# Changeset 8777

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Timestamp:
Dec 7, 2007, 11:23:42 PM (13 years ago)
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 r8774 \maketitle %\tableofcontents \newpage x \thispagestyle{empty} \cleardoublepage \newpage \section[1]{General Information (Allgemeine Angaben)} {44221 Dortmund             }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{58285 Gevelsberg}\\ {Germany                    }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Germany         }\\[0.5ex] {\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(231)\,755-3550}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(931)\, }\\ {\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(231)\,755-3550}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(173)\,284\,79\,10}\\ {\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Fax:}+49\,(231)\,755-4547}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{~}\\\hline\hline \multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: wolfgang.rhode@udo.edu}\\\hline {97074 W"urzburg            }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{97299 Zell am Main      }\\ {Germany                    }&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Germany                 }\\[0.5ex] {\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(931)\,888-5031}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:} }\\ {\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone:}+49\,(931)\,888-5031}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Phone: +49\,(931)\,404\,81\,90} }\\ {\parbox[t]{1.5cm}{Fax:}+49\,(931)\,888-4603}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{~}\\\hline\hline \multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: mannhein@astro.uni-wuerzbueg.de}\\\hline \multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: mannheim@astro.uni-wuerzbueg.de}\\\hline \end{tabular} \originalTeX \newpage %\paragraph{1.2 Topic}~\\ \subsection[1.2]{Topic} \paragraph{1.2 Topic}~\\ %\subsection[1.2]{Topic} Long-term VHE $\gamma$-ray monitoring of bright blazars with a dedicated Cherenkov telescope %\paragraph{1.2 Thema}~\\ \subsection[1.2]{Thema} \paragraph{1.2 Thema}~\\ %\subsection[1.2]{Thema} Langzeitbeobachtung von hellen VHE $\gamma$-Blazaren mit einem dedizierten Cherenkov Teleskop %\paragraph{1.3 Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}~\\ \subsection[1.3]{Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)} \paragraph{1.3 Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}~\\ %\subsection[1.3]{Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)} Astronomy and Astrophysics, Particle Astrophysics %\paragraph{\bf 1.4 Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}~\\ \subsection[1.4]{Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)} \paragraph{\bf 1.4 Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}~\\ %\subsection[1.4]{Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)} After successful completion of the three-year work plan developed in this proposal, we will ask for an extension of the project for another of supermassive binary black holes. %\paragraph{\bf 1.5 Application period (Antragszeitraum)}~\\ \subsection[1.5]{Application period (Antragszeitraum)} \paragraph{\bf 1.5 Application period (Antragszeitraum)}~\\ %\subsection[1.5]{Application period (Antragszeitraum)} 3\,years. The work on the project will begin immediately after the funding. funding. \newpage %\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Summary}~\\ \subsection[1.6]{Summary} We propose to set up a robotic imaging air Cherenkov telescope with low cost, but high performance design for remote operation. The goal is to \paragraph{\bf 1.6 Summary}~\\ %\subsection[1.6]{Summary} We propose to set up a robotic imaging air-Cherenkov telescope with low cost, but a high performance design for remote operation. The goal is to dedicate this gamma-ray telescope to long-term monitoring observations of nearby, bright blazars at very high energies. We will (i) search for origin, and (iii) correlate the data with corresponding data from the neutrino observatory IceCube to search for evidence of hadronic emission processes. The observations will also trigger follow-up emission processes. The observations will furthermore trigger follow-up observations of flares with higher sensitivity telescopes such as MAGIC, VERITAS, and H.E.S.S.\ Joint observations with the Whipple MAGIC, VERITAS and H.E.S.S.\ Joint observations with the Whipple monitoring telescope will start a future 24\,h-monitoring of selected sources with a distributed network of robotic telescopes. The telescope design is based on a full technological upgrade of one of the former design is based on a complete technological upgrade of one of the former telescopes of the HEGRA collaboration (CT3) still located at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos on the Canarian Island La Palma \germanTeX %\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Zusammenfassung}~\\ \subsection[1.6]{Zusammenfassung} \paragraph{\bf 1.6 Zusammenfassung}~\\ %\subsection[1.6]{Zusammenfassung} {\bf Unser Vorhaben besteht darin, ein robotisches Luft-Cherenkov-Teleskop mit geringen Kosten aber hoher Leistung fernsteuerbar in Betrieb zu nehmen. Das Ziel ist es, dieses gamma-ray Teleskop ganz der nehmen. Das Ziel ist es, dieses Gammastrahlen Teleskop ganz der Langzeitbeobachtung von nahen, hellen Blazaren bei sehr hohen Energien zu widmen. Wir werden (i) nach Modulationen der Blazar-Emission durch Statistik von gamma-Ausbr"uchen und deren physikalischen Ursprung untersuchen und (iii) die Daten mit entsprechenden Daten von dem Neutrino-Telskop IceCube korrelieren, um Nachweise f"ur hadronische Neutrino-Teleskop IceCube korrelieren, um Nachweise f"ur hadronische Emissionsprozesse zu finden. Die Beobachtungen werden zus"atzlich Nachfolgebeobachtungen von gamma-Ausbr"uchen mit h"ohersensitiven Teleskopen wie MAGIC, VERITAS und H.E.S.S.\ triggern. Auf einander Teleskopen wie MAGIC, VERITAS und H.E.S.S.\ triggern. Aufeinander abgestimmte Beobachtungen zusammen mit dem Whipple Teleskop werden der Auftakt zu einer zuk"unftigen 24-Stunden-Beobachtung von selektierten \newpage \section[2]{Stand der Forschung, eigene Vorarbeiten\\(Science case, preliminary work by proposer)} \section[2]{Science case, preliminary work by proposer\\(Stand der Forschung, eigene Vorarbeiten)} \subsection[2.1]{Science case (Stand der Forschung)} Since the termination of the HEGRA observations, the succeeding experiments MAGIC and H.E.S.S. have impressively extended the physical scope of gamma ray astronomy detecting tens of formerly unknown gamma ray sources and analyzing their energy spectra, morphology, and experiments MAGIC and H.E.S.S.\ have impressively extended the physical scope of gamma-ray astronomy detecting tens of formerly unknown gamma-ray sources and analyzing their energy spectra, morphology and temporal behavior. This became possible by lowering the energy threshold from 700\,GeV to less than 100\,GeV and increasing at the same time the sensitivity by a factor of five. A diversity of astrophysical source types such as pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants, microquasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, clusters of galaxies, gamma ray bursts and blazars have been studied with these telescopes. micro-quasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Gamma-Ray Bursts and blazars have been studied with these telescopes. The main class of extragalactic, very high energy gamma-rays sources long-wavelength radio waves to multi-TeV gamma-rays. In addition, blazars are characterized by rapid variability, high degrees of polarization, and super-luminal motion of knots in their polarization, and superluminal motion of knots in their high-resolution radio images. The observed behavior can readily be explained assuming relativistic bulk motion and in situ particle acceleration, e.g. at shock waves, leading to synchrotron acceleration, e.g.\ at shock waves, leading to synchrotron (radio-to-x-ray) and self-Compton (gamma-ray) emission \citep{Blandford}. Additionally, inverse Compton scattering of external photons may play a role in producing the observed gamma rays \citep{Dermer,Begelman}. role in producing the observed gamma-rays \citep{Dermer,Begelman}. Variability may hold the key to understanding the details of the emission processes and the source geometry, and the development of time-dependent models is currently on the agenda of model builders emission processes and the source geometry. The development of time-dependent models is currently under investigation worldwide. ambient matter, will quickly dominate the momentum flow of the jet. This {\em baryon pollution} has been suggested to solve the energy transport problem in gamma ray bursts, and is probably present in transport problem in Gamma-Ray Bursts and is probably present in blazar jets as well, even if they originate as pair jets in a black hole ergosphere \citep{Meszaros}. Protons and ions accelerated in the jets of blazars can reach extremely high energies before energy losses jets of blazars can reach extremely high energies, before energy losses become important \citep{Mannheim:1993}. Escaping particles contribute to the observed flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in a major way. Blazars and their unbeamed hosts, the radio galaxies, are thus the prime candidates for origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays \citep{Rachen}, and this can be investigated with the IceCube and AUGER \citep{Rachen}. This can be investigated with the IceCube and AUGER experiments. Recent results of the AUGER experiment show a significant anisotropy of the highest energy cosmic rays and point at either nearby with magnetic confinement \citep{Mannheim:1995}. Short variability time scales can result from dynamical changes of the emission zone, running e.g. through an inhomogeneous environment. e.g.\ through an inhomogeneous environment. The contemporaneous spectral energy distributions for hadronic and model \citep{Mannheim:1999}. These properties allow conclusions about the accelerated particles. Noteworthy, even for nearby blazars the spectrum must be corrected for attenuation of the gamma rays due to the spectrum must be corrected for attenuation of the gamma-rays due to pair production in collisions with low-energy photons from the extragalactic background radiation field \citep{Kneiske}. generally showing the largest amplitudes and the shortest time scales at the highest energies. Recently, a doubling time scale of two minutes has been observed in a flare of Mrk\,501 with the MAGIC telescope \citep{Albert:501}. A giant flare of PKS\,2155-304 discovered by H.E.S.S.\ \citep{Aharonian:2007pks} has shown similarly short doubling time scales and a flux of up to 16 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. Indications for TeV flares without evidence for an accompanying x-ray flare, coined orphan flares, have been observed, questioning the has been observed in a flare of Mrk\,501 with the MAGIC telescope \citep{Albert:501}. A giant flare of PKS\,2155-304 discovered by H.E.S.S.\ \citep{Aharonian:2007pks} has shown similarly short doubling time scales and a flux of up to 16 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. Indications for TeV flares without evidence for an accompanying x-ray flare, coined orphan flares, have been observed, questioning the synchrotron-self-Compton mechanism being responsible for the gamma-rays. Model ramifications involving several emission components, external seed photons, or hadronically induced emission may solve the problem \citep{Blazejowski}. Certainly, the database for contemporaneous multi-wavelength observations is still far from proving the synchrotron-self-Compton model. problem \citep{Blazejowski}. Certainly, the database for contemporaneous multi-wavelength observations is still far from proving the synchrotron-self-Compton model. Generally, observations of flares are prompted by optical or x-ray wave luminosity is spectacularly high, even long before final coalescence and the frequencies are favorable for the detectors under consideration (LISA). Detection of gravitational waves relies on exact consideration (LISA). The detection of gravitational waves relies on exact templates to filter out the signals and the templates can be computed from astrophysical constraints on the orbits and masses of the black Mrk\,501 during a phase of high activity in 1997 was reported by HEGRA \citep{Kranich}, and was later confirmed including x-ray and Teleacope Array data \citep{Osone}. The observations can be explained in Telescope Array data \citep{Osone}. The observations can be explained in a supermassive black hole binary scenario \citep{Rieger:2000}. Indications for helical trajectories and periodic modulation of optical exposure simultaneous to the VHE observations, and this is a new qualitative step for blazar research. For the same reasons, the VERITAS Collaboration keeps the former Whipple telescope alive, albeit its collaboration keeps the former Whipple telescope alive, albeit its performance seems to have strongly degraded. It is obvious that the large Cherenkov telescopes such as MAGIC, H.E.S.S.\ or VERITAS are mainly Assuming conservatively the performance of a single HEGRA-type telescope, long-term monitoring of at least the following known blazars is possible: Mrk\,421, Mrk\,501, 1ES\,2344+514, 1ES\,1959+650, H\,1426+428, PKS\,2155-304. We emphasize that DWARF will run as a telescope, long-term monitor\-ing of at least the following known blazars is possible: Mrk\,421, Mrk\,501, 1ES\,2344+514, 1ES\,1959+650, H\,1426+428, PKS\,2155-304. We emphasize, that DWARF will run as a facility dedicated to these targets only, providing a maximum observation time for the program. Utilizing recent developments, such of Amanda, IceCube, HEGRA and MAGIC the proposing groups contribute the necessary knowledge and experience to build and operate a small imaging air Cherenkov telescope. air-Cherenkov telescope. \paragraph{Hardware} development departure of the faculty. The ultra fast drive system of the MAGIC telscopes, suitable for fast The ultra fast drive system of the MAGIC telescopes, suitable for fast repositioning in case of Gamma-Ray Bursts, has been developed, commissioned and programmed by the W\"{u}rzburg group Mirror structures made of plastic material have been developed as Winston Cones for balloon flight experiments previously by the group of Winston cones for balloon flight experiments previously by the group of Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge. W\"{u}rzburg has also participated in the development of a HPD test bench, which has been setup in Munich and W\"{u}rzburg. With flexible and modular enough to easily process DWARF data \citep{Bretz:2005paris,Riegel:2005icrc,Bretz:2005mars}. A method for absolute light calibration of the PMs based on Muon images has been absolute light calibration of the PMs based on Muon images, especially important for long-term monitoring, has been adapted and further improved for the MAGIC telescope \citep{Meyer:Diploma,Goebel:2005}. Both, data analysis and Monte Carlo developed to be powerful and as robust as possible to be best suited for automatic processing \citep{Dorner:2005paris}. Experience with large amount of data (up to 15\,TB/month) has been gained over five years now. The datacenter is equipped with a professional multi-stage large amount of data (up to 8\,TB/month) has been gained since 2004. The datacenter is equipped with a professional multi-stage (hierarchical) storage system. Two operators are paid by the physics faculty. Currently efforts in W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund are ongoing to turn the old inflexible Monte Carlo programs, used by the MAGIC collaboration, into modular packages which allows easy simulation of turn the old, inflexible Monte Carlo programs, used by the MAGIC collaboration, into modular packages allowing for easy simulation of other setups. Experience with Monte Carlo simulations, especially CORSIKA, is contributed by the Dortmund group, which has actively model \citep{Haffke:Dipl,Schroeder:PhD} for the local atmosphere of La Palma. Furthermore the group has developed high precision Monte Carlos for Lepton propagation in different media \citep{hepph0407075}. An energy unfolding method and program has been adapted for IceCube and for Lepton propagation in different media %\citep{hepph0407075}. An \citep{xxx}. An energy unfolding method and program has been adapted for IceCube and MAGIC data analysis \citep{Curtef:CM,Muenich:ICRC}. \paragraph{Phenomenology} Both groups further have experience with source models and theoretical computations of gamma ray and neutrino spectra expected from blazars. Both groups have experience with source models and theoretical computations of gamma-ray and neutrino spectra expected from blazars. The relation between the two messengers is a prime focus of interest. Experience with corresponding multi-messenger data analyses involving MAGIC and IceCube data is available in the Dortmund group. Research activities are also related with relativistic particle acceleration \citep{Meli} and gamma ray attenuation \citep{Kneiske}. The W\"{u}rzburg \citep{Meli} and gamma-ray attenuation \citep{Kneiske}. The W\"{u}rzburg group has organized and carried out multi-wavelength observations of bright blazars involving MAGIC, Suzaku, the IRAM telescopes, and the optical KVA telescope \citep{Ruegamer}. Signatures of supermassive bright blazars involving MAGIC, Suzaku, the IRAM telescopes and the KVA optical telescope \citep{Ruegamer}. Signatures of supermassive black hole binaries, which are most relevant also for gravitational wave detectors, are investigated jointly with the German LISA consortium (Burkart, Elbracht ongoing research, funded by DLR). Secondary gamma rays due to dark matter annihilation events are \mbox{Secondary} gamma-rays due to dark matter annihilation events are investigated both from their particle physics and astrophysics aspects. Another main focus of research is on models of radiation and particle The aim of the project is to put the former CT3 of the HEGRA collaboration on the Roque de los Muchachos back into operation - with an enlarged mirror surface, a new camera with higher quantum efficiency, and new fast data acquisition system, under the name of DWARF. The energy threshold will be lowered, and  the sensitivity of DWARF will be greatly improved compared to HEGRA CT3 (see figure~\ref{sensitivity}). Commissioning and the first year of data taking should be carried out within the three years of the requested funding period. collaboration on the Roque de los Muchachos back into operation. It will be setup, under the name DWARF, with an enlarged mirror surface (fig.~\ref{DWARF}), a new camera with higher quantum efficiency and new fast data acquisition system. The energy threshold will be lowered, and the sensitivity of DWARF will be greatly improved compared to HEGRA CT3 (see fig.~\ref{sensitivity}). Commissioning and the first year of data taking should be carried out within the three years of the requested funding period. \begin{figure}[ht] \begin{center} \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{CT3.eps} \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{DWARF.eps} \caption{Left: The old HEGRA CT3 telescope as operated within the HEGRA Sytem. Right: A photomontage how the revised CT3 telescope could look like with more and hexagonal mirrors.} \includegraphics*[width=0.496\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{CT3.eps} \includegraphics*[width=0.496\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{DWARF.eps} \caption{The old CT3 telescope as operated within the HEGRA System (left) and a photomontage of the revised CT3 telescope with more and hexagonal mirrors (right).} \label{CT3} \label{DWARF} The telescope will be operated robotically to reduce costs and man power demands.  Furthermore, we seek to obtain know-how for the power demands. Furthermore, we seek to obtain know-how for the operation of future networks of robotic Cherenkov telescopes (e.g. a monitoring array around the globe or CTA) or telescopes at inaccessible sites. From the experience with the construction and operation of MAGIC or HEGRA, the proposing groups consider the planned focused approach (small number of experienced scientists) as optimal for achieving the project goals. The available automatic analysis package developed by the W\"{u}rzburg group for MAGIC is modular and flexible, and can thus be used with minor changes for the DWARF project. monitoring array around the globe or CTA) or telescopes at sited difficult to access. From the experience with the construction and operation of MAGIC or HEGRA, the proposing groups consider the planned focused approach (small number of experienced scientists) as optimal for achieving the project goals. The available automatic analysis package developed by the W\"{u}rzburg group for MAGIC is modular and flexible, and can thus be used with minor changes for the DWARF project. \begin{figure}[htb] \includegraphics*[width=0.7\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{visibility.eps} \caption{Source visibility in hours per night versus month of the year for a maximum observation zenith angle of 65$^\circ$. Shown are all sources which we want to monitor including the CrabNebula necessary for calibration and quality assurance. } considering a maximum observation zenith angle of 65$^\circ$ for all sources which we want to monitor including the Crab Nebula, necessary for calibration and quality assurance.} \label{visibility} \end{center} The scientific focus of the project will be on the long-term monitoring of bright, nearby VHE emitting blazars.  At least one of the proposed targets will be visible any time of the year (see figure~\ref{visibility}). For calibration purposes, some time will be scheduled for observations of the Crab nebula.  The blazar observations will allow of bright, nearby VHE emitting blazars. At least one of the proposed targets will be visible any time of the year (see fig.~\ref{visibility}). For calibration purposes, some time will be scheduled for observations of the Crab Nebula.\\ The blazar observations will allow \begin{itemize} \item to determine the duty cycle, the baseline emission, and the power \item to determine the baseline emission, the duty cycle and the power spectrum of flux variations. \item to cooperate with the Whipple monitoring telescope for an \item to prompt Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) observations with MAGIC in the case of flares increasing time resolution. Corresponding ToO proposals to H.E.S.S.\ and Veritas are in preparation. ToO proposals to H.E.S.S.\ and VERITAS are in preparation. \item to observe simultaneously with MAGIC which will provide an extended bandwidth from below 100\,GeV to multi-TeV energies. \item to obtain multi-frequency observations together with the Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory and the optical Tuorla Observatory. The measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL and GLAST results, when available. x-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and Suzaku facilities will be proposed. Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory and the optical telescopes of the Tuorla Observatory. The measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL and GLAST results, when available. X-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and Suzaku facilities will be proposed. \end{itemize} jets. We plan to interpret the data with models currently developed in the context of the Research Training Group {\em Theoretical Astrophysics} in W\"{u}rzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK\,1147), including Astrophysics} in W\"{u}rzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK\,1147), including particle-in-cell and hybrid MHD models. \item the black hole mass and accretion rate fitting the data with emission models.  Results will be compared with estimates of the black hole mass from  the Magorrian relation. emission models. Results will be compared with estimates of the black hole mass from the Magorrian relation. \item the flux of relativistic protons (ions) by correlating the rate of neutrinos detected with the neutrino telescope IceCube and the rate of gamma ray photons detected with DWARF, and thus the rate of escaping of gamma-ray photons detected with DWARF, and thus the rate of escaping cosmic rays. \item the orbital modulation owing to a supermassive binary black hole. period of one year, the following steps are necessary: The work schedule assumes that the work will begin in January 2008, The work schedule assumes, that the work will begin in January 2008, immediately after funding. Later funding would accordingly shift the schedule. Each year is divided into quarters (see figure~\ref{schedule}). schedule. Each year is divided into quarters (see fig.~\ref{schedule}). \begin{figure}[htb] \begin{center} \includegraphics*[angle=0,clip]{schedule.eps} \includegraphics*[width=\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{schedule.eps} % \caption{Left: The old HEGRA CT3 telescope as operated within the % HEGRA Sytem. Right: A photomontage how the revised CT3 telescope \paragraph{Software} \begin{itemize} \item MC adaption (Do/W\"{u}): Due to the large similarities with the MAGIC telescope, within half a year new Monte Carlo code can be programmed using parts of the existing MAGIC Monte Carlo code. For tests and cross-checks another period of six months is necessary. \item Analysis adaption (W\"{u}): The modular concept of the Magic Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) allows a very fast adaption of the telescope setup, camera and data acquisition properties within half a year. \item Adaption Drive software (W\"{u}): Since the new drive electronics will be based on the design of the MAGIC II drive system the control software can be reused unchanged. The integration into the new slow control system will take about half a year. It has to be finished at the time of arrival of the drive system components in 2009/1. \item Slow control/DAQ (Do): A new data acquisition and slow control system for camera and auxiliary systems has to be developed. Based on experiences with the AMANDA DAQ, the Domino DAQ developed for MAGIC II will be adapted and the slow control integrated within three quarters of a year. Commissioning will take place with the full system in 2009/3. \item MC adaption (Do/W\"{u}): Due to the large similarities with the MAGIC telescope, within half a year new Monte Carlo code can be programmed using parts of the existing MAGIC Monte Carlo code. For tests and cross-checks another period of six months is necessary. \item Analysis adaption (W\"{u}): The modular concept of the Magic Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) allows a very fast adaption of the telescope setup, camera and data acquisition properties within half a year. \item Adaption Drive software (W\"{u}): Since the new drive electronics will be based on the design of the MAGIC~II drive system the control software can be reused unchanged. The integration into the new slow control system will take about half a year. It has to be finished at the time of arrival of the drive system components in 2009/1. \item Slow control/DAQ (Do): A new data acquisition and slow control system for camera and auxiliary systems has to be developed. Based on experiences with the AMANDA DAQ, the Domino DAQ developed for MAGIC~II will be adapted and the slow control integrated within three quarters of a year. Commissioning will take place with the full system in 2009/3. \end{itemize} \paragraph{Mirrors (W\"{u})} First prototypes for the mirrors are already available. After testing (six months), the production will start in summer 2008 and shipment will be finished before the full system assembly 2009/2. \paragraph{Drive (W\"{u})} After a planning phase of half a year to simplify the MAGIC II drive system for a smaller telescope (together with the delivering company), ordering, production and shipment should be finished in 2009/1. The MAGIC I and II drive systems have been planned and implemented successfully by the Wuerzburg group. \paragraph{Auxiliary (W\"{u})} Before the final setup in 2009/1, all auxiliary systems (weather station, computers, etc.) will have been specified, ordered and shipped. \paragraph{Camera (Do)} The camera has to be ready six month after the shipment of the other mechanical parts of the telescope. For this purpose camera tests have to take place in 2009/2, which requires the assembly of the camera within six months before. By now, a PM test bench which allows to finish planning and ordering of the camera parts and PMs until summer 2008, before the construction begins, is set up in Dortmund. In addition to the manpower permanently provided by Dortmund for production and commissioning, two engineers will participate in the construction phase. \paragraph{Full System (Do/W\"{u})} The full system will be assembled after delivering of all parts in the beginning of spring 2009. Start of the commissioning is planned four months later. First light is expected in autumn 2009. This would allow an immediate full system test with a well measured, strong and steady source (CrabNebula). After the commissioning phase will have been finished in spring 2010, full robotic operation will be provided. \paragraph{Mirrors (W\"{u})} First prototypes for the mirrors are already available. After testing (six months), the production will start in summer 2008, and the shipment will be finished before the full system assembly 2009/2. \paragraph{Drive (W\"{u})} After a planning phase of half a year to simplify the MAGIC~II drive system for a smaller telescope (together with the delivering company), ordering, production and shipment should be finished in 2009/1. The MAGIC~I and~II drive systems have been planned and implemented successfully by the W\"{u}rzburg group. \paragraph{Auxiliary (W\"{u})} Before the final setup in 2009/1, all auxiliary systems (weather station, computers, etc.) will have been specified, ordered and shipped. \paragraph{Camera (Do)} The camera has to be ready six month after the shipment of the other mechanical parts of the telescope. For this purpose camera tests have to take place in 2009/2, which requires the assembly of the camera within six months before. By now, a PM test bench is set up in Dortmund, which allows to finish planning and ordering of parts of the camera, including the PMs, until summer 2008, before the construction begins. In addition to the manpower permanently provided by Dortmund for production and commissioning, two engineers will participate in the construction phase. \paragraph{Full System (Do/W\"{u})} The full system will be assembled after the delivery of all parts in the beginning of spring 2009. Start of the commissioning is planned four months later. First light is expected in autumn 2009. This would allow an immediate full system test with a well measured, strong and steady source (Crab Nebula). After the commissioning phase will have been finished in spring 2010, complete robotic operation will be provided. Based on the experience with setting up the MAGIC telescope we estimate \section[4]{Funds requested (Beantragte Mittel)} We request funding for a total of three years. Summarizing, the expenses for the telescope are dominated by the camera and data acquisition. Summarizing, the expenses for the telescope are dominated by the camera and data acquisition. We request funding for a total of three years. %The financial volume for the complete hardware inclusive %transport amounts to {\bf 372.985,-\,\euro}. For this period, we request funding for two postdocs and two PhD students, one in Dortmund and one in W\"{u}rzburg each. The staff members shall fulfill the tasks given in the work schedule above. To cover these tasks completely, one additional PhD and a various number of Diploma students will complete the working group. students, one in Dortmund and one in W\"{u}rzburg each (3\,x\,TV-L13).The staff members shall fulfill the tasks given in the work schedule above. To cover these tasks completely, one additional PhD and a various number of Diploma students will complete the working group. Suitable candidates interested in these positions are Dr.\ Thomas At the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site, the mount of the former HEGRA telescope CT3 now owned by the MAGIC collaboration is still operational. One hut for electronics close to collaboration is still serviceable. One hut for electronics close to the telescope is available. Additional space is available in the MAGIC counting house. The MAGIC Memorandum of Understanding allows for To achieve the planned sensitivity and threshold (figure~\ref{sensitivity}) the following components have to be bought. (fig.~\ref{sensitivity}), the following components have to be bought. To obtain reliable results as fast as possible well known components have been chosen. \citep{Juan:2000,MAGICsensi,Vassiliev:1999} and the expectation for DWARF, with both a PMT- and a GAPD-camera. It is based on the sensitivity of HEGRA~CT1, scaled by the improvements mentioned in the text. GAPD-camera, scaled from the sensitivity of HEGRA~CT1 by the improvements mentioned in the text. } \label{sensitivity} } \end{figure} \clearpage {\bf Camera}\dotfill 207.550,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] {\bf Camera}\dotfill 206.450,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} To setup a camera with 313 pixels the following components are needed:\\ \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Photomultiplier Tube EMI\,9083B\hfill 220,-\,\euro\\ Active voltage divider ({\bf !!!!})\hfill 80,-\,\euro\\ High voltage support and control\hfill {\bf 300,-}\,\euro\\ Active voltage divider (EMI)\hfill 80,-\,\euro\\ High voltage support and control\hfill 300,-\,\euro\\ Preamplifier\hfill 50,-\,\euro\\ Spare parts (overall)\hfill 3000,-\,\euro\\ criterion. To keep the systematic errors small, a good background estimation is mandatory. The only possibility for a synchronous determination of the background is the determination from the night-sky determination of the background is the measurement from the night-sky observed in the same field-of-view with the same instrument. To achieve this, the observed position is moved out of the camera center which allows the estimation of the background from positions symmetric with respect to the camera center (so called wobble-mode). This observation mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources. respect to the camera center (so called Wobble mode). This observation mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources.\\ A further increase in sensitivity can be achieved by better background statistics from not only one but several independent positions for the background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. For wobble mode observations allowing for this, the source position should be shifted background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. To allow for this the source position in Wobble mode should be shifted $0.6^\circ-0.7^\circ$ out of the camera center. %} A camera completely containing shower images of events in the energy A camera completely containing the shower images of events in the energy region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of 5$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam271.eps} \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam313.eps} \caption{Left: Schematic picture of the 271 pixel CT-3 camera with a field of view of 4.6$^\circ$. \caption{Left: Schematic picture of the 271 pixel CT3 camera with a field of view of 4.6$^\circ$. Right: Schematic picture of the 313 pixel camera for DWARF with a field of view of 5$^\circ$.} \label{camCT3} \end{figure} Therefor a camera with 313 pixel camera (see figure~\ref{camDWARF}) is Therefore a camera with 313 pixel camera (see fig.~\ref{camDWARF}) is chosen. The camera will be built based on the experience with HEGRA and MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083\,KFLA-UD) MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083B/KFLA-UD) will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). They have a 25\% improved quantum efficiency (see figure~\ref{qe}) and ensure a a quantum efficiency improved by 25\% (see fig.~\ref{qe}) and ensure a granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be cameras. {\bf At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the ability, i.e.\ stability, aging, quantum efficiency, etc., of using Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon detector in the camera of a Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are extremely high quantum efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and simplified application compared to classical PMs. If these test measurements are successfully finished until 8/2008 we consider to use GAPDs in favor of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take place at University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts from ETH. Construction would also take place at the electronics workshop of Dortmund.} Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon detectors in the camera of a Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are an extremely high quantum efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and simplified application compared to classical PMs. If these test measurements are successfully finished until 8/2008, we consider to use GAPDs in favor of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take place at University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts from ETH. The construction would also take place at the electronics workshop of Dortmund. \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Camera support}\dotfill 204.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] {\bf Camera support}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500,-\,\euro) The camera chassis must be water tight and will be equipped with an automatic lid protecting the PMs at day-time. For further protection, a automatic lid, protecting the PMs at daytime. For further protection, a plexi-glass window will be installed in front of the camera. By coating this window with an anti-reflex layer of magnesium-fluoride, a gain in transmission of {\bf 5\%} is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a light-guide (Winston Cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000,-\,\euro\ for all winston cones). The transmission of 5\% is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a light-guide (Winston cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000,-\,\euro\ for all Winston cones). The current design will be improved by using a high reflectivity aluminized Mylar mirror-foil, coated with a dialectical layer ($Si\,O_2$ planned. In total a gain of {\bf $\sim$15\%} in light-collection efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be acheived. In total a gain of $\sim$15\% in light-collection efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be achieved. \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ For the data acquisition system a hardware readout based on an analog ring buffer (Domino\ II/III), currently developed for the MAGIC\ II ring buffer (Domino\ II/IV), currently developed for the MAGIC~II readout, will be used \citep{Barcelo}. This technology allows to sample the pulses with high frequencies and readout several channels with a single Flash-ADC resulting in low costs. The low power consumption will allow to include the digitization near the signal source which makes the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. The advantage is less pick-up noise and less signal dispersion. By high sampling rates allow to include the digitization near the signal source making the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. This results in less pick-up noise and reduces the signal dispersion. By high sampling rates (1.2\,GHz), additional information about the pulse shape can be obtained. This increases the over-all sensitivity further, because the short integration time allows for almost perfect suppression of noise due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger- (readout-) rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system like USB\,2.0. due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger-, i.e.\ readout-rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system, like USB\,2.0. %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ Current results obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC data acquisition show that for a single telescope a sensitivity data acquisition show, that for a single telescope a sensitivity improvement of 40\% with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}. As for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is Like for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is sufficient, but also a simple neighbor-logic could be programmed (both cases $\sim$100,-\,\euro/channel). Additional data reduction and preprocessing within the readout chain is provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz the storage provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz, the storage space needed will be less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount of data can easily be stored and processed by the W\"{u}rzburg %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ \begin{quote} The existing mirrors are replaced by new plastic mirrors which are currently developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and light-weight material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master coated with a The existing mirrors will be replaced by new plastic mirrors currently developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and light-weight material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master and coated with a reflecting and a protective material. Tests have given promising results. By a change of the mirror geometry, the mirror area can be increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture~\ref{CT3} and montage~\ref{DWARF}); this includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per montage~\ref{DWARF}). This includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per mirror by using a hexagonal layout instead of a round one. A further increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of In both cases the mirrors can be coated with the same high reflectivity aluminized Mylar mirror-foil, and a dialectical layer of SiO2 as for the Winston Cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is achieved, see figure~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}. Both solutions would require the same expenses. aluminized Mylar mirror-foil and a dialectical layer of $SiO_2$ as for the Winston cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is achieved, see fig.~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}. Both solutions would require the same expenses. To keep track of the alignment, reflectivity and optical quality of the adjustment system, as developed by ETH~Z\"{u}rich and successfully operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended. \begin{figure}[p] \centering{ \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{cherenkov.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{reflectivity.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{qe.eps} \caption{Top to bottom: The cherenkov spectrum as observed by a telescope located at 2000\,m above sea level. The mirror's reflectivity of a 300\,nm thick aluminum layer with a protection layer of 10\,nm and 100\,nm thickness respectively. For comparison the reflectivity of HEGRA CT1's mirrors \citep{Kestel:2000} are shown. The bottom plot depicts the quantum efficiency of the prefered PMs (EMI) together with the predecessor used in CT1. A proper coating \citep{Paneque:2004} will further enhance its effciency. An even better increase would be the usage of Geiger-mode APDs.} \label{cherenkov} \label{reflectivity} \label{qe} } \end{figure} %The system %{\bf For a diameter mirror of less than 2.4\,m, the delay between an %parabolic (isochronus) and a spherical mirror shape at the edge is well %parabolic (isochronous) and a spherical mirror shape at the edge is well %below 1ns (see figure). Thus for a sampling rate of 1.2\,GHz parabolic %individual mirrors are not needed. Due to their small size the \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Calibration System}\dotfill 6.650,-\,\euro+IPR?\\[-3ex] {\bf Calibration System}\dotfill 9.650,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} Components\\ \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Absolute light calibration\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\ Individual pixel rate control\hfill ???,-\,\euro\\ Individual pixel rate control\hfill 3.000,-\,\euro\\ Weather station\hfill 500,-\,\euro\\ GPS clock\hfill 1.500,-\,\euro\\ %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ For the absolute light calibration (gain-calibration) of the PMs a calibration box as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope will be calibration box, as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope, will be produced. To ensure a homogeneous acceptance of the camera, essential for wobble-mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels Wobble mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels will be measured and controlled. To correct for axis misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts), a pointing correction algorithm as used in the MAGIC tracking system will be applied. It is For a correction of axis misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts) a pointing correction algorithm will be applied, as used in the MAGIC tracking system. It is calibrated by measurements of the reflection of bright guide stars on the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as for MAGIC\ I and~II, ({\bf 300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics, 300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ Frame grabber}) will be installed. MAGIC\ I and~II, (300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics, 300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ frame grabber) will be installed. A second identical CCD camera for online monitoring (starguider) will be bought. A GPS clock is necessary for an accurate tracking. The weather station For an accurate tracking a GPS clock is necessary. The weather station helps judging the data quality. %}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Computing}\dotfill 12.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} %%%%%%%%%%%%%% PLOTS HERE???? %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% {\bf Mount and Drive}\dotfill 17.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ The present mount is used. Only a smaller investment for safety, corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro). For the movement, motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of 10.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF drive system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro). Motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of 10.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF drive system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three reasons: (i)~Fast movement might be mandatory for future ToO observations. (ii)~Wobble-mode observations will be done changing the wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons. (iii)~To ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at the same time, the observed source will be changed in constant time intervals ($\sim$20\,min). Therefore three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A observations. (ii)~Wobble mode observations will be done changing the Wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons. (iii)~To ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at the same time, the observed source will be changed in constant time intervals. For the drive system three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A micro-controller based motion control unit (Siemens SPS L\,20) similar to the one of the current MAGIC~II drive system will be used. For communication with the readout-system, a standard ethernet connection communication with the readout-system, a standard Ethernet connection based on the TCP/IP- and UDP-protocol will be setup. %}\\[2ex] telescope position at the time of sunrise. A fence for protection in case of robotic movement will be For protection in case of robotic movement a fence will be installed.%}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ For remote, robotic operation a variety of remote controllable electronic components such as ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be components such as Ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be bought. Monitoring equipment, for example different kind of sensors, is also mandatory.%}\\[2ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.2:\hfill{\bf 342.235,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex] 340.635,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\ \begin{figure}[p] \centering{ \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{cherenkov.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{reflectivity.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{qe.eps} \caption{Top to bottom: The Cherenkov spectrum as observed by a telescope located at 2000\,m above sea level. The mirror's reflectivity of a 300\,nm thick aluminum layer with a protection layer of 10\,nm and 100\,nm thickness respectively. For comparison the reflectivity of HEGRA CT1's mirrors \citep{Kestel:2000} are shown. The bottom plot depicts the quantum efficiency of the preferred PMs (EMI) together with the predecessor used in CT1. A proper coating \citep{Paneque:2004} will further enhance its efficiency. An even better increase would be the usage of Geiger-mode APDs.} \label{cherenkov} \label{reflectivity} \label{qe} } \end{figure} \subsection[4.3]{Consumables (Verbrauchsmaterial)} %   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.9\textwidth} 10 LTO\,4 tapes (8\,TB)\dotfill 750,-\,\euro\\ Consumables (overalls) tools and materials\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro Consumables (overalls): tools and materials\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro %   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] \end{quote} \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\ \subsection[4.4]{Reisen (Travel expenses)} \subsection[4.4]{Travel expenses (Reisen)} The large amount of travel funding is required due to the very close cooperation between Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg and the work demands on \subsection[4.5]{Publikationskosten (Publication costs)} \subsection[4.5]{Publication costs (Publikationskosten)} Will be covered by the proposing institutes. \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt} \setlength{\parsep}{0pt} \item Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode (Grundausttattung) \item Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode (Grundauststattung) \item Dr.\ Tanja Kneiske (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), DFG-Forschungsstipendium) \item Dr.\ Julia Becker (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), Drittmittel) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Kirsten M"unich (Doktorand (IceCube), Drittmittel) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jens Dreyer (Doktorand (IceCube), Grundausttattung) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jens Dreyer (Doktorand (IceCube), Grundauststattung) \item M.Sc.\ Valentin Curtef (Doktorand (MAGIC), Grundausstattung) \item cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes (Diplomand (MAGIC), zum F"orderbeginn diplomiert) \originalTeX \subsection[5.2]{Co-operation with other scientists\\(Zusammenarbeit mit \subsection[5.2]{Cooperation with other scientists\\(Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Wissenschaftlern)} Both applying groups co-operate with the international MAGIC-Collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W\"{u}rzburg Both applying groups cooperate with the international MAGIC collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W\"{u}rzburg funded by the BMBF, Dortmund by means of appointment for the moment). The group in Dortmund is involved in the IceCube experiment (BMBF funding) and maintains close contacts to the collaboration partners. Moreover on the field of phenomenology there do exist good working contacts to the groups of Prof.~Dr.~Reinhard Schlickeiser, Ruhr-Universit\"{a}t Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter Biermann, MPIfR Bonn. There are furthermore intense contacts to Prof.~Dr.~Francis Halzen, Madison, Wisconsin. Moreover on the field of phenomenology good working contacts exist to the groups of Prof.~Dr.~Reinhard Schlickeiser, Ruhr-Universit\"{a}t Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter Biermann, MPIfR Bonn. There are furthermore intense contacts to Prof.~Dr.~Francis Halzen, Madison, Wisconsin. The telescope design will be worked out in close cooperation with the Prof.~Dr.~Eckart Lorenz (ETH~Z\"{u}rich). They will provide help in design studies, construction and software development. The DAQ design will be contributed by the group of Prof.~Dr.~Riccardo Paoletti (Università di contributed by the group of Prof.~Dr.~Riccardo Paoletti (Universit\`{a} di Siena and INFN sez.\ di Pisa, Italy). The group of the newly appointed {\em Lehrstuhl f\"{u}r Physik und Ihre The group of the newly appointed {\em Lehrstuhl f\"{u}r Physik und ihre Didaktik} (Prof.~Dr.~Thomas Trefzger) has expressed their interest to join the project. They bring in a laboratory for photo-sensor testing, The work on DWARF will take place at the ORM on the Spanish island La Palma. It will be performed in close collaboration with the MAGIC-Collaboration. MAGIC collaboration. \subsection[5.4]{Scientific equipment available (Apparative storage as well as for data analysis are available. The faculty of physics at the University of Dortmund has modern The faculty of physics at the University Dortmund has modern equipped mechanical and electrical workshops including a department for development of electronics at its command. The chair of astroparticle \end{minipage}\hfill~ \thispagestyle{empty} \newpage x \thispagestyle{empty} \newpage \paragraph{8 List of appendices (Verzeichnis der Anlagen)} \item Letter of Support from the IceCube collaboration \item Letter of Support from KVA optical telescope \item Email with offer from EMI for the PMs \end{itemize} \newpage %\section{References} (References of our groups are marked by an asterix *) x \thispagestyle{empty} \newpage %(References of our groups are marked by an asterix *) \bibliography{application} \bibliographystyle{plainnat}