of the drive system components in 2009/1.
    579 \item Slow control/DAQ (Do): A new data acquisition and slow control system for camera and auxiliary systems has to be developed. Based on experiences with the AMANDA DAQ, the Domino DAQ developed for MAGIC II will be adapted and the slow control integrated within three quarters of a year. Commissioning will take place with the full system in 2009/3.
     585\item MC adaption (Do/W\"{u}): Due to the large similarities with the
     586MAGIC telescope, within half a year new Monte Carlo code can be
     587programmed using parts of the existing MAGIC Monte Carlo code. For
     588tests and cross-checks another period of six months is necessary.
     589\item Analysis adaption (W\"{u}): The modular concept of the Magic
     590Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) allows a very fast adaption
     591of the telescope setup, camera and data acquisition properties within
     592half a year.
     593\item Adaption Drive software (W\"{u}): Since the new drive electronics
     594will be based on the design of the MAGIC~II drive system the control
     595software can be reused unchanged. The integration into the new slow
     596control system will take about half a year. It has to be finished at
     597the time of arrival of the drive system components in 2009/1.
     598\item Slow control/DAQ (Do): A new data acquisition and slow control
     599system for camera and auxiliary systems has to be developed. Based on
     600experiences with the AMANDA DAQ, the Domino DAQ developed for MAGIC~II
     601will be adapted and the slow control integrated within three quarters
     602of a year. Commissioning will take place with the full system in
     6032009/3.
    580604\end{itemize}
    581605
    582 \paragraph{Mirrors (W\"{u})} First prototypes for the mirrors are already available. After testing (six months), the production will start in summer 2008 and shipment will be finished before the full system assembly 2009/2.
    583 \paragraph{Drive (W\"{u})} After a planning phase of half a year to simplify the MAGIC II drive system for a smaller telescope (together with the delivering company), ordering, production and shipment should be finished in 2009/1. The MAGIC I and II drive systems have been planned and implemented successfully by the Wuerzburg group.
    584 \paragraph{Auxiliary (W\"{u})} Before the final setup in 2009/1, all auxiliary systems (weather station, computers, etc.) will have been specified, ordered and shipped.
    585 \paragraph{Camera (Do)} The camera has to be ready six month after the shipment of the other mechanical parts of the telescope. For this purpose camera tests have to take place in 2009/2, which requires the assembly of the camera within six months before. By now, a PM test bench which allows to finish planning and ordering of the camera parts and PMs until summer 2008, before the construction begins, is set up in Dortmund. In addition to the manpower permanently provided by Dortmund for production and commissioning, two engineers will participate in the construction phase.
    586 \paragraph{Full System (Do/W\"{u})} The full system will be assembled after delivering of all parts in the beginning of spring 2009. Start of the commissioning is planned four months later. First light is expected in autumn 2009. This would allow an immediate full system test with a well measured, strong and steady source (CrabNebula). After the commissioning phase will have been finished in spring 2010, full robotic operation will be provided.
     606\paragraph{Mirrors (W\"{u})} First prototypes for the mirrors are
     607already available. After testing (six months), the production will
     608start in summer 2008, and the shipment will be finished before the full
     609system assembly 2009/2.
     610\paragraph{Drive (W\"{u})} After a planning phase of half a year to
     611simplify the MAGIC~II drive system for a smaller telescope (together
     612with the delivering company), ordering, production and shipment should
     613be finished in 2009/1. The MAGIC~I and~II drive systems have been
     614planned and implemented successfully by the W\"{u}rzburg group.
     615\paragraph{Auxiliary (W\"{u})} Before the final setup in 2009/1, all
     616auxiliary systems (weather station, computers, etc.) will have been
     617specified, ordered and shipped.
     618\paragraph{Camera (Do)} The camera has to be ready six month after the
     619shipment of the other mechanical parts of the telescope. For this
     620purpose camera tests have to take place in 2009/2, which requires the
     621assembly of the camera within six months before. By now, a PM test
     622bench is set up in Dortmund, which allows to finish planning and
     623ordering of parts of the camera, including the PMs, until summer 2008,
     624before the construction begins.
     625In addition to the manpower permanently provided by Dortmund
     626for production and commissioning, two engineers will participate in the
     627construction phase.
     628\paragraph{Full System (Do/W\"{u})} The full system will be assembled
     629after the delivery of all parts in the beginning of spring 2009. Start of
     630the commissioning is planned four months later. First light is expected
     631in autumn 2009. This would allow an immediate full system test with a
     632well measured, strong and steady source (Crab Nebula). After the
     633commissioning phase will have been finished in spring 2010, complete
     634robotic operation will be provided.
    587635
    588636Based on the experience with setting up the MAGIC telescope we estimate
     
    600648\section[4]{Funds requested (Beantragte Mittel)}
    601649
    602 We request funding for a total of three years. Summarizing, the
    603 expenses for the telescope are dominated by the camera and data
    604 acquisition.
     650Summarizing, the expenses for the telescope are dominated by the camera
     651and data acquisition. We request funding for a total of three years.
    605652%The financial volume for the complete hardware inclusive
    606653%transport amounts to {\bf 372.985,-\,\euro}.
     
    609656
    610657For this period, we request funding for two postdocs and two PhD
    611 students, one in Dortmund and one in W\"{u}rzburg each. The staff
    612 members shall fulfill the tasks given in the work schedule above. To
    613 cover these tasks completely, one additional PhD and a various number
    614 of Diploma students will complete the working group.
     658students, one in Dortmund and one in W\"{u}rzburg each (3\,x\,TV-L13).The
     659staff members shall fulfill the tasks given in the work schedule above.
     660To cover these tasks completely, one additional PhD and a various
     661number of Diploma students will complete the working group.
    615662
    616663Suitable candidates interested in these positions are Dr.\ Thomas
     
    623670At the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site,
    624671the mount of the former HEGRA telescope CT3 now owned by the MAGIC
    625 collaboration is still operational. One hut for electronics close to
     672collaboration is still serviceable. One hut for electronics close to
    626673the telescope is available. Additional space is available in the MAGIC
    627674counting house. The MAGIC Memorandum of Understanding allows for
     
    631678
    632679To achieve the planned sensitivity and threshold
    633 (figure~\ref{sensitivity}) the following components have to be bought.
     680(fig.~\ref{sensitivity}), the following components have to be bought.
    634681To obtain reliable results as fast as possible well known components
    635682have been chosen.
     
    640687\citep{Juan:2000,MAGICsensi,Vassiliev:1999}
    641688and the expectation for DWARF, with both a PMT- and a
    642 GAPD-camera. It is based on the sensitivity of
    643 HEGRA~CT1, scaled by the improvements mentioned in the text.
     689GAPD-camera, scaled from the sensitivity of
     690HEGRA~CT1 by the improvements mentioned in the text.
    644691} \label{sensitivity} }
    645692\end{figure}
    646693\clearpage
    647 {\bf Camera}\dotfill 207.550,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     694{\bf Camera}\dotfill 206.450,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
    648695\begin{quote}
    649696   To setup a camera with 313 pixels the following components are needed:\\
    650697   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
    651698   Photomultiplier Tube EMI\,9083B\hfill 220,-\,\euro\\
    652    Active voltage divider ({\bf !!!!})\hfill 80,-\,\euro\\
    653    High voltage support and control\hfill {\bf 300,-}\,\euro\\
     699   Active voltage divider (EMI)\hfill 80,-\,\euro\\
     700   High voltage support and control\hfill 300,-\,\euro\\
    654701   Preamplifier\hfill 50,-\,\euro\\
    655702   Spare parts (overall)\hfill 3000,-\,\euro\\
     
    659706criterion. To keep the systematic errors small, a good background
    660707estimation is mandatory. The only possibility for a synchronous
    661 determination of the background is the determination from the night-sky
     708determination of the background is the measurement from the night-sky
    662709observed in the same field-of-view with the same instrument. To achieve
    663710this, the observed position is moved out of the camera center which
    664711allows the estimation of the background from positions symmetric with
    665 respect to the camera center (so called wobble-mode). This observation
    666 mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$,
    667 because spending observation time for dedicated background observations
    668 becomes obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This
    669 ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources.
    670 
     712respect to the camera center (so called Wobble mode). This observation
     713mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because
     714spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes
     715obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This
     716ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources.\\
    671717A further increase in sensitivity can be achieved by better background
    672718statistics from not only one but several independent positions for the
    673 background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. For wobble mode
    674 observations allowing for this, the source position should be shifted
     719background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. To allow for
     720this the source position in Wobble mode should be shifted
    675721$0.6^\circ-0.7^\circ$ out of the camera center.
    676 %}
    677 
    678 A camera completely containing shower images of events in the energy
     722
     723A camera completely containing the shower images of events in the energy
    679724region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of
    6807255$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera
     
    686731 \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam271.eps}
    687732 \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam313.eps}
    688  \caption{Left: Schematic picture of the 271 pixel CT-3 camera with a field of view of 4.6$^\circ$.
     733 \caption{Left: Schematic picture of the 271 pixel CT3 camera with a field of view of 4.6$^\circ$.
    689734 Right: Schematic picture of the 313 pixel camera for DWARF with a field of view of 5$^\circ$.}
    690735\label{camCT3}
     
    693738\end{figure}
    694739
    695 Therefor a camera with 313 pixel camera (see figure~\ref{camDWARF}) is
     740Therefore a camera with 313 pixel camera (see fig.~\ref{camDWARF}) is
    696741chosen. The camera will be built based on the experience with HEGRA and
    697 MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083\,KFLA-UD)
     742MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083B/KFLA-UD)
    698743will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). They have
    699 a 25\% improved quantum efficiency (see figure~\ref{qe}) and ensure a
     744a quantum efficiency improved by 25\% (see fig.~\ref{qe}) and ensure a
    700745granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the
    701746energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be
     
    708753cameras.
    709754
    710 {\bf At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the
     755At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the
    711756ability, i.e.\ stability, aging, quantum efficiency, etc., of using
    712 Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon
    713 detector in the camera of a Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are
    714 extremely high quantum efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and
    715 simplified application compared to classical PMs. If these test
    716 measurements are successfully finished until 8/2008 we consider to use
    717 GAPDs in favor of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take
    718 place at University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts
    719 from ETH. Construction would also take place at the electronics
    720 workshop of Dortmund.}
     757Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon detectors in the camera of a
     758Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are an extremely high quantum
     759efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and simplified
     760application compared to classical PMs. If these test measurements are
     761successfully finished until 8/2008, we consider to use GAPDs in favor
     762of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take place at
     763University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts from ETH.
     764The construction would also take place at the electronics workshop of
     765Dortmund.
    721766
    722767\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
    723768
    724 {\bf Camera support}\dotfill 204.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     769{\bf Camera support}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
    725770\begin{quote}
    726771For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500,-\,\euro)
    727772The camera chassis must be water tight and will be equipped with an
    728 automatic lid protecting the PMs at day-time. For further protection, a
     773automatic lid, protecting the PMs at daytime. For further protection, a
    729774plexi-glass window will be installed in front of the camera. By coating
    730775this window with an anti-reflex layer of magnesium-fluoride, a gain in
    731 transmission of {\bf 5\%} is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a
    732 light-guide (Winston Cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in
    733 operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000,-\,\euro\ for all winston cones). The
     776transmission of 5\% is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a
     777light-guide (Winston cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in
     778operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000,-\,\euro\ for all Winston cones). The
    734779current design will be improved by using a high reflectivity aluminized
    735780Mylar mirror-foil, coated with a dialectical layer ($Si\,O_2$
     
    738783planned.
    739784
    740 In total a gain of {\bf $\sim$15\%} in light-collection
    741 efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be acheived.
     785In total a gain of $\sim$15\% in light-collection
     786efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be achieved.
    742787\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
    743788
     
    751796%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
    752797For the data acquisition system a hardware readout based on an analog
    753 ring buffer (Domino\ II/III), currently developed for the MAGIC\ II
     798ring buffer (Domino\ II/IV), currently developed for the MAGIC~II
    754799readout, will be used \citep{Barcelo}. This technology allows to sample
    755800the pulses with high frequencies and readout several channels with a
    756801single Flash-ADC resulting in low costs. The low power consumption will
    757 allow to include the digitization near the signal source which makes
    758 the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. The advantage is less
    759 pick-up noise and less signal dispersion. By high sampling rates
     802allow to include the digitization near the signal source making
     803the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. This results in less
     804pick-up noise and reduces the signal dispersion. By high sampling rates
    760805(1.2\,GHz), additional information about the pulse shape can be
    761806obtained. This increases the over-all sensitivity further, because the
    762807short integration time allows for almost perfect suppression of noise
    763 due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger- (readout-)
    764 rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which allows
    765 to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system like
    766 USB\,2.0.
     808due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger-, i.e.\
     809readout-rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which
     810allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system,
     811like USB\,2.0.
    767812
    768813%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
    769814Current results obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC
    770 data acquisition show that for a single telescope a sensitivity
     815data acquisition show, that for a single telescope a sensitivity
    771816improvement of 40\% with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}.
    772817
    773 As for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is
     818Like for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is
    774819sufficient, but also a simple neighbor-logic could be programmed (both
    775820cases $\sim$100,-\,\euro/channel).
    776821
    777822Additional data reduction and preprocessing within the readout chain is
    778 provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz the storage
     823provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz, the storage
    779824space needed will be less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount
    780825of data can easily be stored and processed by the W\"{u}rzburg
     
    785830%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
    786831\begin{quote}
    787 The existing mirrors are replaced by new plastic mirrors which are
    788 currently developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and
    789 light-weight material has been formerly used for Winston cones in
    790 balloon experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master coated with a
     832The existing mirrors will be replaced by new plastic mirrors currently
     833developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and light-weight
     834material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon
     835experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master and coated with a
    791836reflecting and a protective material. Tests have given promising
    792837results. By a change of the mirror geometry, the mirror area can be
    793838increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture~\ref{CT3} and
    794 montage~\ref{DWARF}); this includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per
     839montage~\ref{DWARF}). This includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per
    795840mirror by using a hexagonal layout instead of a round one. A further
    796841increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of
     
    803848
    804849In both cases the mirrors can be coated with the same high reflectivity
    805 aluminized Mylar mirror-foil, and a dialectical layer of SiO2 as for
    806 the Winston Cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is
    807 achieved, see figure~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}.
    808 
    809 Both solutions would require the same expenses.
     850aluminized Mylar mirror-foil and a dialectical layer of $SiO_2$ as for
     851the Winston cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is
     852achieved, see fig.~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}. Both
     853solutions would require the same expenses.
    810854
    811855To keep track of the alignment, reflectivity and optical quality of the
     
    814858adjustment system, as developed by ETH~Z\"{u}rich and successfully
    815859operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended.
    816 \begin{figure}[p]
    817 \centering{
    818 \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{cherenkov.eps}
    819 \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{reflectivity.eps}
    820 \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{qe.eps}
    821 \caption{Top to bottom: The cherenkov spectrum as observed by a
    822 telescope located at 2000\,m above sea level. The mirror's reflectivity
    823 of a 300\,nm thick aluminum layer with a protection layer of 10\,nm and
    824 100\,nm thickness respectively. For comparison the reflectivity of
    825 HEGRA CT1's mirrors \citep{Kestel:2000} are shown. The bottom plot depicts
    826 the quantum efficiency of the prefered PMs (EMI) together with the
    827 predecessor used in CT1. A proper coating \citep{Paneque:2004} will
    828 further enhance its effciency. An even better increase would be the
    829 usage of Geiger-mode APDs.}
    830 
    831 \label{cherenkov}
    832 \label{reflectivity}
    833 \label{qe}
    834 }
    835 \end{figure}
    836860
    837861%<grey>The system
     
    839863
    840864%{\bf For a diameter mirror of less than 2.4\,m, the delay between an
    841 %parabolic (isochronus) and a spherical mirror shape at the edge is well
     865%parabolic (isochronous) and a spherical mirror shape at the edge is well
    842866%below 1ns (see figure). Thus for a sampling rate of 1.2\,GHz parabolic
    843867%individual mirrors are not needed. Due to their small size the
     
    846870\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
    847871
    848 {\bf Calibration System}\dotfill 6.650,-\,\euro+IPR?\\[-3ex]
     872{\bf Calibration System}\dotfill 9.650,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
    849873\begin{quote}
    850874Components\\
    851875   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
    852876   Absolute light calibration\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
    853    Individual pixel rate control\hfill ???,-\,\euro\\
     877   Individual pixel rate control\hfill 3.000,-\,\euro\\
    854878   Weather station\hfill 500,-\,\euro\\
    855879   GPS clock\hfill 1.500,-\,\euro\\
     
    858882%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
    859883For the absolute light calibration (gain-calibration) of the PMs a
    860 calibration box as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope will be
     884calibration box, as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope, will be
    861885produced.
    862886
    863887To ensure a homogeneous acceptance of the camera, essential for
    864 wobble-mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels
     888Wobble mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels
    865889will be measured and controlled.
    866890
    867 To correct for axis misalignments and possible deformations of the
    868 structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts), a pointing correction
    869 algorithm as used in the MAGIC tracking system will be applied. It is
     891For a correction of axis misalignments and possible deformations of the
     892structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts) a pointing correction
     893algorithm will be applied, as used in the MAGIC tracking system. It is
    870894calibrated by measurements of the reflection of bright guide stars on
    871895the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel
    872896diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as for
    873 MAGIC\ I and~II, ({\bf 300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics,
    874 300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ Frame grabber}) will be installed.
     897MAGIC\ I and~II, (300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics,
     898300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ frame grabber) will be installed.
    875899
    876900A second identical CCD camera for online monitoring (starguider) will
    877901be bought.
    878902
    879 A GPS clock is necessary for an accurate tracking. The weather station
     903For an accurate tracking a GPS clock is necessary. The weather station
    880904helps judging the data quality.
    881905%}\\[2ex]
    882906\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
    883 
    884907
    885908{\bf Computing}\dotfill 12.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     
    904927\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
    905928
     929%%%%%%%%%%%%%% PLOTS HERE???? %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
     930
    906931{\bf Mount and Drive}\dotfill 17.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
    907932\begin{quote}
    908933%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
    909934The present mount is used. Only a smaller investment for safety,
    910 corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro). 
    911 
    912 For the movement, motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the
    913 order of 10.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated
    914 with the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF
    915 drive system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three
     935corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro).
     936
     937Motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of
     93810.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with
     939the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF drive
     940system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three
    916941reasons: (i)~Fast movement might be mandatory for future ToO
    917 observations. (ii)~Wobble-mode observations will be done changing the
    918 wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons. (iii)~To
    919 ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at the same
    920 time, the observed source will be changed in constant time intervals
    921 ($\sim$20\,min).
    922 
    923 Therefore three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A
     942observations. (ii)~Wobble mode observations will be done changing the
     943Wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons.
     944(iii)~To ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at
     945the same time, the observed source will be changed in constant time
     946intervals.
     947
     948For the drive system three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A
    924949micro-controller based motion control unit (Siemens SPS L\,20) similar to
    925950the one of the current MAGIC~II drive system will be used. For
    926 communication with the readout-system, a standard ethernet connection
     951communication with the readout-system, a standard Ethernet connection
    927952based on the TCP/IP- and UDP-protocol will be setup.
    928953%}\\[2ex]
     
    940965telescope position at the time of sunrise.
    941966
    942 A fence for protection in case of robotic movement will be
     967For protection in case of robotic movement a fence will be
    943968installed.%}\\[2ex]
    944969\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
     
    951976%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
    952977For remote, robotic operation a variety of remote controllable electronic
    953 components such as ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be
     978components such as Ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be
    954979bought. Monitoring equipment, for example different kind of sensors, is
    955980also mandatory.%}\\[2ex]
     
    957982\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
    958983\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.2:\hfill{\bf
    959 342.235,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
     984340.635,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
    960985\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
    961986\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
     987
     988\begin{figure}[p]
     989\centering{
     990\includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{cherenkov.eps}
     991\includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{reflectivity.eps}
     992\includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{qe.eps}
     993\caption{Top to bottom: The Cherenkov spectrum as observed by a
     994telescope located at 2000\,m above sea level. The mirror's reflectivity
     995of a 300\,nm thick aluminum layer with a protection layer of 10\,nm and
     996100\,nm thickness respectively. For comparison the reflectivity of
     997HEGRA CT1's mirrors \citep{Kestel:2000} are shown. The bottom plot depicts
     998the quantum efficiency of the preferred PMs (EMI) together with the
     999predecessor used in CT1. A proper coating \citep{Paneque:2004} will
     1000further enhance its efficiency. An even better increase would be the
     1001usage of Geiger-mode APDs.}
     1002
     1003\label{cherenkov}
     1004\label{reflectivity}
     1005\label{qe}
     1006}
     1007\end{figure}
    9621008
    9631009\subsection[4.3]{Consumables (Verbrauchsmaterial)}
     
    9661012%   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.9\textwidth}
    9671013   10 LTO\,4 tapes (8\,TB)\dotfill 750,-\,\euro\\
    968    Consumables (overalls) tools and materials\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro
     1014   Consumables (overalls): tools and materials\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro
    9691015%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
    9701016\end{quote}
     
    9761022\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
    9771023
    978 \subsection[4.4]{Reisen (Travel expenses)}
     1024\subsection[4.4]{Travel expenses (Reisen)}
    9791025The large amount of travel funding is required due to the very close
    9801026cooperation between Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg and the work demands on
     
    10091055
    10101056
    1011 \subsection[4.5]{Publikationskosten (Publication costs)}
     1057\subsection[4.5]{Publication costs (Publikationskosten)}
    10121058Will be covered by the proposing institutes.
    10131059
     
    10371083\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}
    10381084\setlength{\parsep}{0pt}
    1039 \item Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode (Grundausttattung)
     1085\item Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode (Grundauststattung)
    10401086\item Dr.\ Tanja Kneiske (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), DFG-Forschungsstipendium)
    10411087\item Dr.\ Julia Becker (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), Drittmittel)
    10421088\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Kirsten M"unich (Doktorand (IceCube), Drittmittel)
    1043 \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jens Dreyer (Doktorand (IceCube), Grundausttattung)
     1089\item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jens Dreyer (Doktorand (IceCube), Grundauststattung)
    10441090\item M.Sc.\ Valentin Curtef (Doktorand (MAGIC), Grundausstattung)
    10451091\item cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes (Diplomand (MAGIC), zum F"orderbeginn diplomiert)
     
    10781124\originalTeX
    10791125
    1080 \subsection[5.2]{Co-operation with other scientists\\(Zusammenarbeit mit
     1126\subsection[5.2]{Cooperation with other scientists\\(Zusammenarbeit mit
    10811127anderen Wissenschaftlern)}
    10821128
    1083 Both applying groups co-operate with the international
    1084 MAGIC-Collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W\"{u}rzburg
     1129Both applying groups cooperate with the international
     1130MAGIC collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W\"{u}rzburg
    10851131funded by the BMBF, Dortmund by means of appointment for the moment).
    10861132
     
    10961142The group in Dortmund is involved in the IceCube experiment (BMBF
    10971143funding) and maintains close contacts to the collaboration partners.
    1098 Moreover on the field of phenomenology there do exist good working
    1099 contacts to the groups of Prof.~Dr.~Reinhard Schlickeiser,
    1100 Ruhr-Universit\"{a}t Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter Biermann, MPIfR Bonn.
    1101 There are furthermore intense contacts to Prof.~Dr.~Francis Halzen,
    1102 Madison, Wisconsin.
     1144Moreover on the field of phenomenology good working contacts exist to
     1145the groups of Prof.~Dr.~Reinhard Schlickeiser, Ruhr-Universit\"{a}t
     1146Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter Biermann, MPIfR Bonn. There are furthermore
     1147intense contacts to Prof.~Dr.~Francis Halzen, Madison, Wisconsin.
    11031148
    11041149The telescope design will be worked out in close cooperation with the
     
    11061151Prof.~Dr.~Eckart Lorenz (ETH~Z\"{u}rich). They will provide help in design
    11071152studies, construction and software development. The DAQ design will be
    1108 contributed by the group of Prof.~Dr.~Riccardo Paoletti (Università di
     1153contributed by the group of Prof.~Dr.~Riccardo Paoletti (Universit\`{a} di
    11091154Siena and INFN sez.\ di Pisa, Italy).
    11101155
    1111 The group of the newly appointed {\em Lehrstuhl f\"{u}r Physik und Ihre
     1156The group of the newly appointed {\em Lehrstuhl f\"{u}r Physik und ihre
    11121157Didaktik} (Prof.~Dr.~Thomas Trefzger) has expressed their interest to
    11131158join the project. They bring in a laboratory for photo-sensor testing,
     
    11201165The work on DWARF will take place at the ORM on the Spanish island La
    11211166Palma. It will be performed in close collaboration with the
    1122 MAGIC-Collaboration.
     1167MAGIC collaboration.
    11231168
    11241169\subsection[5.4]{Scientific equipment available (Apparative
     
    11271172storage as well as for data analysis are available.
    11281173
    1129 The faculty of physics at the University of Dortmund has modern
     1174The faculty of physics at the University Dortmund has modern
    11301175equipped mechanical and electrical workshops including a department for
    11311176development of electronics at its command. The chair of astroparticle
     
    11841229\end{minipage}\hfill~
    11851230
     1231\thispagestyle{empty}
     1232\newpage
     1233x
     1234\thispagestyle{empty}
    11861235\newpage
    11871236\paragraph{8 List of appendices (Verzeichnis der Anlagen)}
     
    11971246\item Letter of Support from the IceCube collaboration
    11981247\item Letter of Support from KVA optical telescope
     1248\item Email with offer from EMI for the PMs
    11991249\end{itemize}
    1200 
    12011250\newpage
    1202 %\section{References}
    1203 
    1204 (References of our groups are marked by an asterix *)
     1251x
     1252\thispagestyle{empty}
     1253\newpage
     1254
     1255%(References of our groups are marked by an asterix *)
    12051256\bibliography{application}
    12061257\bibliographystyle{plainnat}
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