Changeset 9188


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Dec 4, 2008, 1:30:45 PM (12 years ago)
Author:
tbretz
Message:
*** empty log message ***
Location:
trunk/Documents/DrivePaper
Files:
8 edited

Legend:

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  • trunk/Documents/DrivePaper/elsarticle.cls

    r9109 r9188  
    1717%% version 1999/12/01 or later.
    1818%%
    19 %% $Id: elsarticle.cls,v 1.1 2008-08-07 14:26:10 tbretz Exp $
     19%% $Id: elsarticle.cls,v 1.2 2008-12-04 13:30:45 tbretz Exp $
    2020%%
    2121 \def\RCSfile{elsarticle}%
  • trunk/Documents/DrivePaper/paper.bib

    r9109 r9188  
    1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3 Article         (author, title, journal, year)
    4                 (volume, numbe,r pages, month, note)
    5 Book            (author/editor, title, publisher, year)
    6                 (volume/number, series, address, edition, month, note)
    7 Conference      (author, title, booktitle, year)
    8                 (editor, volume/number, organization, series, pages, publisher, address, month, note)
    9 Inproceedings   (author, title, booktitle, year)
    10                 (editor, volume/number, organization, series, pages, publisher, address, month, note)
    11 Manual          (title)
    12                 (author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note)
    13 Masterthesis    (author, title, school, year)
    14                 (address, month, note, type)
    15 phdthesis       (author, title, school, year)
    16                 (address, month, note, type)
    17 unpublished     (author, title, note)
    18                 (month, year)
    19 misc            ()
    20                 (author, title, howpublished, month, year, note)
    21 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    22 
    23 @MISC{www:fornaxa,      key = {{www-01}}, title = {\url{http://www.nrao.edu/imagegallery/}}, year=2006, note={Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF}}
    24 @MISC{www:agnartist0,   key = {{www-02}}, title = {\url{http://integral.esa.int/integ_pictures.html}}, year=2006}
    25 @MISC{www:agnartist,    key = {{www-03}}, title = {\url{http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/}}, year=2006, note={Credit: ESA/NASA, the AVO Project and Paolo Padovani}}
    26 @MISC{www:compton,      key = {{www-04}}, title = {\url{http://chandra.harvard.edu/resources/illustrations/xlightScatter.html}}, year=2006}
    27 @MISC{www:shower,       key = {{www-05}}, title = {\url{http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/hfm/CosmicRay/shower.png}}, year=2006}
    28 @MISC{www:showerartist, key = {{www-06}}, title = {\url{http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/cosmic_rays.html}}, year=2006}
    29 @MISC{www:mars,         key = {{www-07}}, title = {\url{http://magic.astro.uni-wuerzburg.de/mars/}}, year=2006}
    30 @MISC{www:google,       key = {{www-08}}, title = {\url{http://earth.google.com}}, year=2006}
    31 @MISC{www:slalib,       key = {{www-09}}, title = {\url{http://star-www.rl.ac.uk/star/docs/sun67.htx/sun67.html}}, year=2006}
    32 @MISC{www:root,         key = {{The ROOT System Home Page}},   title = {\url{http://root.cern.ch}}, year=2008}
    33 @MISC{www:htmldoc,      key = {{www-11}}, title = {\url{http://magic.astro.uni-wuerzburg.de/mars/htmldoc/}}, year=2006}
    34 @MISC{www:mysql,        key = {{www-12}}, title = {\url{http://www.mysql.com}}, year=2006}
    35 @MISC{www:unified,      key = {{www-13}}, title = {\url{http://chandra.harvard.edu/resources/illustrations/quasar.html}}, year=2006, note={Credit: NASA/CXC, Melissa Weiss}}
    36 @MISC{www:asdc,         key = {{www-14}}, title = {\url{http://www.asdc.asi.it/blazars/}}, year=2006}
    37 @MISC{www:kva,          key = {{www-15}}, title = {\url{http://tur3.tur.iac.es/}}, year=2006}
    38 @MISC{www:integral,     key = {{www-16}}, title = {\url{http://altamira.asu.cas.cz/iblwg/show.php?id=131}}, year=2006}
    39 @MISC{www:ned,          key = {{www-17}}, title = {\url{http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/cgi-bin/nph-objsearch?objname=1es1218+304}}, year=2006}
    40 @MISC{www:gcn,          key = {{GCN}},    title = {\url{http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov}}, year=2008}
    41 
    42 %@MISC{www:BH1m,          key = {{www-02}}, title = {\url{http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/spacesci/pictures/blackhole/BH1m.jpg}}, year=2006}
    43 %@MISC{www:hillas,        key = {{www-10}}, title = {\url{http://lpnhe-auger.in2p3.fr/slides/hillas.ps}}, year=2006}
    44 %@MISC{www:agnartist2,    key = {{www-03}}, title = {\url{http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/40/Galaxies_AGN_Inner-Structure-of.jpg}}, year=2006}
    45 
    46 
    47 @BOOK{Peebles:1983,
    48    author    = {Peebles, Philip~James~Edwin},
    49    title     = {Principles of Physical Cosmology},
    50    publisher = {Princton Series in Physics},
    51    year      = 1983
    52 }
    53 
    54 @BOOK{Weekes:2003,
    55    author    = {Weekes, T.~C.},
    56    title     = {Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy},
    57    series    = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
    58    publisher = {Institute of Physics Publishing},
    59    year      = 2003
    60 }
    61 
    62 @BOOK{Rybicki:1979,
    63   author    = {{Rybicki}, George B. and {Lightman}, Alan P.},
    64   title     = "Radiative Processes in Astrophysics",
    65   publisher = { Wiley-Interscience },
    66   year      = 1979
    67 }
    68 
    69 @BOOK{Begelman:1995,
    70    author = {Begelman, M. and Rees, M.},
    71    title  = "{Gravity's Fatal Attraction: Black Holes in the Universe}",
    72    year   = 1995,
    73 publisher = {Scientific American Library}
    74 }
    75 
    76 @BOOK{Mueller:2005,
    77   author    = {{M\"uller}, A.},
    78   title     = "{Lexikon der Astrophysik}",
    79   year      = 2005,
    80   month     = sep,
    81   url       = {http://www.mpe.mpg.de/~amueller}
    82 }
    83 
    84 @BOOK{Zensus:1987,
    85   author    = {{Pearson}, T.~J. and {Zensus}, J.~A.},
    86   year      = 1987,
    87   title     = {Superluminal radio sources},
    88   publisher = {Cambridge University Press}
    89 }
    90 
    91 @BOOK{Schlickeiser:2003,
    92   author    = {{Schlickeiser}, Reinhard},
    93   year      = 2003,
    94   title     = {Cosmic Ray Astrophysics},
    95   publisher = {Springer}
    96 }
    97 
    98 @BOOK{Landau:1971,
    99     author = {{Landau}, L.~D. and {Lifshitz}, E.~M.},
    100      title = "{The classical theory of fields}",
    101  publisher = {Course of theoretical physics - Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1971, 3rd rev.~engl.~edition},
    102       year = 1971,
    103     adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1971ctf..book.....L&db_key=AST},
    104    adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    105 }
    106 
    107 @MANUAL{Corsika,
    108     author   = {{Heck}, D. and {Knapp}, J. and {Capdevielle}, J.~N. and {Schatz}, G. and {Thouw}, T.},
    109     year     = 1998,
    110     title    = {{CORSIKA}: {A} {M}onte {C}arlo {C}ode to {S}imulate {E}xtensive {A}ir {S}howers},
    111 organization = {Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, {R}eport {FZKA} 6019},
    112     note     = {\url{http://www-ik.fzk.de/corsika/physics\_description/corsika\_phys.html}}
    113 }
    114 
    115 @MANUAL{slalib,
    116     author   = {{Wallace}, P.~T.},
    117     year     = 2005,
    118     title    = {{SLALIB} -- {P}osition {A}stronomy {L}ibrary 2.5-3, {P}rogrammer's {M}anual},
    119 organization = {Rutherford Appleton Laboratory},
    120     note     = {\url{http://star-www.rl.ac.uk/star/docs/sun67.htx/sun67.html}}
    121 }
    122 
    123 @MANUAL{tpoint,
    124     author   = {{Wallace}, P.~T.},
    125     year     = 2001,
    126     month    = may,
    127     title    = {{TPOINT} -- {A} {T}elescope {P}ointing {A}nalaysis {S}ystem},
    128     address  = {19 Sutton Wick Lane, Drayton, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, OX14 4HH},
    129     note     = {\url{http://star-www.rl.ac.uk/star/docs/sun67.htx/sun67.html}}
    130 }
    131 
    132 @MANUAL{Breiman,
    133   author = {Breiman, Leo},
    134    title = {Machine Learning 45(1), 5},
    135     year = 2001
    136 }
    137 
    138 @MASTERSTHESIS{Doro:Diploma,
    139   author = {Doro, M.},
    140   title  = {The Commissioning and Characterization of the Calibration System of the {MAGIC} Telescope},
    141   school = {Universit{\'a} di Padova},
    142   year   = {2004},
    143   note   = {\url{http://wwwmagic.mppmu.mpg.de/publications/theses/LaureaMDoro.ps.gz}}
    144 }
    145 
    146 @MASTERSTHESIS{Stefan:Diploma,
    147   author = {R\"ugamer, S.},
    148   title  = {},
    149   school = {Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
    150   year   = {2006},
    151   note   = {in preparation}
    152 }
    153 
    154 @MASTERSTHESIS{Hoehne:Diploma,
    155   author = {H\"ohne, D.},
    156   title  = "{Beobachtung von HESS\,J1813-178 mit dem MAGIC-Teleskop}",
    157   school = {Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
    158   month  = sep,
    159   year   = {2005},
    160 }
    161 
    162 @MASTERSTHESIS{Dorner:Diploma,
    163   author = {Dorner, D.},
    164   title  = {{S}ystem zum {A}usrichten und {N}achf\"uhren des {MAGIC}-{T}eleskops},
    165   school = {Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
    166   year   = {2003}
    167 }
    168 
    169 @MASTERSTHESIS{Riegel:Diploma,
    170   author = {Riegel, B.},
    171   title  = {{S}ystematische {U}ntersuchung der {B}ildparameter f\"ur das {MAGIC}-{T}eleskop},
    172   school = {Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
    173   year   = {2005}
    174 }
    175 
    176 @MASTERSTHESIS{Bretz:1999,
    177   author = {Bretz, T.},
    178   title  = {Magnetfeldeigenschaften des {S}pektrometers {HADES}},
    179   school = {Technische Universit{\"a}t M{\"u}nchen},
    180   year   = {1999}
    181 }
    182 
    183 %MASTERSTHESIS{Doro:2005,
    184 % author = {Doro, Michele},
    185 % year   = {2005}
    186 %
    187 
    188 @MISC{Giommi:2006,
    189    author = { Giommi, P. and others},
    190    year = 2006,
    191    howpublished = {in preparation}
    192 }
    193 
    194 @MISC{Giommi:2005,
    195    author = { Giommi, P.},
    196    year = 2006,
    197    howpublished = {private communication}
    198 }
    199 
    200 @ARTICLE{Dondi:1995,
    201    author = {{Dondi}, L. and {Ghisellini}, G.},
    202     title = "{Gamma-ray-loud blazars and beaming}",
    203   journal = {\mnras},
    204      year = 1995,
    205     month = apr,
    206    volume = 273,
    207     pages = {583-595},
    208    asdurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1995MNRAS.273..583D&db_key=AST},
    209   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    210 }
    211 
    212 @ARTICLE{Fermi:1954,
    213    author = {{Fermi}, E.},
    214     title = "{Galactic Magnetic Fields and the Origin of Cosmic Radiation.}",
    215   journal = {\apj},
    216      year = 1954,
    217     month = jan,
    218    volume = 119,
    219     pages = {1-+},
    220    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1954ApJ...119....1F&db_key=AST},
    221   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    222 }
    223 
    224 @ARTICLE{Fermi:1949,
    225    author = {{Fermi}, E.},
    226   journal = {Phys.~Rev.},
    227   volume  = 75,
    228     pages = 1169,
    229    year   = {1949}
    230 }
    231 
    232 @ARTICLE{Wentzel:1963,
    233    author = {{Wentzel}, D.~G.},
    234     title = "{Fermi Acceleration of Charged Particles.}",
    235   journal = {\apj},
    236      year = 1963,
    237     month = jan,
    238    volume = 137,
    239     pages = {135-+},
    240    adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1963ApJ...137..135W&db_key=AST},
    241   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    242 }
    243 
    244 @BOOK{Spitzer:1956,
    245    author = {{Spitzer}, L.},
    246     title = "{Physics of Fully Ionized gases}",
    247 publisher = {Interscience, New York },
    248      year = 1956,
    249 }
    250 
    251 @ARTICLE{Einstein:1905,
    252    author = {{Einstein}, A.},
    253     title = "{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}",
    254   journal = {Annalen der Physik},
    255      year = 1905,
    256    volume = 17,
    257     pages = {891-921},
    258    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1905AnP....17..891E&db_key=AST},
    259   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    260 }
    261 
    262 @ARTICLE{Einstein:1916,
    263    author = {{Einstein}, A.},
    264     title = "{Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativit{\"a}tstheorie}",
    265   journal = {Annalen der Physik},
    266      year = 1916,
    267    volume = 49,
    268     pages = {769-822},
    269    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1916AnP....49..769E&db_key=AST},
    270   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    271 }
    272 
    273 @ARTICLE{Eddington:1935a,     
    274    author = {{Eddington}, A.~S.},
    275     title = "{On "relativistic degeneracy,"}",
    276   journal = {\mnras},
    277      year = 1935,
    278     month = jan,
    279    volume = 95,
    280     pages = {194-206},
    281    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1935MNRAS..95..194E&db_key=AST},
    282   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    283 }
    284 
    285 @ARTICLE{Rindler:1956,
    286    author = {{Rindler}, W.},
    287     title = "{Visual horizons in world models}",
    288   journal = {\mnras},
    289      year = 1956,
    290    volume = 116,
    291     pages = {662-+},
    292    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1956MNRAS.116..662R&db_key=AST},
    293   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System},
    294 }
    295 
    296 @ARTICLE{Eddington:1935b,
    297    author = {{Eddington}, A.~S.},
    298     title = "{Note on "relativistic degeneracy"}",
    299   journal = {\mnras},
    300      year = 1935,
    301     month = nov,
    302    volume = 96,
    303     pages = {20-+},
    304    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1935MNRAS..96...20E&db_key=AST},
    305   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    306 }
    307 
    308 @ARTICLE{Chandrasekhar:1931,
    309    author = {{Chandrasekhar}, S.},
    310     title = "{The Maximum Mass of Ideal White Dwarfs}",
    311   journal = {\apj},
    312      year = 1931,
    313     month = jul,
    314    volume = 74,
    315     pages = {81-+},
    316    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1931ApJ....74...81C&db_key=AST},
    317   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    318 }
    319 
    320 @ARTICLE{Oppenheimer:1939,
    321    author = {{Oppenheimer}, Julius Robert and {Snyder}, Hartland},
    322    title  = {On continued gravitational contraction},
    323   journal = {Phys.~Rev.},
    324   volume  = 56,
    325     pages = 455,
    326    year   = {1939}
    327 }
    328 
    329 @ARTICLE{Kerr:1963,
    330    author = {{Kerr}, Roy Patrick},
    331    title  = {Gravitational field of a spinning mass as an example of algebraically special metrics},
    332   journal = {\prl},
    333   volume  = 11,
    334     pages = 237,
    335    year   = {1963}
    336 }
    337 
    338 @ARTICLE{Bolton:1971,
    339    author = {{Bolton}, C.~T.},
    340     title = {Identification of {Cyg} {X}-1 with {HDE} 226868},
    341   journal = {\nat},
    342      year = 1972,
    343    volume = 235,
    344     pages = {271},
    345 }
    346 
    347 @ARTICLE{Shakura:1973,         
    348    author = {{Shakura}, N.~I. and {Sunyaev}, R.~A.},
    349     title = "{Black holes in binary systems. Observational appearance.}",
    350   journal = {\aap},
    351      year = 1973,
    352    volume = 24,
    353     pages = {337-355},
    354    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1973A%26A....24..337S&db_key=AST},
    355   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    356 }
    357 
    358 @ARTICLE{Hasinger:1998,
    359    author = {{Hasinger}, G. and {Burg}, R. and {Giacconi}, R. and {Schmidt}, M. and
    360         {Trumper}, J. and {Zamorani}, G.},
    361     title = "{The ROSAT Deep Survey. I. X-ray sources in the Lockman Field}",
    362   journal = {\aap},
    363      year = 1998,
    364     month = jan,
    365    volume = 329,
    366     pages = {482-494},
    367    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998A%26A...329..482H&db_key=AST},
    368   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    369 }
    370 
    371 @ARTICLE{LyndenBell:1969,
    372    author = {{Lynden-Bell}, D.},
    373     title = "{Galactic Nuclei as Collapsed Old Quasars}",
    374   journal = {\nat},
    375      year = 1969,
    376    volume = 223,
    377     pages = {690-+},
    378    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1969Natur.223..690L&db_key=AST},
    379   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    380 }
    381 
    382 @ARTICLE{Georga:1988,
    383    author = {{George}, I.~M. and {Warwick}, R.~S. and {Bromage}, G.~E.},
    384     title = "{X-ray and ultraviolet observations of Markarian 421}",
    385   journal = {\mnras},
    386      year = 1988,
    387     month = jun,
    388    volume = 232,
    389     pages = {793-808},
    390    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1988MNRAS.232..793G&db_key=AST},
    391   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    392 }
    393 
    394 @ARTICLE{LyndenBell:1971,
    395    author = {{Lynden-Bell}, D. and {Rees}, M.~J.},
    396     title = "{On quasars, dust and the galactic centre}",
    397   journal = {\mnras},
    398      year = 1971,
    399    volume = 152,
    400     pages = {461-+},
    401    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1971MNRAS.152..461L&db_key=AST},
    402   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    403 }
    404 
    405 @ARTICLE{Hawking:1975,
    406    author = {{Hawking}, {S}tephen W.},
    407    title  = {Particle creation by black holes},
    408   journal = {Comm.~Math.~Phys.},
    409    volume = {43},
    410     pages = {199},
    411      year = 1975
    412 }
    413 
    414 @ARTICLE{Penrose:1965,
    415    author = {{Penrose}, Roger},
    416    title  = {Gravitational collapse and space-time singularities},
    417   journal = {\prl},
    418   volume  = 14,
    419     pages = 57,
    420    year   = {1965}
    421 }
    422 
    423 @INPROCEEDINGS{Schwarzschild:1916a,
    424    author = {Schwarzschild, K.},
    425    title  = {{\"U}ber das {G}ravitationsfeld eines {M}assenpunktes nach der {E}insteinschen {T}heorie},
    426 booktitle = {Sitzungsberichte der k\"oniglich preu\ss{}ischen {A}kademie der {W}issenschaften zu {B}erlin},
    427    year   = {1916},
    428   pages   = {189-196},
    429    note   = {physics/9905030}
    430 }
    431 
    432 @INPROCEEDINGS{Schwarzschild:1916b,
    433    author = {Schwarzschild, K.},
    434    title  = {{\"U}ber das {G}ravitationsfeld einer {K}ugel aus inkompressibler {F}l\"ussigkeit nach der {E}insteinschen {T}heorie},
    435 booktitle = {Sitzungsberichte der k\"oniglich preu\ss{}ischen {A}kademie der {W}issenschaften zu {B}erlin},
    436    year   = {1916},
    437   pages   = {424-434},
    438    note   = {physics/9912033}
    439 }
    440    
    441 @ARTICLE{MAGIC:30GeV,
    442    author = {{Moralejo}, A. and others},
    443     title = {The {MAGIC} telescope for gamma-ray astronomy above 30 {GeV}},
    444   journal = {\cjaa},
    445      year = 2003,
    446     month = dec,
    447    volume = 3,
    448     pages = {531-538},
    449    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2003ChJAA...3S.531M&db_key=AST},
    450   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    451 }
    452 
    453 @ARTICLE{MAGIC:LowEnergy,
    454    author = {{Albert}, J. and others},
    455     title = {Physics and astrophysics with a ground-based gamma-ray telescope of low energy threshold},
    456   journal = {Astroparticle Physics},
    457      year = 2005,
    458     month = jun,
    459    volume = 23,
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    461    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2005APh....23..493F&db_key=AST},
    462   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    463 }
    464 
    465 @ARTICLE{Albert:2006grb,
    466    author = {{Albert}, J. and others
    467         },
    468     title = "{Flux Upper Limit on Gamma-Ray Emission by GRB 050713a from MAGIC Telescope Observations}",
    469   journal = {\apjl},
    470      year = 2006,
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    474    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2006ApJ...641L...9A&db_key=AST},
    475   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    476 }
    477 
    478 @ARTICLE{Horan:2004,
    479    author = {{Horan}, D. and others},
    480     title = "{Constraints on the Very High Energy Emission from BL Lacertae Objects}",
    481   journal = {\apj},
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    486    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2004ApJ...603...51H&db_key=AST},
    487   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    488 }
    489 
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    491    author = {{Aharonian}, F. and others},
    492     title = "{Evidence for VHE Gamma-ray Emission from the Distant BL Lac PG\,1553+113}",
    493   journal = {\aap},
    494      year = 2006,
    495      note = {in press}
    496 }
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    499    author = {{Green}, R.~F. and {Schmidt}, M. and {Liebert}, J.},
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    507   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    508 }
    509 
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    511    author = {{Paciesas}, W.~S. and others},
    512     title = "{The Fourth BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog (Revised)}",
    513   journal = {\apjs},
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    518    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1999ApJS..122..465P&db_key=AST},
    519   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    520 }
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    532   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    533 }
    534 
    535 @ARTICLE{Costamante:2002,
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    537     title = "{TeV candidate BL Lac objects}",
    538   journal = {\aap},
    539      year = 2002,
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    543    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2002A%26A...384...56C&db_key=AST},
    544   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    545 }
    546 
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    548    author = {{Ledden}, J.~E. and {Odell}, S.~L.},
    549     title = "{The radio-optical-X-ray spectral flux distributions of blazars}",
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    556   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    557 }
    558 
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    560   author = {Hogg, D.~W. and Baldry, I.~K. and Blanton, M.~R. and Eisenstein, D.~J. },
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    566 }
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    570   title  = "{The First VERITAS Telescope}",
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    575 }
    576 
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    578    author = {{Lorenz}, E.},
    579     title = "{Status of the 17 m MAGIC telescope}",
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    585    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2004NewAR..48..339L&db_key=AST},
    586   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    587 }
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    590    author = {{Kubo}, H. and others},
    591     title = "{Status of the CANGAROO-III project}",
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    598   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    599 }
    600 
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    602    author = {{Weekes}, T.~C. and others},
    603     title = "{VERITAS: the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System}",
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    610   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    611 }
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    614    author = {{Aharonian}, F. and others},
    615     title = "{A New Population of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Sources in the Milky Way}",
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    622   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    623 }
    624 
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    626    author = {{Bradbury}, S.~M. and {Rose}, H.~J.},
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    634   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    635 }
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    646   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    647 }
    648 
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    658   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    659 }
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    685 }
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    696   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    697 }
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    709 }
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    720   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    721 }
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    732   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    733 }
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    744   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    745 }
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    747 @PHDTHESIS{Krull:1997,
    748   author = {Krull, F.},
    749   title  = {Soft X-ray excess in Aktiven Galaxienkernen},
    750  school  = {Eberhard-Karls Universit\"at T\"ubingen},
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    782   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    783 }
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    876 }
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    879    author = {{Blandford, R.~D.}},
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    892   journal = {\aap},
    893      year = 2004,
    894     month = jan,
    895    volume = 413,
    896     pages = {807-815},
    897    adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2004A%26A...413..807K&db_key=AST},
    898   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    899 }
    900 
    901 @ARTICLE{Kneiske:2002,
    902    author = {{Kneiske}, T.~M. and {Mannheim}, K. and {Hartmann}, D.~H.},
    903     title = {Implications of cosmological gamma-ray absorption. {I}. {E}volution of the metagalactic radiation field},
    904   journal = {\aap},
    905      year = 2002,
    906     month = apr,
    907    volume = 386,
    908     pages = {1-11},
    909    adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2002A%26A...386....1K&db_key=AST},
    910   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    911 }
    912 
    913 @ARTICLE{Hernandez:2005,
    914    author = {{Hern{\'a}ndez-Rey}, J.~J.},
    915     title = "{The Neutrino Telescope Antares}",
    916   journal = {\apss},
    917      year = 2005,
    918     month = jun,
    919    volume = 297,
    920     pages = {257-267},
    921    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2005Ap%26SS.297..257H&db_key=AST},
    922   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    923 }
    924 
    925 @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2003icrc,
    926    author = {{Bretz}, T.},
    927     title = {The {MAGIC} {A}nalysis and {R}econstruction {S}oftware},
    928 booktitle = {$28^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    929      year = 2003,
    930     month = Aug
    931 }
    932 
    933 @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2004gamma,
    934    author = {{Bretz}, T.},
    935     title = {{MARS} - {R}oadmap to a standard analysis},
    936 booktitle = {$2^{nd}$ International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy},
    937      year = 2004,
    938     month = Jul
    939 }
    940 
    941 @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2008gamma,
    942    author = {{Bretz}, T. and {Dorner}, D.},
    943     title = {{MARS} - {T}he {C}herenkov {O}bservatory edition},
    944 booktitle = {$3^{rd}$ International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy},
    945      year = 2008,
    946     month = Jul
    947 }
    948 
    949 @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2005paris,
    950    author = {{Bretz}, T. and Dorner, D.},
    951     title = {{MARS} - {A} framework for a standard analysis},
    952 booktitle = {Towards a network of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors VII},
    953      year = 2005,
    954     month = Apr
    955 }
    956 
    957 @INPROCEEDINGS{Dorner:2005paris,
    958    author = {{Dorner}, D. and Bretz, T.},
    959    title  = {A concept for data managment and processing},
    960 booktitle = {Towards a network of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors VII},
    961     pages = {571-575},
    962      year = 2005,
    963     month = Apr
    964 }
    965 
    966 @INPROCEEDINGS{Bastieri:2005,
    967    author = {Bastieri, D. and others},
    968    title  = {The mirrors of the {MAGIC} telescope},
    969 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    970      year = 2005,
    971     month = Aug,
    972      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    973 }
    974 
    975 @INPROCEEDINGS{Dorner:2005icrc,
    976    author = {Dorner, D. and Berger, K. and Bretz, T. and Gaug, M. and others},
    977    title  = {Data Managment and Processing for the {MAGIC} telescope},
    978 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    979      year = 2005,
    980    volume = 5,
    981    pages  = 175,
    982     month = Aug,
    983      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    984 }
    985 
    986 @INPROCEEDINGS{Beixeras:2005,
    987    author = {Beixeras, C. and others},
    988    title  = "{MAGIC II}",
    989 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    990    volume = 5,
    991    pages  = {227},
    992      year = 2005,
    993     month = Aug,
    994      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    995 }
    996 
    997 @INPROCEEDINGS{Cortina:2005,
    998    author = {Cortina, J. and others},
    999    title  = {Technical performance of the {MAGIC} telescope},
    1000 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    1001      year = 2005,
    1002     month = Aug,
    1003      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    1004 }
    1005 
    1006 @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2005mars,
    1007    author = {Bretz, T.},
    1008    title  = {Standard Analysis for the {MAGIC} Telescope},
    1009 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    1010    volume = 4,
    1011      year = 2005,
    1012     pages = 315,
    1013     month = Aug,
    1014      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    1015 }
    1016 
    1017 @INPROCEEDINGS{Gaug:2005,
    1018    author = {Gaug, M. and Bartko, H. and Cortina, J. and Rico, J. and others},
    1019    title  = {Calibration of the {MAGIC} telescope},
    1020 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    1021      year = 2005,
    1022     month = Aug,
    1023      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    1024 }
    1025 
    1026 @INPROCEEDINGS{Riegel:2005icrc,
    1027    author = {{Riegel}, B. and Bretz, T.},
    1028     title = {A systematic study of the interdependance of the {IACT} image parameters},
    1029 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    1030      year = 2005,
    1031    volume = 5,
    1032    pages  = 215,
    1033     month = Aug,
    1034      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    1035 }
    1036 
    1037 @INPROCEEDINGS{Riegel:2005icrc2,
    1038    author = {{Riegel}, B. and Bretz, T. and Dorner, D. and Wagner, R.~M.},
    1039     title = {A tracking monitor for the {MAGIC} telescope},
    1040 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    1041      year = 2005,
    1042    volume = 5,
    1043    pages  = 219,
    1044     month = Aug,
    1045      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    1046 }
    1047 
    1048 @INPROCEEDINGS{Goebel:2005,
    1049    author = {{Goebel}, F. and Mase, K. and Meyer, M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Shayduk, M. and Teshima, M. and others},
    1050     title = {Absolute energy scale calibration of the {MAGIC} telescope using muon images},
    1051 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    1052      year = 2005,
    1053     month = Aug,
    1054      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    1055 }
    1056 
    1057 @INPROCEEDINGS{Majumdar:2005icrc,
    1058    author = {{Majumdar}, P. and {Moralejo}, A. and {Bigongiari}, C. and {Blanch}, O. and {Sobczynska}, D.},
    1059    title  = {{M}onte {C}arlo simulation for the {MAGIC} telescope},
    1060 booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    1061      year = 2005,
    1062     month = Aug,
    1063      note = {astro-ph/0508274}
    1064 }
    1065 
    1066 @INPROCEEDINGS{Meyer:2005icrc,
    1067    author = {{Meyer}, M. and Mannheim, K. and Bretz, T. and Dorner, D. and Riegel, B. and H\"ohne, D. and Berger, K. and others},
    1068     title = {{MAGIC} observations of high-peaked {BL} {L}ac objects},
    1069 booktitle = {$28^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    1070    volume = 4,
    1071    pages  = 335,
    1072      year = 2005,
    1073     month = Aug,
    1074      note = {astro-ph/0508273}
    1075 }
    1076 
    1077 @ARTICLE{Lessard:2001,
    1078    author = {{Lessard}, R.~W. and {Buckley}, J.~H. and {Connaughton}, V. and {Le Bohec}, S.},
    1079     title = "{A new analysis method for reconstructing the arrival direction of TeV gamma rays using a single imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope}",
    1080   journal = {Astroparticle Physics},
    1081      year = 2001,
    1082     month = mar,
    1083    volume = 15,
    1084     pages = {1-18},
    1085    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2001APh....15....1L&db_key=AST},
    1086   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1087 }
    1088 
    1089 @ARTICLE{Urry:1995,
    1090    author = {{Urry}, C.~M. and {Padovani}, P.},
    1091     title = "{Unified Schemes for Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei}",
    1092   journal = {\pasp},
    1093      year = 1995,
    1094     month = sep,
    1095    volume = 107,
    1096     pages = {803-+},
    1097    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1995PASP..107..803U&db_key=AST},
    1098   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1099 }
    1100 
    1101 @ARTICLE{Urry:2000,
    1102    author = {{Urry}, C.~M. and {Scarpa}, R. and {O'Dowd}, M. and {Falomo}, R. and
    1103         {Pesce}, J.~E. and {Treves}, A.},
    1104     title = "{The Hubble Space Telescope Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. II. Host Galaxies}",
    1105   journal = {\apj},
    1106      year = 2000,
    1107     month = apr,
    1108    volume = 532,
    1109     pages = {816-829},
    1110    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2000ApJ...532..816U&db_key=AST},
    1111   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1112 }
    1113 
    1114 @ARTICLE{Porter:1960,
    1115   author = {Hill, D.~A. and Porter, N.~A},
    1116   title  = "{Photography of \v{C}erenkov Light from Extensive Air Showers in the Atmosphere}",
    1117    month = aug,
    1118    year  = 1960,
    1119  journal = {\nat},
    1120  volume  = 191,
    1121  pages   = 690,
    1122  note    = {Letters to Editor}
    1123 }
    1124  
    1125 @ARTICLE{Jelley:1963,
    1126    author = {{Jelley}, J.~V. and {Porter}, N.~A.},
    1127     title = "{{\v C}erenkov Radiation from the Night Sky, and its Application to {$\gamma$}-Ray Astronomy}",
    1128   journal = {\qjras},
    1129      year = 1963,
    1130     month = sep,
    1131    volume = 4,
    1132     pages = {275-+},
    1133    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1963QJRAS...4..275J&db_key=AST},
    1134   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1135 }
    1136 
    1137 @ARTICLE{Padovani:1995,
    1138    author = {{Padovani}, P. and {Giommi}, P.},
    1139     title = "{The connection between x-ray- and radio-selected BL Lacertae objects}",
    1140   journal = {\apj},
    1141      year = 1995,
    1142     month = may,
    1143    volume = 444,
    1144     pages = {567-581},
    1145    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1995ApJ...444..567P&db_key=AST},
    1146   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1147 }
    1148 
    1149 @ARTICLE{Boella:1997,
    1150    author = {{Boella}, G. and {Butler}, R.~C. and {Perola}, G.~C. and {Piro}, L. and
    1151         {Scarsi}, L. and {Bleeker}, J.~A.~M.},
    1152     title = "{BeppoSAX, the wide band mission for X-ray astronomy}",
    1153   journal = {\aaps},
    1154      year = 1997,
    1155     month = apr,
    1156    volume = 122,
    1157     pages = {299-307},
    1158    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1997A%26AS..122..299B&db_key=AST},
    1159   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1160 }
    1161 
    1162 @ARTICLE{Catanese:1999,
    1163    author = {{Catanese}, M. and {Weekes}, T.~C.},
    1164     title = "{Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy}",
    1165   journal = {\pasp},
    1166      year = 1999,
    1167     month = oct,
    1168    volume = 111,
    1169     pages = {1193-1222},
    1170    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1999PASP..111.1193C&db_key=AST},
    1171   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1172 }
    1173 
    1174 @ARTICLE{Daum:1997,
    1175    author = {{Daum}, A. and others},
    1176     title = "{First results on the performance of the HEGRA IACT array}",
    1177   journal = {Astroparticle Physics},
    1178      year = 1997,
    1179     month = dec,
    1180    volume = 8,
    1181     pages = {1-2},
    1182    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1997APh.....8....1D&db_key=AST},
    1183   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1184 }
    1185 
    1186 @ARTICLE{Aharonian:2004,
    1187    author = {{Aharonian}, F. and others},
    1188     title = "{Observations of 54 Active Galactic Nuclei with the HEGRA system of Cherenkov telescopes}",
    1189   journal = {\aap},
    1190      year = 2004,
    1191     month = jul,
    1192    volume = 421,
    1193     pages = {529-537},
    1194    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2004A%26A...421..529A&db_key=AST},
    1195   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1196 }
    1197 
    1198 @ARTICLE{Pohl:2000,
    1199    author = {{Pohl}, M. and {Schlickeiser}, R.},
    1200     title = "{On the conversion of blast wave energy into radiation in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts}",
    1201   journal = {\aap},
    1202      year = 2000,
    1203     month = feb,
    1204    volume = 354,
    1205     pages = {395-410},
    1206    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2000A%26A...354..395P&db_key=AST},
    1207   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1208 }
    1209 
    1210 @ARTICLE{Mannheim:1993,
    1211    author = {{Mannheim}, K.},
    1212     title = "{The proton blazar}",
    1213   journal = {\aap},
    1214      year = 1993,
    1215     month = mar,
    1216    volume = 269,
    1217     pages = {67-76},
    1218    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1993A%26A...269...67M&db_key=AST},
    1219   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1220 }
    1221 
    1222 # CHECK AGAIN!
    1223 @INPROCEEDINGS{Sikora:2001,
    1224    author = {{Sikora}, M.},
    1225     title = "{Jets in Quasars}",
    1226 booktitle = {ASP Conf. Ser. 227: Blazar Demographics and Physics},
    1227      year = 2001,
    1228     pages = {95-+},
    1229    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2001ASPC..227...95S&db_key=AST},
    1230   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1231 }
    1232 
    1233 @ARTICLE{Sikora:1987,
    1234    author = {{Sikora}, M. and {Kirk}, J.~G. and {Begelman}, M.~C. and {Schneider}, P.
    1235         },
    1236     title = "{Electron injection by relativistic protons in active galactic nuclei}",
    1237   journal = {\apjl},
    1238      year = 1987,
    1239     month = sep,
    1240    volume = 320,
    1241     pages = {L81-L85},
    1242    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1987ApJ...320L..81S&db_key=AST},
    1243   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1244 }
    1245 
    1246 # CHECK AGAIN
    1247 @ARTICLE{Burns:1982,
    1248    author = {{Burns}, M.~L. and {Lovelace}, R.~V.~E.},
    1249     title = "{Theory of electron-positron showers in double radio sources}",
    1250   journal = {\apj},
    1251      year = 1982,
    1252     month = nov,
    1253    volume = 262,
    1254     pages = {87-99},
    1255    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1982ApJ...262...87B&db_key=AST},
    1256   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1257 }
    1258 
    1259 @ARTICLE{Svensson:1987,
    1260    author = {{Svensson}, R.},
    1261     title = "{Non-thermal pair production in compact X-ray sources - First-order Compton cascades is soft radiation fields}",
    1262   journal = {\mnras},
    1263      year = 1987,
    1264     month = jul,
    1265    volume = 227,
    1266     pages = {403-451},
    1267    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1987MNRAS.227..403S&db_key=AST},
    1268   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1269 }
    1270 
    1271 @BOOK{Berezinskii:1990,
    1272     author = {{Berezinskii}, V.~S. and {Bulanov}, S.~V. and {Dogiel}, V.~A. and
    1273         {Ptuskin}, V.~S.},
    1274     title = "{Astrophysics of cosmic rays}",
    1275 publisher = {Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1990, edited by Ginzburg, V.L.},
    1276 year = 1990,
    1277    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1990acr..book.....B&db_key=AST},
    1278   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1279 }
    1280 
    1281 @ARTICLE{Mannheim:1991,
    1282    author = {{Mannheim}, K. and {Biermann}, P.~L. and {Kruells}, W.~M.},
    1283     title = "{A novel mechanism for nonthermal X-ray emission}",
    1284   journal = {\aap},
    1285      year = 1991,
    1286     month = nov,
    1287    volume = 251,
    1288     pages = {723-731},
    1289    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1991A%26A...251..723M&db_key=AST},
    1290   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1291 }
    1292 
    1293 @INPROCEEDINGS{Mannheim:1997,
    1294    author = {{Mannheim}, K.},
    1295     title = "{AGN Models: High-Energy Emission.}",
    1296 booktitle = {Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe; Moriond Workshop},
    1297      year = 1997,
    1298     pages = {17-+},
    1299    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1997vhep.conf...17M&db_key=AST},
    1300   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1301 }
    1302 
    1303 @ARTICLE{Mannheim:1998,
    1304    author = {{Mannheim}, K.},
    1305     title = "{Possible Production of High-Energy Gamma Rays from Proton Acceleration in the Extragalactic Radio Source Markarian 501}",
    1306   journal = {Science},
    1307      year = 1998,
    1308     month = jan,
    1309    volume = 279,
    1310     pages = {684-+},
    1311    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998Sci...279..684M&db_key=AST},
    1312   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1313 }
    1314 
    1315 @ARTICLE{Hauser:2001,
    1316    author = {{Hauser}, M.~G. and {Dwek}, E.},
    1317     title = "{The Cosmic Infrared Background: Measurements and Implications}",
    1318   journal = {\araa},
    1319      year = 2001,
    1320    volume = 39,
    1321     pages = {249-307},
    1322    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2001ARA%26A..39..249H&db_key=AST},
    1323   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1324 }
    1325 
    1326 # TO BE CHECKED!
    1327 @ARTICLE{Perlman:1998,
    1328    author = {{Perlman}, E.~S. and {Padovani}, P. and {Giommi}, P. and {Sambruna}, R. and
    1329         {Jones}, L.~R. and {Tzioumis}, A. and {Reynolds}, J.},
    1330     title = "{The Deep X-Ray Radio Blazar Survey. I. Methods and First Results}",
    1331   journal = {\aj},
    1332      year = 1998,
    1333     month = apr,
    1334    volume = 115,
    1335     pages = {1253-1294},
    1336    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998AJ....115.1253P&db_key=AST},
    1337   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1338 }
    1339 
    1340 @INPROCEEDINGS{Laurent-Muehleisen:1998,
    1341    author = {{Laurent-Muehleisen}, S.~A. and {Kollgaard}, R.~I. and {Feigelson}, E.~D.
    1342         },
    1343     title = "{The Rosat-Green Bank Sample of Intermediate BL Lac Objects}",
    1344 booktitle = {ASP Conf. Ser. 144: IAU Colloq. 164: Radio Emission from Galactic and Extragalactic Compact Sources},
    1345      year = 1998,
    1346     pages = {163-+},
    1347    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998ASPC..144..163L&db_key=AST},
    1348   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1349 }
    1350 
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    1352    author = {{Caccianiga}, A. and {Maccacaro}, T. and {Wolter}, A. and {della Ceca}, R. and
    1353         {Gioia}, I.~M.},
    1354     title = "{The REX Survey: A Search for Radio-emitting X-Ray Sources}",
    1355   journal = {\apj},
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    1360    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1999ApJ...513...51C&db_key=AST},
    1361   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1362 }
    1363 
    1364 @ARTICLE{Caccianiga:2004,
    1365    author = {{Caccianiga}, A. and {March{\~a}}, M.~J.~M.},
    1366     title = "{The CLASS blazar survey: testing the blazar sequence}",
    1367   journal = {\mnras},
    1368      year = 2004,
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    1372    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2004MNRAS.348..937C&db_key=AST},
    1373   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1374 }
    1375 
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    1377    author = {{Kellermann}, K.~I. and {Sramek}, R. and {Schmidt}, M. and {Shaffer}, D.~B. and
    1378         {Green}, R.},
    1379     title = "{VLA observations of objects in the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey}",
    1380   journal = {\aj},
    1381      year = 1989,
    1382     month = oct,
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    1386   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1387 }
    1388 
    1389 @ARTICLE{Rowan:1977,
    1390    author = {{Rowan-Robinson}, M.},
    1391     title = "{On the unity of activity in galaxies}",
    1392   journal = {\apj},
    1393      year = 1977,
    1394     month = may,
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    1397    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1977ApJ...213..635R&db_key=AST},
    1398   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1399 }
    1400 
    1401 @ARTICLE{Lawrence:1982,
    1402    author = {{Lawrence}, A. and {Elvis}, M.},
    1403     title = "{Obscuration and the various kinds of Seyfert galaxies}",
    1404   journal = {\apj},
    1405      year = 1982,
    1406     month = may,
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    1409    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1982ApJ...256..410L&db_key=AST},
    1410   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1411 }
    1412 
    1413 @ARTICLE{Giommi:1994,
    1414    author = {{Giommi}, P. and {Padovani}, P.},
    1415     title = "{Bl-Lacertae Reunification}",
    1416   journal = {\mnras},
    1417      year = 1994,
    1418     month = may,
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    1421    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1994MNRAS.268L..51G&db_key=AST},
    1422   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1423 }
    1424 
    1425 @ARTICLE{Antonucci:1985,
    1426    author = {{Antonucci}, R.~R.~J. and {Ulvestad}, J.~S.},
    1427     title = "{Extended radio emission and the nature of blazars}",
    1428   journal = {\apj},
    1429      year = 1985,
    1430     month = jul,
    1431    volume = 294,
    1432     pages = {158-182},
    1433    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1985ApJ...294..158A&db_key=AST},
    1434   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1435 }
    1436 
    1437 @ARTICLE{Fossati:1998,
    1438    author = {{Fossati}, G. and {Maraschi}, L. and {Celotti}, A. and {Comastri}, A. and
    1439         {Ghisellini}, G.},
    1440     title = "{A unifying view of the spectral energy distributions of blazars}",
    1441   journal = {\mnras},
    1442      year = 1998,
    1443     month = sep,
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    1445     pages = {433-448},
    1446    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998MNRAS.299..433F&db_key=AST},
    1447   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1448 }
    1449 
    1450 @ARTICLE{Aharonian:2000,
    1451    author = {{Aharonian}, F.},
    1452     title = "{TeV gamma rays from BL Lac objects due to synchrotron radiation of extremely high energy protons}",
    1453   journal = {\na},
    1454      year = 2000,
    1455     month = nov,
    1456    volume = 5,
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    1458    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2000NewA....5..377A&db_key=AST},
    1459   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1460 }
    1461 
    1462 @ARTICLE{Muecke:2003,
    1463    author = {{M{\"u}cke}, A. and {Protheroe}, R.~J. and {Engel}, R. and {Rachen}, J.~P. and
    1464         {Stanev}, T.},
    1465     title = "{BL Lac objects in the synchrotron proton blazar model}",
    1466   journal = {Astroparticle Physics},
    1467      year = 2003,
    1468     month = mar,
    1469    volume = 18,
    1470     pages = {593-613},
    1471    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2003APh....18..593M&db_key=AST},
    1472   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1473 }
    1474 
    1475 @ARTICLE{Schlickeiser:2000,
    1476    author = {{Pohl}, M. and {Schlickeiser}, R.},
    1477     title = "{On the conversion of blast wave energy into radiation in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts}",
    1478   journal = {\aap},
    1479      year = 2000,
    1480     month = feb,
    1481    volume = 354,
    1482     pages = {395-410},
    1483    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2000A%26A...354..395P&db_key=AST},
    1484   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1485 }
    1486 
    1487 @ARTICLE{Lyutikov:2005,
    1488    author = {{Lyutikov}, M.},
    1489     title = "{Composition of ultra-relativistic jets}",
    1490   journal = {American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts},
    1491      year = 2005,
    1492     month = may,
    1493    volume = 206,
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    1495    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2005AAS...206.3008L&db_key=AST},
    1496   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1497 }
    1498 
    1499 @ARTICLE{Sikora:2005,
    1500    author = {{Sikora}, M. and {Begelman}, M.~C. and {Madejski}, G.~M. and
    1501         {Lasota}, J.-P.},
    1502     title = "{Are Quasar Jets Dominated by Poynting Flux?}",
    1503   journal = {\apj},
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    1505     month = may,
    1506    volume = 625,
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    1508    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2005ApJ...625...72S&db_key=AST},
    1509   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1510 }
    1511 
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    1513    author = {{von Montigny}, C. and others},
    1514     title = "{High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Active Galaxies: EGRET Observations and Their Implications}",
    1515   journal = {\apj},
    1516      year = 1995,
    1517     month = feb,
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    1520    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1995ApJ...440..525V&db_key=AST},
    1521   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1522 }
    1523 
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    1525    author = {{Fichtel}, C.~E. and others},
    1526     title = "{The first energetic gamma-ray experiment telescope (EGRET) source catalog}",
    1527   journal = {\apjs},
    1528      year = 1994,
    1529     month = oct,
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    1532    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1994ApJS...94..551F&db_key=AST},
    1533   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1534 }
    1535 
    1536 @ARTICLE{Thompson:1995,
    1537    author = {{Thompson}, D.~J. and others},
    1538     title = "{The Second EGRET Catalog of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources}",
    1539   journal = {\apjs},
    1540      year = 1995,
    1541     month = dec,
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    1544    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1995ApJS..101..259T&db_key=AST},
    1545   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1546 }
    1547 
    1548 @ARTICLE{Ghisellini:1989,
    1549    author = {{Ghisellini}, G. and {Maraschi}, L.},
    1550     title = "{Bulk acceleration in relativistic jets and the spectral properties of blazars}",
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    1552      year = 1989,
    1553     month = may,
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    1556    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1989ApJ...340..181G&db_key=AST},
    1557   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1558 }
    1559 
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    1561    author = {{Weekes}, T.~C. and others},
    1562     title = "{Observations of gamma-ray sources at energies $>$300GeV.}",
    1563   journal = {\aaps},
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    1569   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1570 }
    1571 
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    1573    author = {{Petry}, D. and others},
    1574     title = "{Detection of VHE {$\gamma$}-rays from MKN 421 with the HEGRA Cherenkov Telescopes.}",
    1575   journal = {\aap},
    1576      year = 1996,
    1577     month = jul,
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    1580    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1996A%26A...311L..13P&db_key=AST},
    1581   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1582 }
    1583 
    1584 @ARTICLE{Tavecchio:1998,
    1585    author = {{Tavecchio}, F. and {Maraschi}, L. and {Ghisellini}, G.},
    1586     title = "{Constraints on the Physical Parameters of TeV Blazars}",
    1587   journal = {\apj},
    1588      year = 1998,
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    1592    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998ApJ...509..608T&db_key=AST},
    1593   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1594 }
    1595 
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    1597    author = {{Bloom}, S.~D. and {Marscher}, A.~P. and {Gear}, W.~K.},
    1598     title = "{Multiwavelength Observations of Flat Radio Spectrum Quasars and Active Galaxies}",
    1599   journal = {\baas},
    1600      year = 1993,
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    1605   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1606 }
    1607 
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    1609    author = {{Schmidt}, M.},
    1610     title = "{3C 273: a star-like object with large red-shift.}",
    1611   journal = {\nat},
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    1616   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1617 }
    1618 
    1619 @ARTICLE{Ghisellini:1994,
    1620    author = {Ghisellini, G. and Maraschi, L.},
    1621     title = {Are $\gamma$-rays from {HPQ}s and {BL} {L}acs due to the same process?},
    1622 booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second Compton Symposium},   
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    1627 }
    1628 
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    1630    author = {{Dermer}, C.~D. and {Schlickeiser}, R.},
    1631     title = "{Model for the High-Energy Emission from Blazars}",
    1632   journal = {\apj},
    1633      year = 1993,
    1634     month = oct,
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    1637    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1993ApJ...416..458D&db_key=AST},
    1638   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1639 }
    1640 
    1641 @ARTICLE{Dermer:2002,
    1642    author = {{Dermer}, C.~D.},
    1643     title = "{Neutrino, Neutron, and Cosmic-Ray Production in the External Shock Model of Gamma-Ray Bursts}",
    1644   journal = {\apj},
    1645      year = 2002,
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    1649    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2002ApJ...574...65D&db_key=AST},
    1650   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1651 }
    1652 
    1653 @ARTICLE{Sikora:1994,
    1654    author = {{Sikora}, M. and {Begelman}, M.~C. and {Rees}, M.~J.},
    1655     title = "{Comptonization of diffuse ambient radiation by a relativistic jet: The source of gamma rays from blazars?}",
    1656   journal = {\apj},
    1657      year = 1994,
    1658     month = jan,
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    1661    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1994ApJ...421..153S&db_key=AST},
    1662   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1663 }
    1664 
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    1666    author = {{Blandford}, R.~D. and {Levinson}, A.},
    1667     title = "{Pair cascades in extragalactic jets. 1: Gamma rays}",
    1668   journal = {\apj},
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    1674   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1675 }
    1676 
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    1678    author = {{Wagner}, S.~J. and others},
    1679     title = "{High-Energy Gamma Rays from PKS 1406-076 and the Observation of Correlated Gamma-Ray and Optical Emission}",
    1680   journal = {\apjl},
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    1685    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1995ApJ...454L..97W&db_key=AST},
    1686   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1687 }
    1688 
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    1690    author = {{Blandford}, R.~D. and {Rees}, M.~J.},
    1691     title = "{Some comments on radiation mechanisms in Lacertids}",
    1692 booktitle = {Pittsburgh Conference on BL Lac Objects, Pittsburgh, Pa., April 24-26, 1978, Proceedings. (A79-30026 11-90) Pittsburgh, Pa., University of Pittsburgh, 1978, p. 328-341; Discussion, p. 341-347.  NATO-supported research},
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    1696   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1697 }
    1698 
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    1700    author = {{Bradbury}, S.~M. and others},
    1701     title = "{Detection of {$\gamma$}-rays above 1.5TeV from MKN 501.}",
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    1708   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1709 }
    1710 
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    1712    author = {{Browne}, I.~W.~A.},
    1713     title = "{Is it possible to turn an elliptical radio galaxy into a BL Lac object?}",
    1714   journal = {\mnras},
    1715      year = 1983,
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    1720   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1721 }
    1722 
    1723 @ARTICLE{Celotti:2003,
    1724    author = {{Celotti}, A.},
    1725     title = "{On the energetics and composition of jets}",
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    1732   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1733 }
    1734 
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    1736    author = {{Wardle}, J.~F.~C. and {Moore}, R.~L. and {Angel}, J.~R.~P.},
    1737     title = "{The radio morphology of blazars and relationships to optical polarization and to normal radio galaxies}",
    1738   journal = {\apj},
    1739      year = 1984,
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    1744   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1745 }
    1746 
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    1748    author = {{Lind}, K.~R. and {Blandford}, R.~D.},
    1749     title = "{Semidynamical models of radio jets - Relativistic beaming and source counts}",
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    1751      year = 1985,
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    1757 }
    1758 
    1759 @ARTICLE{Phinney:1986,
    1760    author = {{Phinney}},
    1761     title = {Astrophysics of {A}ctive {G}alaxies and {QSO}s},
    1762 publisher = {Oxford University Press},
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    1767 
    1768 @ARTICLE{Fazio:1979,
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    1772     pages = {135-+},
    1773     title = {Predicted High Energy Break in the Isotropic Gamma Ray Spectrum: a Test of Cosmological Origin},
    1774   journal = {\nat}
    1775 }
    1776 
    1777 @ARTICLE{Punch:1992,
    1778    author = {{Punch}, M. and others},
    1779     title = "{Detection of TeV photons from the active galaxy Markarian 421}",
    1780   journal = {\nat},
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    1782     month = aug,
    1783    volume = 358,
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    1785    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1992Natur.358..477P&db_key=AST},
    1786   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1787 }
    1788 
    1789 @ARTICLE{Fanaroff:1974,
    1790    author = {{Fanaroff}, B.~L. and {Riley}, J.~M.},
    1791     title = "{The morphology of extragalactic radio sources of high and low luminosity}",
    1792   journal = {\mnras},
    1793      year = 1974,
    1794     month = may,
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    1797    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1974MNRAS.167P..31F&db_key=AST},
    1798   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1799 }
    1800 
    1801 @ARTICLE{Odell:1974,
    1802    author = {{Jones}, T.~W. and {O'dell}, S.~L. and {Stein}, W.~A.},
    1803     title = "{Physics of Compact Nonthermal Sources. Theory of Radiation Processes}",
    1804   journal = {\apj},
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    1806     month = mar,
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    1808     pages = {353-368},
    1809    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1974ApJ...188..353J&db_key=AST},
    1810   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1811 }
    1812 
    1813 @ARTICLE{Ghisellini:1993,
    1814    author = {{Ghisellini}, G. and {Padovani}, P. and {Celotti}, A. and {Maraschi}, L.
    1815         },
    1816     title = "{Relativistic bulk motion in active galactic nuclei}",
    1817   journal = {\apj},
    1818      year = 1993,
    1819     month = apr,
    1820    volume = 407,
    1821     pages = {65-82},
    1822    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1993ApJ...407...65G&db_key=AST},
    1823   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1824 }
    1825 
    1826 @ARTICLE{Ghisellini:1998,
    1827    author = {{Ghisellini}, G. and {Celotti}, A. and {Fossati}, G. and {Maraschi}, L. and
    1828         {Comastri}, A.},
    1829     title = "{A theoretical unifying scheme for gamma-ray bright blazars}",
    1830   journal = {\mnras},
    1831      year = 1998,
    1832     month = dec,
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    1835    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998MNRAS.301..451G&db_key=AST},
    1836   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1837 }
    1838 
    1839 @ARTICLE{Hillas:1984,
    1840    author = {{Hillas}, A.~M.},
    1841     title = "{The Origin of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays}",
    1842   journal = {\araa},
    1843      year = 1984,
    1844    volume = 22,
    1845     pages = {425-444},
    1846    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1984ARA%26A..22..425H&db_key=AST},
    1847   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1848 }
    1849 
    1850 @ARTICLE{Hoyle:1966,
    1851    author = {{Hoyle}, F. and {Burbidge}, G.~R. and {Sargent}, W.~L.~W.},
    1852     title = "{On the Nature of Quasi-Stellar Sources}",
    1853   journal = {\nat},
    1854      year = 1966,
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    1857    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1966Natur.209..751H&db_key=AST},
    1858   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1859 }
    1860 
    1861 @ARTICLE{Blandford:1977,
    1862    author = {{Blandford}, R.~D. and {Znajek}, R.~L.},
    1863     title = "{Electromagnetic extraction of energy from Kerr black holes}",
    1864   journal = {\mnras},
    1865      year = 1977,
    1866     month = may,
    1867    volume = 179,
    1868     pages = {433-456},
    1869    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1977MNRAS.179..433B&db_key=AST},
    1870   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1871 }
    1872 
    1873 @ARTICLE{Antonucci:1993,
    1874    author = {{Antonucci}, R.},
    1875     title = "{Unified models for active galactic nuclei and quasars}",
    1876   journal = {\araa},
    1877      year = 1993,
    1878    volume = 31,
    1879     pages = {473-521},
    1880    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1993ARA%26A..31..473A&db_key=AST},
    1881   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1882 }
    1883 
    1884 @ARTICLE{Kirk:1987,
    1885    author = {{Kirk}, J.~G. and {Schneider}, P.},
    1886     title = "{On the acceleration of charged particles at relativistic shock fronts}",
    1887   journal = {\apj},
    1888      year = 1987,
    1889     month = apr,
    1890    volume = 315,
    1891     pages = {425-433},
    1892    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1987ApJ...315..425K&db_key=AST},
    1893   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1894 }
    1895 
    1896 @ARTICLE{Kirk:1998,
    1897    author = {{Kirk}, J.~G. and {Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mastichiadis}, A.},
    1898     title = "{Particle acceleration and synchrotron emission in blazar jets}",
    1899   journal = {\aap},
    1900      year = 1998,
    1901     month = may,
    1902    volume = 333,
    1903     pages = {452-458},
    1904    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998A%26A...333..452K&db_key=AST},
    1905   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1906 }
    1907 
    1908 @ARTICLE{Lawrence:1987,
    1909    author = {{Lawrence}, A.},
    1910     title = "{Classification of active galaxies and the prospect of a unified phenomenology}",
    1911   journal = {\pasp},
    1912      year = 1987,
    1913     month = may,
    1914    volume = 99,
    1915     pages = {309-334},
    1916    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1987PASP...99..309L&db_key=AST},
    1917   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1918 }
    1919 
    1920 @ARTICLE{Padovani:1993,
    1921    author = {{Padovani}, P.},
    1922     title = "{The Radio Loud Fraction of QSOs and its Dependence on Magnitude and Redshift}",
    1923   journal = {\mnras},
    1924      year = 1993,
    1925     month = jul,
    1926    volume = 263,
    1927     pages = {461-+},
    1928    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1993MNRAS.263..461P&db_key=AST},
    1929   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1930 }
    1931 
    1932 @ARTICLE{LaFranca:1994,
    1933    author = {{La Franca}, F. and {Gregorini}, L. and {Cristiani}, S. and
    1934         {de Ruiter}, H. and {Owen}, F.},
    1935     title = "{Deep VLA observations of an optically selected sample of intermediate redshift QSOs and the optical luminosity function of the radio loud QSOs}",
    1936   journal = {\aj},
    1937      year = 1994,
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    1940     pages = {1548-1556},
    1941    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1994AJ....108.1548L&db_key=AST},
    1942   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1943 }
    1944 
    1945 @ARTICLE{DellaCeca:1994,
    1946    author = {{della Ceca}, R. and {Lamorani}, G. and {Maccacaro}, T. and
    1947         {Wolter}, A. and {Griffiths}, R. and {Stocke}, J.~T. and {Setti}, G.
    1948         },
    1949     title = "{The properties of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei. 3: The radio-quiet versus radio-loud samples}",
    1950   journal = {\apj},
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    1955    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1994ApJ...430..533D&db_key=AST},
    1956   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1957 }
    1958 
    1959 @ARTICLE{Pier:1992,
    1960    author = {{Pier}, E.~A. and {Krolik}, J.~H.},
    1961     title = "{Radiation-pressure-supported obscuring tori around active galactic nuclei}",
    1962   journal = {\apjl},
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    1967    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1992ApJ...399L..23P&db_key=AST},
    1968   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1969 }
    1970 
    1971 @ARTICLE{Pier:1993,
    1972    author = {{Pier}, E.~A. and {Krolik}, J.~H.},
    1973     title = "{Infrared Spectra of Obscuring Dust Tori around Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Comparison with Observations}",
    1974   journal = {\apj},
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    1979    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1993ApJ...418..673P&db_key=AST},
    1980   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1981 }
    1982 
    1983 @ARTICLE{Sanders:1989,
    1984    author = {{Sanders}, D.~B. and {Phinney}, E.~S. and {Neugebauer}, G. and
    1985         {Soifer}, B.~T. and {Matthews}, K.},
    1986     title = "{Continuum energy distribution of quasars - Shapes and origins}",
    1987   journal = {\apj},
    1988      year = 1989,
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    1992    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1989ApJ...347...29S&db_key=AST},
    1993   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    1994 }
    1995 
    1996 @ARTICLE{Ghisellini:1996a,
    1997    author = {{Ghisellini}, G. and {Madau}, P.},
    1998     title = "{On the origin of the gamma-ray emission in blazars}",
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    2004    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1996MNRAS.280...67G&db_key=AST},
    2005   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2006 }
    2007 
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    2009    author = {{Costamante}, L. and {Ghisellini}, G. and {Giommi}, P. and {Tagliaferri}, G. and
    2010         {Celotti}, A. and {Chiaberge}, M. and {Fossati}, G. and {Maraschi}, L. and
    2011         {Tavecchio}, F. and {Treves}, A. and {Wolter}, A.},
    2012     title = "{Extreme synchrotron BL Lac objects. Stretching the blazar sequence}",
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    2019   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2020 }
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    2023 @ARTICLE{Blandford:1979,
    2024    author = {{Blandford}, R.~D. and {K\"onigl}, A.},
    2025     title = "{Relativistic jets as compact radio sources}",
    2026   journal = {\apj},
    2027      year = 1979,
    2028     month = aug,
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    2031    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1979ApJ...232...34B&db_key=AST},
    2032   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2033 }
    2034 
    2035 @ARTICLE{Ghisellini:1996b,
    2036    author = {{Ghisellini}, G. and {Maraschi}, L. and {Dondi}, L.},
    2037     title = "{Diagnostics of Inverse-Compton models for the {$\gamma$}-ray emission of 3C~279 and MKN 421.}",
    2038   journal = {\aaps},
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    2044   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2045 }
    2046 
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    2048    author = {{Lamer}, G. and {Brunner}, H. and {Staubert}, R.},
    2049     title = "{ROSAT observations of BL Lacertae objects.}",
    2050   journal = {\aap},
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    2056   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2057 }
    2058 
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    2060    author = {{Blustin}, A.~J. and {Page}, M.~J. and {Branduardi-Raymont}, G.
    2061         },
    2062     title = "{Intrinsic absorbers in BL Lac objects: The XMM-Newton view}",
    2063   journal = {\aap},
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    2069   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2070 }
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    2073    author = {{Spergel}, D.~N. and others},
    2074     title = "{Three Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Implications for cosmology}",
    2075   journal = {in preparation},
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    2081    author = {{Weekes}, T.~C. and {Cawley}, M.~F. and {Fegan}, D.~J. and {Gibbs}, K.~G. and
    2082         {Hillas}, A.~M. and {Kowk}, P.~W. and {Lamb}, R.~C. and {Lewis}, D.~A. and
    2083         {Macomb}, D. and {Porter}, N.~A. and {Reynolds}, P.~T. and {Vacanti}, G.
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    2085     title = "{Observation of TeV gamma rays from the Crab nebula using the atmospheric Cerenkov imaging technique}",
    2086   journal = {\apj},
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    2091    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1989ApJ...342..379W&db_key=AST},
    2092   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2093 }
    2094 
    2095 @ARTICLE{Morrison:1958,
    2096    author = {Morrison, P.},
    2097    title  = {On Gamma-Ray Astronomy},
    2098   journal = {Il nuovo cimento},
    2099      year = 1958,
    2100    volume  = {Vol.\,VII, N.\,6},
    2101 }
    2102 
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    2105     title = "{On Particle Acceleration around Shocks. II. A Fully General Method for Arbitrary Shock Velocities and Scattering Media}",
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    2112   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2113 }
    2114 
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    2116    author = {{Blandford}, R.~D. and {Payne}, D.~G.},
    2117     title = "{Hydromagnetic flows from accretion discs and the production of radio jets}",
    2118   journal = {\mnras},
    2119      year = 1982,
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    2124   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2125 }
    2126 
    2127 @INPROCEEDINGS{Hillas:1983,
    2128    author = {{Hillas}, A.~M.},
    2129     title = "{Ultra high energy cosmic rays}",
    2130 booktitle = {NATO ASIC Proc. 107: Composition and Origin of Cosmic Rays},
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    2134   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2135 }
    2136 
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    2138    editor = {{Holt}, S.~S. and {Neff}, S.~G. and {Urry}, C.~M.},
    2139     title = "{Testing the AGN paradigm; Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Topical Astrophysics Conference, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Oct. 14-16, 1991}",
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    2143   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2144 }
    2145 
    2146 @BOOK{Heitler:1957,
    2147     author = {{Heitler}, W.},
    2148     title = "{Quantum theory of radiation}",
    2149 publisher = {International Series of Monographs on Physics, Oxford: Clarendon, 1954, 3rd ed.},
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    2152   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2153 }
    2154 
    2155 @ARTICLE{Halzen:1992b,
    2156    author = {{Halzen}, F.},
    2157     title = "{Gamma-Ray Astronomy - Catching Photons from Hell}",
    2158   journal = {\nat},
    2159      year = 1992,
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    2164   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2165 }
    2166 
    2167 @ARTICLE{Halzen:1991,
    2168    author = {{Halzen}, F. and {Zas}, E. and {MacGibbon}, J.~H. and {Weekes}, T.~C.
    2169         },
    2170     title = "{Gamma rays and energetic particles from primordial black holes}",
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    2177   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2178 }
    2179 
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    2181    author = {{Halzen}, F. and {Zas}, E.},
    2182     title = "{Giant horizontal air showers. Implications for AGN neutrino fluxes}",
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    2189   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2190 }
    2191 
    2192 @PROCEEDINGS{Stenger:1992,
    2193    editor = {{Stenger}, V.~J. and {Learned}, J.~G. and {Pakvasa}, S. and
    2194         {Tata}, X.},
    2195     title = "{High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics}",
    2196 booktitle = {High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics},
    2197      year = 1992,
    2198    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1992hena.conf.....S&db_key=AST},
    2199   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2200 }
    2201 
    2202 @INPROCEEDINGS{Cassiday:1989,
    2203    author = {{Cassiday}, G.~L. and {et al.}},
    2204     title = "{Neutrino Detection with the High Resolution Eye}",
    2205 booktitle = {Particle Astrophysics: Forefront Experimental Issues},
    2206      year = 1989,
    2207     pages = {259-+},
    2208    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1989pafe.conf..259C&db_key=AST},
    2209   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2210 }
    2211 
    2212 @INPROCEEDINGS{Pian:1997,
    2213    author = {{Pian}, E. and {Vacanti}, G. and {Tagliaferri}, G. and {Ghisellini}, G. and
    2214         {Maraschi}, L. and {Treves}, A. and {Urry}, C.~M. and {Fiore}, F. and
    2215         {Giommi}, P. and {Palazzi}, E. and {Chiappetti}, L. and {Sambruna}, R.~M.
    2216         },
    2217     title = "{BeppoSAX Monitoring of the BL Lac MKN 501}",
    2218 booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourth Compton Symposium},
    2219   journal = {AIP Conf. Proc.},
    2220      year = 1997,
    2221    volume = 410,
    2222     pages = {1412-+},
    2223    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1997AIPC..410.1412P&db_key=AST},
    2224   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2225 }
    2226 
    2227 @ARTICLE{Giommi:2000,
    2228    author = {{Giommi}, P. and {Padovani}, P. and {Perlman}, E.},
    2229     title = "{Detection of exceptional X-ray spectral variability in the TeV BL Lac 1ES 2344+514}",
    2230   journal = {\mnras},
    2231      year = 2000,
    2232     month = oct,
    2233    volume = 317,
    2234     pages = {743-749},
    2235    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2000MNRAS.317..743G&db_key=AST},
    2236   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2237 }
    2238 
    2239 @ARTICLE{Hartman:1999,
    2240    author = {{Hartman}, R.~C. and others},
    2241     title = "{The Third EGRET Catalog of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources}",
    2242   journal = {\apjs},
    2243      year = 1999,
    2244     month = jul,
    2245    volume = 123,
    2246     pages = {79-202},
    2247    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1999ApJS..123...79H&db_key=AST},
    2248   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2249 }
    2250 
    2251 @ARTICLE{Feldman:1998,
    2252    author = {{Feldman}, G.~J. and {Cousins}, R.~D.},
    2253     title = "{Unified approach to the classical statistical analysis of small signals}",
    2254   journal = {\prd},
    2255      year = 1998,
    2256     month = apr,
    2257    volume = 57,
    2258     pages = {3873-3889},
    2259    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998PhRvD..57.3873F&db_key=PHY},
    2260   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2261 }
    2262 
    2263 @ARTICLE{Inoue:1996,
    2264    author = {{Inoue}, S. and {Takahara}, F.},
    2265     title = "{Electron Acceleration and Gamma-Ray Emission from Blazars}",
    2266   journal = {\apj},
    2267      year = 1996,
    2268     month = jun,
    2269    volume = 463,
    2270     pages = {555-+},
    2271    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1996ApJ...463..555I&db_key=AST},
    2272   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2273 }
    2274 
    2275 @ARTICLE{Chiaberge:1997,
    2276    author = {{Chiaberge}, M. and {Ghisellini}, G.},
    2277     title = "{Time dependent spectra of blazars}",
    2278   journal = {Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana},
    2279      year = 1997,
    2280    volume = 68,
    2281     pages = {191-+},
    2282    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1997MmSAI..68..191C&db_key=AST},
    2283   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2284 }
    2285 
    2286 @ARTICLE{Mastichiadis:1997,
    2287    author = {{Mastichiadis}, A. and {Kirk}, J.~G.},
    2288     title = "{Variability in the synchrotron self-Compton model of blazar emission.}",
    2289   journal = {\aap},
    2290      year = 1997,
    2291     month = apr,
    2292    volume = 320,
    2293     pages = {19-25},
    2294    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1997A%26A...320...19M&db_key=AST},
    2295   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2296 }
    2297 
    2298 @INPROCEEDINGS{Marscher:1996a,
    2299    author = {{Marscher}, A.~P.},
    2300     title = "{The Inner Jets of Blazars}",
    2301 booktitle = {ASP Conf. Ser. 100: Energy Transport in Radio Galaxies and Quasars},
    2302      year = 1996,
    2303    editor = {{Hardee}, P.~E. and {Bridle}, A.~H. and {Zensus}, J.~A.},
    2304     pages = {45-+},
    2305    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1996ASPC..100...45M&db_key=AST},
    2306   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2307 }
    2308 
    2309 @ARTICLE{Marscher:1996b,
    2310    author = {{Marscher}, A.~P. and {Travis}, J.~P.},
    2311     title = "{Synchrotron self-Compton interpretation of multiwaveband observations of gamma-ray bright blazars.}",
    2312   journal = {\aaps},
    2313      year = 1996,
    2314     month = dec,
    2315    volume = 120,
    2316     pages = {C537+},
    2317    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1996A%26AS..120C.537M&db_key=AST},
    2318   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2319 }
    2320 
    2321 @ARTICLE{Maraschi:1992,
    2322    author = {{Maraschi}, L. and {Ghisellini}, G. and {Celotti}, A.},
    2323     title = "{A jet model for the gamma-ray emitting blazar 3C~279}",
    2324   journal = {\apjl},
    2325      year = 1992,
    2326     month = sep,
    2327    volume = 397,
    2328     pages = {L5-L9},
    2329    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1992ApJ...397L...5M&db_key=AST},
    2330   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2331 }
    2332 
    2333 @ARTICLE{Giommi:1999,
    2334    author = {{Giommi}, P. and {Menna}, M.~T. and {Padovani}, P.},
    2335     title = "{The sedentary multifrequency survey - I. Statistical identification and cosmological properties of high-energy peaked BL Lacs}",
    2336   journal = {\mnras},
    2337      year = 1999,
    2338     month = dec,
    2339    volume = 310,
    2340     pages = {465-475},
    2341    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1999MNRAS.310..465G&db_key=AST},
    2342   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2343 }
    2344 
    2345 @ARTICLE{Padovani:2003,
    2346    author = {{Padovani}, P. and {Perlman}, E.~S. and {Landt}, H. and {Giommi}, P. and
    2347         {Perri}, M.},
    2348     title = "{What Types of Jets Does Nature Make? A New Population of Radio Quasars}",
    2349   journal = {\apj},
    2350      year = 2003,
    2351     month = may,
    2352    volume = 588,
    2353     pages = {128-142},
    2354    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2003ApJ...588..128P&db_key=AST},
    2355   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2356 }
    2357 
    2358 @ARTICLE{Giommi:2005b,
    2359    author = {{Giommi}, P. and {Piranomonte}, S. and {Perri}, M. and {Padovani},P.
    2360         },
    2361     title = "{The sedentary survey of extreme high energy peaked BL Lacs}",
    2362   journal = {\aap},
    2363      year = 2005,
    2364     month = apr,
    2365    volume = 434,
    2366     pages = {385-396},
    2367    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2005A%26A...434..385G&db_key=AST},
    2368   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2369 }
    2370 
    2371 @ARTICLE{Nieppola:2006,
    2372    author = {{Nieppola}, E. and {Tornikoski}, M. and {Valtaoja}, E.},
    2373     title = "{Spectral energy distributions of a large sample of BL Lacertae objects}",
    2374   journal = {\aap},
    2375      year = 2006,
    2376     month = jan,
    2377    volume = 445,
    2378     pages = {441-450},
    2379    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2006A%26A...445..441N&db_key=AST},
    2380   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2381 }
    2382 
    2383 @ARTICLE{Gould:1965,
    2384    author = {{Gould}, R.~J.},
    2385     title = "{High-Energy Photons from the Compton-Synchrotron Process in the Crab Nebula}",
    2386   journal = {\prl},
    2387      year = 1965,
    2388     month = oct,
    2389    volume = 15,
    2390     pages = {577-579},
    2391    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1965PhRvL..15..577G&db_key=PHY},
    2392   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2393 }
    2394 
    2395 @ARTICLE{Lamb:1997,
    2396    author = {{Lamb}, R.~C. and {Macomb}, D.~J.},
    2397     title = "{Point Sources of GeV Gamma Rays}",
    2398   journal = {\apj},
    2399      year = 1997,
    2400     month = oct,
    2401    volume = 488,
    2402     pages = {872-+},
    2403    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1997ApJ...488..872L&db_key=AST},
    2404   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2405 }
    2406 
    2407 @ARTICLE{Buckley:1998,
    2408    author = {{Buckley}, J.~H.},
    2409     title = "{ASTROPHYSICS: What the Wild Things Are}",
    2410   journal = {Science},
    2411      year = 1998,
    2412     month = jan,
    2413    volume = 279,
    2414     pages = {676-+},
    2415    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1998Sci...279..676B&db_key=AST},
    2416   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2417 }
    2418 
    2419 @INPROCEEDINGS{Dermer:1994,
    2420    author = {Dermer, C.~D.},
    2421 booktitle = "{NATO Advanced Study Institute: The Gamma-Ray Sky}",
    2422     year  = 1994,
    2423 publisher = {Dodrecht: Kluwer Academic},
    2424     pages = {39}
    2425 }
    2426 
    2427 @ARTICLE{Rees:1966,
    2428    author = {{Rees}, M.~J.},
    2429     title = "{Appearance of Relativistically Expanding Radio Sources}",
    2430   journal = {\nat},
    2431      year = 1966,
    2432    volume = 211,
    2433     pages = {468-+},
    2434    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1966Natur.211..468R&db_key=AST},
    2435   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2436 }
    2437 
    2438 @ARTICLE{Rees:1966b,
    2439    author = {{Rees}, M.~J. and {Sciama}, D.~W.},
    2440     title = "{Inverse Compton Effect in Quasars}",
    2441   journal = {\nat},
    2442      year = 1966,
    2443    volume = 211,
    2444     pages = {805-+},
    2445    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1966Natur.211..805R&db_key=AST},
    2446   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2447 }
    2448 
    2449 @ARTICLE{n/a,
    2450    author = {n/a},
    2451     title = {n/a},
    2452   journal = {n/a},
    2453      year = 0
    2454 }
    2455 
    2456 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2457 
    2458 \bibitem{Magic-PMT}
    2459 A.~Ostankov et~al.,
    2460 \newblock {\em A study of the new hemispherical 6-dynodes PMT from electron
    2461   tubes},
    2462 \newblock Nucl. Instrum. Meth. {\bf A442} (2000) 117.
    2463 
    2464 \bibitem{MAGIC-analog-link-2}
    2465 E.~Lorenz et~al.,
    2466 \newblock {\em A fast, large dynamic range analog signal transfer system based
    2467   on optical fibers},
    2468 \newblock Nucl. Instrum. Meth. {\bf A461} (2001) 517.
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    2470 \bibitem{Magic-DAQ}
    2471 J.~Cortina et~al. (MAGIC Collab.),
    2472 \newblock {\em The data acquisition of the MAGIC telescope},
    2473 \newblock Prepared for International Symposium: The Universe Viewed in Gamma
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    2475 
    2476 \bibitem{MAGIC-design}
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    2478 \newblock {\em The MAGIC Telescope -- Design Study for the Construction of a
    2479   17\,m Cherenkov Telescope for Gamma Astronomy above 10\,GeV},
    2480 \newblock (1998), MPI-PhE 98-05.
    2481 
    2482 \bibitem{MAGIC-calibration}
    2483 T.~Schweizer et~al.,
    2484 \newblock {\em The optical calibration of the MAGIC telescope camera},
    2485 \newblock IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. {\bf 49} (2002) 2497.
    2486 
    2487 \bibitem{MC_timing_Indians}
    2488 V.~R. {Chitnis} and P.~N. {Bhat},
    2489 \newblock {\em {Possible discrimination between gamma rays and hadrons using
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    2491 \newblock Astroparticle Physics {\bf 15} (2001) 29.
    2492 
    2493 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2494 
    2495 @ARTICLE{Aharonian:2006,
    2496    author = {{Aharonian}, F. and others},
    2497     title = "{The H.E.S.S.\ Survey of the Inner Galaxy in Very High Energy Gamma Rays}",
    2498   journal = {\apj},
    2499      year = 2006,
    2500     month = jan,
    2501    volume = 636,
    2502     pages = {777-797},
    2503    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2006ApJ...636..777A},
    2504   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2505 }
    2506 
    2507 @ARTICLE{Paneque:2004,
    2508    author = {{Paneque}, D. and {Gebauer}, H.~J. and {Lorenz}, E. and {Mirzoyan}, R.
    2509         },
    2510     title = "{A method to enhance the sensitivity of photomultipliers for Air Cherenkov Telescopes by applying a lacquer that scatters light}",
    2511   journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A},
    2512      year = 2004,
    2513     month = feb,
    2514    volume = 518,
    2515     pages = {619-621},
    2516    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2004NIMPA.518..619P},
    2517   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2518 }
    2519 
    2520 @ARTICLE{Milagro:2007,
    2521    author = {{Abdo}, A.~A. and others},
    2522     title = "{TeV Gamma-Ray Sources from a Survey of the Galactic Plane with Milagro}",
    2523   journal = {ArXiv e-prints},
    2524    eprint = {0705.0707},
    2525      year = 2007,
    2526     month = may,
    2527    volume = 705,
    2528    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007arXiv0705.0707A},
    2529   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2530 }
    2531 
    2532 @ARTICLE{Rieger:2000,
    2533    author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.},
    2534     title = "{Implications of a possible 23 day periodicity for binary black hole models in Mkn 501}",
    2535   journal = {\aap},
    2536    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0005478},
    2537      year = 2000,
    2538     month = jul,
    2539    volume = 359,
    2540     pages = {948-952},
    2541    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2000A%26A...359..948R},
    2542   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2543 }
    2544 
    2545 @INPROCEEDINGS{Rieger:2001,
    2546    author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.},
    2547     title = "{A Possible Black Hole Binary in Mkn 501}",
    2548 booktitle = {American Institute of Physics Conference Series},
    2549      year = 2001,
    2550    volume = 558,
    2551    editor = {{Aharonian}, F.~A. and {V{\"o}lk}, H.~J.},
    2552     pages = {716-+},
    2553    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2001AIPC..558..716R},
    2554   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2555 }
    2556 
    2557 @ARTICLE{Rieger:2003,
    2558    author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.},
    2559     title = "{On the central black hole mass in Mkn 501}",
    2560   journal = {\aap},
    2561    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0210326},
    2562      year = 2003,
    2563     month = jan,
    2564    volume = 397,
    2565     pages = {121-125},
    2566    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2003A%26A...397..121R},
    2567   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2568 }
    2569 
    2570 @ARTICLE{Blandford,
    2571    author = {{Blandford}, R.~D. and {K\"onigl}, A.},
    2572     title = {Relativistic jets as compact radio sources},
    2573   journal = {\apj},
    2574      year = 1979,
    2575     month = aug,
    2576    volume = 232,
    2577     pages = {34-48},
    2578    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1979ApJ...232...34B},
    2579   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2580 }
    2581 
    2582 @ARTICLE{Dermer,
    2583    author = {{Dermer}, C.~D. and {Schlickeiser}, R. and {Mastichiadis}, A.},
    2584     title = {High-energy gamma radiation from extragalactic radio sources},
    2585   journal = {\aap},
    2586      year = 1992,
    2587     month = mar,
    2588    volume = 256,
    2589     pages = {L27-L30},
    2590    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1992A%26A...256L..27D},
    2591   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2592 }
    2593 
    2594 @ARTICLE{Begelman,
    2595    author = {{Begelman}, M.~C. and {Fabian}, A.~C. and {Rees}, M.~J.},
    2596     title = "{Implications of very rapid TeV variability in blazars}",
    2597   journal = {ArXiv e-prints},
    2598    eprint = {0709.0540},
    2599      year = 2007,
    2600     month = sep,
    2601    volume = 709,
    2602    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007arXiv0709.0540B},
    2603   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2604 }
    2605 
    2606 @ARTICLE{Meszaros,
    2607    author = {{Meszaros}, P. and {Rees}, M.~J.},
    2608     title = {Gamma-Ray Bursts: Multiwaveband Spectral Predictions for Blast Wave Models},
    2609   journal = {\apjl},
    2610    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/9309011},
    2611      year = 1993,
    2612     month = dec,
    2613    volume = 418,
    2614     pages = {L59+},
    2615    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1993ApJ...418L..59M},
    2616   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2617 }
    2618 
    2619 @ARTICLE{Rachen,
    2620    author = {{Rachen}, J.~P. and {Biermann}, P.~L.},
    2621     title = {{E}xtragalactic {U}ltra-{H}igh {E}nergy {C}osmic-{R}ays - {P}art {O}ne - {C}ontribution from {H}ot {S}pots in {Fr-II} {R}adio {G}alaxies},
    2622   journal = {\aap},
    2623    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/9301010},
    2624      year = 1993,
    2625     month = may,
    2626    volume = 272,
    2627     pages = {161-+},
    2628    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1993A%26A...272..161R},
    2629   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2630 }
    2631 
    2632 @INPROCEEDINGS{Mannheim:1999,
    2633    author = {{Mannheim}, K.},
    2634     title = {Frontiers in High-Energy Astroparticle Physics},
    2635 booktitle = {Reviews in Modern Astronomy},
    2636      year = 1999,
    2637    volume = 12,
    2638    editor = {{Schielicke}, R.~E.},
    2639     pages = {167-+},
    2640    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1999RvMA...12..167M},
    2641   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2642 }
    2643 
    2644 @ARTICLE{Blazejowski,
    2645    author = {{B{\l}a{\.z}ejowski}, M. and others},
    2646     title = "{A Multiwavelength View of the TeV Blazar Markarian 421: Correlated Variability, Flaring, and Spectral Evolution}",
    2647   journal = {\apj},
    2648    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0505325},
    2649      year = 2005,
    2650     month = sep,
    2651    volume = 630,
    2652     pages = {130-141},
    2653    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2005ApJ...630..130B},
    2654   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2655 }
    2656 
    2657 @ARTICLE{Rieger:2007,
    2658    author = {{Rieger}, F.~M.},
    2659     title = {Supermassive binary black holes among cosmic gamma-ray sources},
    2660   journal = {\apss},
    2661    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0611224},
    2662      year = 2007,
    2663     month = jun,
    2664    volume = 309,
    2665     pages = {271-275},
    2666    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007Ap%26SS.309..271R},
    2667   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2668 }
    2669 
    2670 @INPROCEEDINGS{Kranich,
    2671    author = {{Kranich}, D.},
    2672     title = {Evidence for a {QPO} structure in the {TeV} and X-ray light curve during the 1997 high state {$\gamma$} emission of {Mkn}\,501},
    2673 booktitle = {International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    2674      year = 1999,
    2675    volume = 3,
    2676     month = aug,
    2677     pages = {358-+},
    2678    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1999ICRC....3..358K},
    2679   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2680 }
    2681 
    2682 @ARTICLE{Osone,
    2683    author = {{Osone}, S.},
    2684     title = "{Study of 23 day periodicity of Blazar Mkn501 in 1997}",
    2685   journal = {Astroparticle Physics},
    2686    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0506328},
    2687      year = 2006,
    2688     month = oct,
    2689    volume = 26,
    2690     pages = {209-218},
    2691    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2006APh....26..209O},
    2692   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2693 }
    2694 
    2695 @ARTICLE{Rieger:2003,
    2696    author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.},
    2697     title = {On the central black hole mass in Mkn 501},
    2698   journal = {\aap},
    2699    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0210326},
    2700      year = 2003,
    2701     month = jan,
    2702    volume = 397,
    2703     pages = {121-125},
    2704    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2003A%26A...397..121R},
    2705   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2706 }
    2707 
    2708 @ARTICLE{Hong,
    2709    author = {{Hong}, X.~Y. and others},
    2710     title = "{A relativistic helical jet in the {$\gamma$}-ray AGN 1156+295}",
    2711   journal = {\aap},
    2712    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0401627},
    2713      year = 2004,
    2714     month = apr,
    2715    volume = 417,
    2716     pages = {887-904},
    2717    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2004A%26A...417..887H},
    2718   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2719 }
    2720 
    2721 @ARTICLE{Aharonian:2006,
    2722    author = {{Aharonian}, F. and others},
    2723     title = "{The H.E.S.S.\ Survey of the Inner Galaxy in Very High Energy Gamma Rays}",
    2724   journal = {\apj},
    2725      year = 2006,
    2726     month = jan,
    2727    volume = 636,
    2728     pages = {777-797},
    2729    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2006ApJ...636..777A},
    2730   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2731 }
    2732 
    2733 @MASTERSTHESIS{Meyer:Diploma,
    2734   author = {Meyer, M.},
    2735   title  = {{K}alibrierung des {MAGIC}-{T}eleskops mit {M}yonen},
    2736   school = {Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
    2737   year   = {2004}
    2738 }
    2739 
    2740 @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2003drive,
    2741    author = {Bretz, T. and Dorner, D. and Wagner, R. M.},
    2742     title = "{The tracking system of the MAGIC telescope}",
    2743 booktitle = {$28^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    2744      year = 2003,
    2745 }
    2746 
    2747 @MASTERSTHESIS{Riegel:Diploma,
    2748   author = {Riegel, B.},
    2749   title  = {{S}ystematische {U}ntersuchung der {B}ildparameter f\"ur das {MAGIC}-{T}eleskop},
    2750   school = {Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
    2751   year   = {2005}
    2752 }
    2753 
    2754 
    2755 @ARTICLE{Milagro:2007,
    2756    author = {{Abdo}, A.~A. and others},
    2757     title = "{TeV Gamma-Ray Sources from a Survey of the Galactic Plane with Milagro}",
    2758   journal = {ArXiv e-prints},
    2759    eprint = {0705.0707},
    2760      year = 2007,
    2761     month = may,
    2762    volume = 705,
    2763    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007arXiv0705.0707A},
    2764   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2765 }
    2766 
    2767 @ARTICLE{Curtef:CM,
    2768    author = {{Curtef}, V. and {Backes}, M. and {Hadasch}, D.},
    2769     title = "{Improvements of the energy reconstruction for the MAGIC telescope by means of analysis and Monte Carlo techniques}",
    2770   journal = {Astronomische Nachrichten},
    2771    eprint = {0711.2256},
    2772      year = 2007,
    2773    volume = 328,
    2774    number = 7,
    2775 }
    2776 
    2777 @INPROCEEDINGS{Rieger:2001,
    2778    author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.},
    2779     title = "{A Possible Black Hole Binary in Mkn 501}",
    2780 booktitle = {American Institute of Physics Conference Series},
    2781      year = 2001,
    2782    volume = 558,
    2783    editor = {{Aharonian}, F.~A. and {V{\"o}lk}, H.~J.},
    2784     pages = {716-+},
    2785    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2001AIPC..558..716R},
    2786   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2787 }
    2788 
    2789 @ARTICLE{Rieger:2003,
    2790    author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.},
    2791     title = "{On the central black hole mass in Mkn 501}",
    2792   journal = {\aap},
    2793    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0210326},
    2794      year = 2003,
    2795     month = jan,
    2796    volume = 397,
    2797     pages = {121-125},
    2798    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2003A%26A...397..121R},
    2799   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2800 }
    2801 
    2802 @ARTICLE{Aharonian:2007pks,
    2803 author = {{Aharonian}, F. and others},
    2804 title = "{An Exceptional Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Flare of PKS 2155-304}",
    2805 journal = {\apjl},
    2806 eprint = {arXiv:0706.0797},
    2807 year = 2007,
    2808 month = aug,
    2809 volume = 664,
    2810 pages = {L71-L74},
    2811 adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007ApJ...664L..71A},
    2812 adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2813 }
    2814 
    2815 @MASTERSTHESIS{Haffke:Dipl,
    2816   author = {Haffke, M.},
    2817   title  = "{Berechnung und Implementierung neuer Atmosph\"arenmodelle in die MAGIC-Monte-Carlo-Kette}",
    2818   school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund},
    2819   month  = {Mar},
    2820   year   = {2007}
    2821 }
    2822 
    2823 @MASTERSTHESIS{Dreyer:Dipl,
    2824   author = {Dreyer, J.},
    2825   title  = {Hard- und {S}oftwareentwicklung im {R}ahmen der {E}xperimente {AMANDA} und {IceCube}},
    2826   school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund},
    2827   month  = {Nov},
    2828   year   = {2005}
    2829 }
    2830 
    2831 @MASTERSTHESIS{Refflinghaus:Dipl,
    2832   author = {Refflinghaus, F.},
    2833   title  = "{Datenkompression der Photomultiplier-Signale des AMANDA-Neutrinodetektors}",
    2834   school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund},
    2835   month  = {Nov},
    2836   year   = {2005}
    2837 }
    2838 
    2839 @MASTERSTHESIS{Bartelt:Dipl,
    2840   author = {Bartelt, M.},
    2841   title  = "{Test von alternativen Konzepten zur Hochspannungsversorgung des IceCube-Detektors}",
    2842   school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund},
    2843   month  = {Dez},
    2844   year   = {2004}
    2845 }
    2846 
    2847 @MASTERSTHESIS{Deeg:Dipl,
    2848   author = {Deeg, M.},
    2849   title  = "{Prototypenentwicklung eines Detektorsystems f\"ur ultrahochenergetische Kosmische Strahlung}",
    2850   school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund},
    2851   month  = {Feb},
    2852   year   = {2003}
    2853 }
    2854 
    2855 @PHDTHESIS{Messarius:PhD,
    2856   author = {Messarius, T.},
    2857   title  = {Entwurf und Realisation des AMANDA Softwaretriggers f\"ur das TWR Datenauslese System},
    2858   school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund},
    2859   month  = {Aug},
    2860   year   = {2003}
    2861 }
    2862 
    2863 @PHDTHESIS{Wagner:PhD,
    2864   author = {Wagner, W.},
    2865   title  = "{Design and Realisation of a new AMANDA Data Aquisition System with Transient Waveform Recorders}",
    2866   school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund},
    2867   month  = {Oct},
    2868   year   = {2003}
    2869 }
    2870 
    2871 @PHDTHESIS{Schroeder:PhD,
    2872   author = {Schroeder, F.},
    2873   title  = "{Simulation und Beobachtung von Luftschauern unter großen Zenitwinkeln}",
    2874   school = {Bergische Universit{\"a}t Wuppertal},
    2875   year   = {2001}
    2876 }
    2877 
    2878 @ARTICLE{hepph0407075,
    2879   author  = {{Albert}, J.},
    2880   title   = "{Implementation of the Random Forest Method for the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope MAGIC}",
    2881   journal = {ArXiv e-prints},
    2882   eprint  = {0709.3719},
    2883   year    = {2007},
    2884   month   = {Sep},
    2885   volume  = {709},
    2886   adsurl  = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007arXiv0709.3719A},
    2887   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2888 }
    2889 
    2890 @INPROCEEDINGS{Curtef:CDM,
    2891    author = {Curtef, V. and Backes, M. and Hadasch, D.},
    2892    title  = {Improvements of the energy reconstruction for the MAGIC telescope by means of analysis and Monte Carlo techniques},
    2893 booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten},
    2894    volume = 328,
    2895      year = 2007,
    2896 }
    2897 
    2898 @INPROCEEDINGS{Rueger,
    2899    author = {R\"{u}ger, M. and Spanier, F.},
    2900 booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten},
    2901    volume = 328,
    2902      year = 2007,
    2903 }
    2904 
    2905 @INPROCEEDINGS{Burkart,
    2906    author = {Burkart, T. and Spanier, F.},
    2907 booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten},
    2908    volume = 328,
    2909      year = 2007,
    2910 }
    2911 
    2912 @INPROCEEDINGS{Ruegamer,
    2913    author = {R\"{u}gamer, S. and others},
    2914    title  = {Wide Range Multifrequency Observations of Northern TeV Blazars},
    2915 booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten},
    2916    volume = 328,
    2917      year = 2007,
    2918 }
    2919 
    2920 @ARTICLE{Kneiske,
    2921    author = {{Kneiske}, T.~M. and {Bretz}, T. and {Mannheim}, K. and {Hartmann}, D.~H.},
    2922     title = {Implications of cosmological gamma-ray absorption. {II}. Modification of gamma-ray spectra},
    2923   journal = {\aap},
    2924      year = 2004,
    2925     month = jan,
    2926    volume = 413,
    2927     pages = {807-815},
    2928    adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2004A%26A...413..807K&db_key=AST},
    2929   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2930 }
    2931  
    2932 @INPROCEEDINGS{Mannheim:1995,
    2933   author    = {{Mannheim}, K.}, 
    2934   title     = "{Gamma Rays from Compact Objects. (Ludwig Biermann Award Lecture 1995)}",
    2935   booktitle = {Reviews in Modern Astronomy},
    2936   year      = 1996,
    2937   volume    = 9,
    2938   editor    = {{Schielicke}, R.~E.},
    2939   pages     = {17-48}
    2940 }
    2941 
    2942 @ARTICLE{Albert:501,
    2943    author = {{Albert}, J. and others },
    2944     title = "{Variable Very High Energy {$\gamma$}-Ray Emission from Markarian 501}",
    2945   journal = {\apj},
    2946    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0702008},
    2947      year = 2007,
    2948     month = nov,
    2949    volume = 669,
    2950     pages = {862-883},
    2951    adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApJ...669..862A},
    2952   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2953 }
    2954 
    2955 @INPROCEEDINGS{Muenich:Icrc,
    2956    author = {M\"{u}nich, K. and L\"{u}nemann, J.},
    2957     title = {Measurement of the atmospheric lepton energy spectra with {AMANDA-II}},
    2958 booktitle = {$30^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    2959      year = 2007,
    2960 }
    2961 
    2962 @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2005drive,
    2963    author = {Bretz, T. and Dorner, D. and Wagner, R.M. and Riegel, B.},
    2964     title = {A Scalable Drive System Concept for Future Projects},
    2965 booktitle = {Towards a network of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors VII},
    2966      year = 2005,
    2967     month = Apr
    2968 }
    2969 
    2970 @ARTICLE{Moralejo:2004,
    2971    author = {{Moralejo}, A. and others},
    2972     title = "{Monte Carlo estimate of flux sensitivity of MAGIC for point-like sources}",
    2973   journal = {Internal MAGIC report},
    2974      year = 2004,
    2975     month = {Dec},
    2976 }
    2977 
    2978 @ARTICLE{MAGICsensi,
    2979  author = {{MAGIC website}},
    2980  title = "{MAGIC sensitivity at \url{http://magic.mppmu.mpg.de/physics/results/}}",
    2981  journal = {Official MAGIC website},
    2982  eprint = {http://magic.mppmu.mpg.de/physics/results/released/sensit.jpg},
    2983 }
    2984 
    2985 @ARTICLE{Magnussen:1998,
    2986  author = {{Magnussen}, N.},   
    2987  title = "{The MAGIC Telescope Project for Gamma Astronomy above 10 GeV}",
    2988  journal = {ArXiv Astrophysics e-prints},
    2989  eprint = {astro-ph/9805184},
    2990  year = 1998,
    2991  month = may,
    2992  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998astro.ph..5184M},
    2993  adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    2994 }
    2995 
    2996 @INPROCEEDINGS{Vassiliev:1999,
    2997  author = {{Vassiliev}, V.~V.},
    2998  title = "{VERITAS: Performance characteristics (baseline design)}",
    2999  booktitle = {International Cosmic Ray Conference},
    3000  year = 1999,
    3001  volume = 5,
    3002  pages = {299-+},
    3003  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ICRC....5..299V},
    3004  adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3005 
    3006 
    3007 @ARTICLE{Leier:2006,
    3008  author = {{Leier}, D. and {Becker}, J.~K. and {Groß}, A. and {Rhode}, W.},
    3009  title = "{Coincident observations between Neutrino- and TeV-Cherenkov-Telescopes}",
    3010  journal = {Internal IceCube report},
    3011  year = 2006,
    3012  month = {Apr},
    3013 
    3014 
    3015 @ARTICLE{Chirkin:2004,
    3016    author = {{Chirkin}, D. and {Rhode}, W.},
    3017     title = "{Muon Monte Carlo: a high-precision tool for muon propagation through matter}",
    3018   journal = {ArXiv High Energy Physics - Phenomenology e-prints},
    3019    eprint = {hep-ph/0407075},
    3020      year = 2004,
    3021     month = jul,
    3022    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2004hep.ph....7075C},
    3023   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3024 }
    3025 
    3026 @ARTICLE{Barcelo,
    3027 author = {{Pegna}, R. and {Barcel{\'o}}, M. and {Bitossi}, M. and {Cecchi}, R. and
    3028 {Fagiolini}, M. and {Paoletti}, R. and {Piccioli}, A. and {Turini}, N.
    3029 },
    3030 title = "{A GHz sampling DAQ system for the MAGIC-II telescope}",
    3031 journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A},
    3032 year = 2007,
    3033 month = mar,
    3034 volume = 572,
    3035 pages = {382-384},
    3036 adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007NIMPA.572..382P},
    3037 adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3038 }
    3039 
    3040 @MISC{Fraunhofer,
    3041   author = {Braun, S.},
    3042   title  = {Private communication},                                         
    3043   school = {IWS Dresden, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology},
    3044   month  = {Sep},
    3045   year   = {2007},
    3046 }
    3047 
    3048 @ARTICLE{AUGER-AGN,
    3049 author = {{The Pierre Auger Collaboration}},
    3050 title = "{Correlation of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Extragalactic Objects}",
    3051 journal = {Science},
    3052 eprint = {0711.2256},
    3053 year = 2007,
    3054 month = nov,
    3055 volume = 318,
    3056     pages = {938},
    3057 }
    3058 
    3059 @ARTICLE{Tescaro:2007,
    3060  author = {{Tescaro}, D. and others },
    3061  title = "{Study of the performance and capability of the new ultra-fast 2 GSample/s FADC data acquisition system of the MAGIC telescope}",
    3062  journal = {ArXiv e-prints},
    3063  eprint = {0709.1410},
    3064  year = 2007,
    3065  month = sep,
    3066  volume = 709,
    3067  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007arXiv0709.1410T},
    3068  adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3069 }
    3070 
    3071 @ARTICLE{Merrit,
    3072   title    = {Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution},
    3073   author   = {Merrit, D. and Milosavljevic, M.},
    3074   journal  = {Living Reviews in Relativity},
    3075   year     = {2005},
    3076   number   = {8},
    3077   volume   = {8},
    3078   keywords = {},
    3079   url      = {http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2005-8}
    3080 }
    3081 
    3082 
    3083 @INPROCEEDINGS{Juan:2000,
    3084    author = {{Cortina}, J. and {Barrio}, J.~A. and {Rauterberg}, G. and {The HEGRA Collaboration}
    3085         },
    3086     title = "{The New Data Acquisition Systems of the First Telescope in HEGRA}",
    3087 booktitle = {American Institute of Physics Conference Series},
    3088      year = 2000,
    3089    volume = 515,
    3090    editor = {{Dingus}, B.~L. and {Salamon}, M.~H. and {Kieda}, D.~B.},
    3091     pages = {368-+},
    3092    adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AIPC..515..368C},
    3093   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3094 }
    3095 
    3096 @INPROCEEDINGS{Kestel:2000,
    3097    author = {{Kestel}, M. and {The HEGRA Collaboration}
    3098         },
    3099     title = "{The upgrade of the HEGRA CT1 telescope with new mirrors and new Trigger system}",
    3100 booktitle = {16$^{th}$ European cosmic ray symposium},
    3101      year = 1998,
    3102    series = {Nuclear Physics B, Proc. Suppl.},
    3103    editor = {{Medina}, J.},
    3104 }
    3105 
    3106 @ARTICLE{Meli,
    3107    author = {{Meli}, A. and {Becker}, J.~K. and {Quenby}, J.~J.},
    3108     title = "{Cosmic ray acceleration in subluminal and superluminal relativistic shock environments}",
    3109   journal = {ArXiv e-prints},
    3110    eprint = {0709.3031},
    3111      year = 2007,
    3112     month = sep,
    3113    volume = 709,
    3114    adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007arXiv0709.3031M},
    3115   adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3116 }
    3117 
    3118 @ARTICLE{2006ApJ...642L.119A,
    3119    author = {{Albert}, J. and others},
    3120     title = "{Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from 1ES\,1218+30.4}",
    3121   journal = {\apjl},
    3122    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0603529},
    3123  keywords = {BL Lacertae objects: individual (1ES 1218+30.4), Gamma Rays: Observations},
    3124      year = 2006,
    3125     month = may,
    3126    volume = 642,
    3127     pages = {L119-L122},
    3128       doi = {10.1086/504845},
    3129    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2006ApJ...642L.119A},
    3130   adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3131 }
    3132 
    3133 @ARTICLE{2007ApJ...667L..21A,
    3134    author = {{Albert}, J. and others},
    3135     title = "{Discovery of Very High Energy {$\gamma$}-Rays from 1ES\,1011+496 at z\,=\,0.212}",
    3136   journal = {\apjl},
    3137    eprint = {arXiv:0706.4435},
    3138  keywords = {Gamma Rays: Observations, quasars: individual (1ES 1011+496)},
    3139      year = 2007,
    3140     month = sep,
    3141    volume = 667,
    3142     pages = {L21-L24},
    3143       doi = {10.1086/521982},
    3144    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007ApJ...667L..21A},
    3145   adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3146 }
    3147 
    3148 @ARTICLE{2001MNRAS.320..504S,
    3149    author = {{Somerville}, R.~S. and {Primack}, J.~R. and {Faber}, S.~M.},
    3150     title = "{The nature of high-redshift galaxies}",
    3151   journal = {\mnras},
    3152    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/9806228},
    3153      year = 2001,
    3154     month = feb,
    3155    volume = 320,
    3156     pages = {504-528},
    3157    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2001MNRAS.320..504S},
    3158   adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3159 }
    3160 
    3161 @ARTICLE{2007arXiv0707.2915K,
    3162    author = {{Kneiske}, T.~M.},
    3163     title = "{Gamma-ray background: a review}",
    3164   journal = {ArXiv e-prints},
    3165    eprint = {0707.2915},
    3166  keywords = {Astrophysics},
    3167      year = 2007,
    3168     month = jul,
    3169    volume = 707,
    3170    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007arXiv0707.2915K},
    3171   adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3172 }
    3173 
    3174 @ARTICLE{1996ApJ...467..532M,
    3175    author = {{Mannheim}, K. and {Hartmann}, D. and {Funk}, B.},
    3176     title = "{The Gamma-Ray Burst Rate at High Photon Energies}",
    3177   journal = {\apj},
    3178    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/9605108},
    3179  keywords = {COSMOLOGY: DIFFUSE RADIATION, GAMMA RAYS: BURSTS, GALAXIES: INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM},
    3180      year = 1996,
    3181     month = aug,
    3182    volume = 467,
    3183     pages = {532-+},
    3184       doi = {10.1086/177629},
    3185    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1996ApJ...467..532M},
    3186   adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3187 }
    3188 
    3189 @ARTICLE{1988VeARI..32....1F,
    3190    author = {{Fricke}, W. and {Schwan}, H. and {Lederle}, T. and others},
    3191     title = "{Fifth fundamental catalogue (FK5). Part 1: The basic fundamental stars}",
    3192   journal = {Veroeffentlichungen des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts Heidelberg},
    3193  keywords = {ASTRONOMICAL CATALOGS, STAR DISTRIBUTION, STELLAR MAGNITUDE, STELLAR ORBITS, CELESTIAL MECHANICS, STELLAR MOTIONS, STELLAR PARALLAX, STELLAR ROTATION},
    3194      year = 1988,
    3195    volume = 32,
    3196     pages = {1-106},
    3197    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1988VeARI..32....1F},
    3198   adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3199 }
    3200 
    3201 @ARTICLE{2008Sci...320.1752M,
    3202    author = {{Albert}, J. and others},
    3203     title = "{Very-High-Energy gamma rays from a Distant Quasar: How Transparent Is the Universe?}",
    3204   journal = {Science},
    3205    eprint = {arXiv:0807.2822},
    3206      year = 2008,
    3207     month = jun,
    3208    volume = 320,
    3209     pages = {1752-},
    3210       doi = {10.1126/science.1157087},
    3211    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2008Sci...320.1752M},
    3212   adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3213 }
    3214 
    3215 @ARTICLE{2007ApJ...667..358A,
    3216    author = {{Albert}, J. and others},
    3217     title = "{MAGIC Upper Limits on the Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts}",
    3218   journal = {\apj},
    3219    eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0612548},
    3220  keywords = {Gamma Rays: Bursts, Gamma Rays: Observations},
    3221      year = 2007,
    3222     month = sep,
    3223    volume = 667,
    3224     pages = {358-366},
    3225       doi = {10.1086/520761},
    3226    adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007ApJ...667..358A},
    3227   adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
    3228 }
  • trunk/Documents/DrivePaper/paper.tex

    r9109 r9188  
    55%\documentclass[authoryear,preprint,12pt]{elsarticle}
    66%
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    99
    1010% Use the option review to obtain double line spacing
     
    3636% \begin{linenumbers}, end it with \end{linenumbers}. Or switch it on
    3737% for the whole article with \linenumbers.
    38 \usepackage{lineno}
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    41 \usepackage[numbers]{natbib}
     41%\usepackage[numbers]{natbib}
    4242
    4343\usepackage{textcomp,graphicx,times,wrapfig,xspace,url,amssymb,amsmath,wasysym,stmaryrd}
     
    5757\title{The drive system of the\\Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov Telescope}
    5858
    59 \newcommand{\corref}{\thanksref}
    60 \newcommand{\cortext}{\thanks}
    61 
    62 %\tnotetext[t1]{This document is collaborative effort}
    63 %\tnotetext[t2]{This document is collaborative effort more}
    64 
     59%\newcommand{\corref}{\thanksref}
     60%\newcommand{\cortext}{\thanks}
    6561\author[tb]{T.~Bretz\corref{cor1}}
    66 \address[tb]{Universit\"{a}t W\"{urzburg}, Am Hubland, D-97074 W\"{u}rzburg, Germany}
    67 %\ead{tbretz@astro.uni-wuerzburg.de}
    68 %\fntext[fn1]{My name is Thomas Bretz}
    69 
    70 \author[tb]{D.~Dorner},\author[rw]{R.~M.~Wagner}
    71 %\address[dd]{Integral Science Data Center}
    72 %\ead{dorner@astro.uni-wuerzburg.de}
    73 
    74 
    75 %\ead[rw]{robert.wagner@mpp.mpg.de}
    76 \address[rw]{Max-Planck-Institut f\"ur Physik, F\"ohringer Ring 6, D-80805 M\"{u}nchen, Germany}
    77 
     62\author[tb]{D.~Dorner}
     63\author[rw]{R.~M.~Wagner}
     64\author[rw]{P.~Sawallisch}
     65\address[tb]{Universit\"{a}t W\"{u}rzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 W\"{u}rzburg, Germany}
     66\address[rw]{Max-Planck-Institut f\"ur Physik, F\"ohringer Ring 6, 80805 M\"{u}nchen, Germany}
    7867\cortext[cor1]{Corresponding author: tbretz@astro.uni-wuerzburg.de}
    7968
     
    8675\begin{abstract}
    8776The MAGIC telescope is an imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope,
    88 designed to observe very high energy gamma-rays achieving a low energy
    89 threshold. One of the key science goals is the fast follow-up of the
     77designed to observe very high energy gamma-rays while achieving a low
     78energy threshold. One of the key science goals is fast follow-up of the
    9079enigmatic and short lived gamma-ray bursts. The drive system for the
    9180telescope has to meet two basic demands: (1)~During normal
    92 observations, the 64-ton telescope has to be repositioned accurately,
    93 and has to track a given sky position with high precision at a typical
     81observations, the 72-ton telescope has to be positioned accurately, and
     82has to track a given sky position with high precision at a typical
    9483rotational speed in the order of one revolution per day. (2)~For
    9584successfully observing GRB prompt emission and afterglows, it has to be
    96 powerful enough to reposition the telescope to an arbitrary point on
    97 the sky within a few ten seconds and commence normal tracking immediately
    98 thereafter. To meet these requirements, the implementation and
    99 realization of the drive system relies strongly on standard industry
    100 components to ensure robustness and reliability. In this paper, we
    101 describe the mechanical setup, the drive control and the calibration of
    102 the pointing, as well as present measurements of the accuracy of the
    103 system. We show that within the limits of the mount the drive system is
    104 mechanically able to operate with an accuracy even better than the
    105 feedback values from the axes. In the context of future projects,
    106 envisaging telescope arrays comprising about 100 individual
    107 instruments, the robustness and scalability of the concept is
    108 emphasized.
     85powerful enough to position to an arbitrary point on the sky within a
     86few ten seconds and commence normal tracking immediately thereafter. To
     87meet these requirements, the implementation and realization of the
     88drive system relies strongly on standard industry components to ensure
     89robustness and reliability. In this paper, we describe the mechanical
     90setup, the drive control and the calibration of the pointing, as well
     91as present measurements of the accuracy of the system. We show that the
     92drive system is mechanically able to operate the motors with an
     93accuracy even better than the feedback values from the axes. In the
     94context of future projects, envisaging telescope arrays comprising
     95about 100 individual instruments, the robustness and scalability of the
     96concept is emphasized.
    10997\end{abstract}
    11098
    11199\begin{keyword}
    112 MAGIC\sep drive system\sep IACT\sep scalability\sep calibration\sep fast repositioning
     100MAGIC\sep drive system\sep IACT\sep scalability\sep calibration\sep fast positioning
    113101\end{keyword}
    114102
     
    120108
    121109The MAGIC telescope on the Canary Island of La~Palma, located 2200\,m
    122 above sea level at 28\textdegree{}45'\,N and 17\textdegree{}54'\,W, is an
    123 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope designed to achieve a low
    124 energy threshold, fast repositioning, and high tracking accuracy,
    125 e.g.~\cite{Lorenz:2004, Cortina:2005}. The MAGIC design, and the
     110above sea level at 28\textdegree{}45$^\prime$\,N and 17\textdegree{}54$^\prime$\,W, is
     111an imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope designed to achieve a low
     112energy threshold, fast positioning, and high tracking
     113accuracy~\cite{Lorenz:2004, Cortina:2005}. The MAGIC design, and the
    126114currently ongoing construction of a second telescope
    127 (MAGIC\,II;~\cite{Goebel:2007}), pave the way to the ground-based
     115(MAGIC\,II;~\cite{Goebel:2007}), pave the way for ground-based
    128116detection of gamma-ray sources at cosmological distances down to less
    129 than 80\,GeV. After the discovery of the distant blazars 1ES\,1218+304
     117than 25\,GeV~\cite{Sci}. After the discovery of the distant blazars 1ES\,1218+304
    130118at a redshift of $z$\,=\,0.182~\citep{2006ApJ...642L.119A} and
    1311191ES\,1011+496 at $z$\,=\,0.212~\citep{2007ApJ...667L..21A}, the most
     
    136124in the mid-infrared to near-infrared wavelength range was believed to
    137125be strong enough to inhibit propagation of gamma-rays across
    138 cosmological distances~\citep{2001MNRAS.320..504S}. However, it could
    139 be shown that the results of deep galaxy surveys with the Hubble and
    140 Spitzer Space telescopes are consistent with these findings, if the
    141 spurious feature at one micron is attributed to a foreground effect
    142 resulting from an inaccurate subtraction of zodiacal
    143 light~\citep{Hauser:2001, 2007arXiv0707.2915K, Kneiske:2004}. The low
    144 level of pair attenuation of gamma-rays greatly improves the prospects
    145 of searching for very high energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts
    146 (GRBs). Their remarkable similarities with blazar flares, albeit at
    147 much shorter timescales, presumably arise from the scaling behavior of
    148 relativistic jets, the common physical cause of these phenomena. Since
    149 most GRBs reside at large redshifts, their detection relies on the low
    150 level of absorption at very high energies~\citep{1996ApJ...467..532M}.
    151 Moreover, the cosmological absorption decreases with photon energy,
    152 favoring MAGIC to discover GRBs due to its low energy threshold.
    153 
    154 Due to the short life time of GRBs and the limited field of view of
     126cosmological distances~\citep{2001MNRAS.320..504S, 2007arXiv0707.2915K, Hauser:2001}.
     127%However, it could
     128%be shown that the results of deep galaxy surveys with the Hubble and
     129%Spitzer Space telescopes are consistent with these findings, if the
     130%spurious feature at one micron is attributed to a foreground effect
     131%resulting from an inaccurate subtraction of zodiacal
     132%light~\citep{Hauser:2001, 2007arXiv0707.2915K, Kneiske:2004}.
     133The
     134apparent low level of pair attenuation of gamma-rays greatly improves
     135the prospects of searching for very high energy gamma-rays from
     136gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), cf.~\citep{Kneiske:2004}. Their remarkable similarities with blazar
     137flares, albeit at much shorter timescales, presumably arise from the
     138scaling behavior of relativistic jets, the common physical cause of
     139these phenomena. Since most GRBs reside at large redshifts, their
     140detection at very high energies relies on the low level of
     141absorption~\citep{1996ApJ...467..532M}. Moreover, the cosmological
     142absorption decreases with photon energy, favoring MAGIC to discover
     143GRBs due to its low energy threshold.
     144
     145Due to the short life times of GRBs and the limited field of view of
    155146imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, the drive system of the MAGIC
    156147telescope has to meet two basic demands: during normal observations,
    157 the 64-ton telescope has to be repositioned accurately, and has to
     148the 72-ton telescope has to be positioned accurately, and has to
    158149track a given sky position, i.e., counteract the apparent rotation of
    159150the celestial sphere, with high precision at a typical rotational speed
    160151in the order of one revolution per day. For catching the GRB prompt
    161 emission and afterglows, it has to be powerful enough to reposition the
     152emission and afterglows, it has to be powerful enough to position the
    162153telescope to an arbitrary point on the sky within a very short time
    163 ($\apprle$\,60\,s) and commence normal tracking immediately
     154%($\apprle$\,60\,s)
     155and commence normal tracking immediately
    164156thereafter. To keep the system simple, i.e., robust, both requirements
    165157should be achieved without an indexing gear. The telescope's total
    166 weight of 64~tons is a comparatively low measure, reflecting the
    167 construction principle of using low-weight materials whenever possible.
     158weight of 72~tons is comparatively low, reflecting the
     159use of low-weight materials whenever possible.
    168160For example, the mount consists of a space frame of carbon-fiber
    169161reinforced plastic tubes, and the mirrors are made of polished
     
    174166setup of the drive system are outlined. The control loops and
    175167performance goals are described in section~\ref{sec3}, while the
    176 implementation of the repositioning and tracking algorithms and the
     168implementation of the positioning and tracking algorithms and the
    177169calibration of the drive system are explained in section~\ref{sec4}.
    178170The system can be scaled to meet the demands of other telescope designs
    179 as shown in section~\ref{sec5}. Finally, in section~\ref{conclusions}
    180 we draw conclusions from our experience of operating the MAGIC
    181 telescope with this drive system for four years.
    182 
    183 \section{General design considerations}
     171as shown in section~\ref{sec5}. Finally, in section~\ref{outlook} and
     172section~\ref{conclusions} we draw conclusions from our experience of
     173operating the MAGIC telescope with this drive system for four years.
     174
     175\section{General design considerations}\label{design}
    184176
    185177The drive system of the MAGIC telescope is quite similar to that of
     
    187179quite a few aspects that influenced the design of the MAGIC drive
    188180system in comparison to optical telescopes and small-diameter Imaging
    189 Atmospheric Cherenkov telescope (IACT).
    190 
    191 The tracking and stability requirements for IACTs are much less
    192 demanding than for optical telescopes. Although IACTs, like optical
    193 telescopes, track celestial objects, they observe quite different
    194 phenomena: Optical telescopes observe visible light, which originates
    195 at infinity and is parallel. The best-possible optical resolution is
    196 required and in turn, equal tracking precision due to comparably long
    197 integration times, i.e., seconds to hours. In ground-based astronomy at
    198 very high gamma-ray energies, IACTs record the Cherenkov light produced
    199 by an electromagnetic air-shower in the atmosphere, induced by a
    200 primary gamma-ray, i.e., from a close by (5\,km\,-\,20\,km) and
    201 extended event with a diffuse transverse extension and a typical
    202 extension of a few km. Due to the stochastic nature of the shower
    203 development, the detected light will have an inherent limitation in
    204 explanatory power, improving normally with the energy, i.e.,
    205 shower-particle multiplicity. As, in this case, the Cherenkov light is
    206 emitted with under a small angle off the particle tracks, these photons
    207 do not even point directly to the source like in optical astronomy.
    208 Nevertheless, the shower points towards the direction of the incoming
    209 gamma-ray and thus towards its source on the sky, and for this reason
    210 its origin can be reconstructed analyzing its image. Modern IACTs
    211 achieve an energy-dependent pointing resolution for individual showers
    212 of 0.1\textdegree\,-\,0.01\textdegree. These are the predictions from
    213 Monte Carlo simulations assuming, amongst other things, ideal tracking.
    214 This sets the limits achievable in practical cases. Consequently, the
    215 required tracking precision must be at least of the same order or even
    216 better. Although the short integration times, on the order of a few
    217 nanoseconds, would allow for an offline correction, this should be
    218 avoided since it may give rise to an additional systematic error.
    219 
    220 MAGIC, as other large IACTs, has no protective dome. It is constantly
    221 exposed to daily changing weather conditions and intense sunlight, and
    222 therefore suffers much more material aging than optical telescopes. A
    223 much simpler mechanical mount had to be used, resulting in a design of
    224 considerably less stiffness, long-term irreversible deformations, and
    225 small unpredictable deformations due to varying wind pressure. The
    226 tracking system does not need to be more precise than the mechanical
    227 structure and, consequently, can be much simpler and hence cheaper as
    228 compared to that of large optical telescopes.
     181Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT).
     182
     183Although IACTs have optical components, the tracking and stability
     184requirements for IACTs are much less demanding than for optical
     185telescopes. Like optical telescopes, IACTs track celestial
     186objects, but observe quite different phenomena: Optical telescopes
     187observe visible light, which originates at infinity and is parallel.
     188Consequently, the best-possible optical resolution is required and in
     189turn, equal tracking precision due to comparably long integration
     190times, i.e., seconds to hours. In contrast, IACTs record the Cherenkov
     191light produced by an electromagnetic air-shower in the atmosphere,
     192induced by a primary gamma-ray, i.e., from a close by
     193(5\,km\,-\,20\,km) and extended event with a diffuse transverse
     194extension and a typical extension of a few hundred meters. Due to the
     195stochastic nature of the shower development, the detected light will
     196have an inherent limitation in explanatory power, improving normally
     197with the energy, i.e., shower-particle multiplicity. As
     198the Cherenkov light is emitted under a small angle off the particle
     199tracks, these photons do not even point directly to the source like in
     200optical astronomy. Nevertheless, the shower points towards the
     201direction of the incoming gamma-ray and thus towards its source on the
     202sky. For this reason its origin can be reconstructed analyzing its
     203image. Modern IACTs achieve an energy-dependent pointing resolution for
     204individual showers of 6$^\prime$\,-\,0.6$^\prime$. These are the
     205predictions from Monte Carlo simulations assuming, amongst other
     206things, ideal tracking. This sets the limits achievable in practical
     207cases. Consequently, the required tracking precision must be at least
     208of the same order or even better. Although the short integration times,
     209on the order of a few nanoseconds, would allow for an offline
     210correction, this should be avoided since it may give rise to an
     211additional systematic error.
     212
     213%MAGIC, as other large IACTs, has no protective dome. It is constantly
     214%exposed to daily changing weather conditions and intense sunlight, and
     215%therefore suffers much more material aging than optical telescopes. A
     216%much simpler mechanical mount had to be used, resulting in a design of
     217%considerably less stiffness, long-term irreversible deformations, and
     218%small unpredictable deformations due to varying wind pressure. The
     219%tracking system does not need to be more precise than the mechanical
     220%structure and, consequently, can be much simpler and hence cheaper as
     221%compared to that of large optical telescopes.
    229222
    230223To meet one of the main physics goals, the observation of prompt and
    231 afterglow emission of GRBs, repositioning of the telescope to their
     224afterglow emission of GRBs, positioning of the telescope to their
    232225assumed sky position is required in a time as short as possible.
    233226Alerts, provided by satellites, arrive at the MAGIC site typically
    234 within 10\,s after the outburst~\citep{2007ApJ...667..358A}. To achieve
    235 a positioning time to any position on the sky within less than a minute
    236 requires a very light-weight but sturdy telescope and a fast-acting and
    237 powerful drive system.
    238 \begin{figure*}[htb]
     227within 10\,s after the outburst~\citep{2007ApJ...667..358A}.
     228Since the life times of GRBs show a bimodal distribution~\cite{Paciesas:1999}
     229with a peak between 10\,s and 100\,s. To achieve
     230a positioning time to any position on the sky within a reasonable
     231time inside this window, i.e. less than a minute,
     232a very light-weight but sturdy telescope and a fast-acting and
     233powerful drive system is required.
     234\begin{figure*}[htbp]
    239235\begin{center}
    240  \includegraphics*[width=0.48\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure1a.eps}
    241  \hfill
    242  \includegraphics*[width=0.48\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure1b.eps}
    243 \caption{{\em Left}: One of the bogeys with its two railway rails. The
    244 motor is encapsulated in the grey box on the yellow drive unit. It drives
    245 the tooth double-toothed wheel gearing into the chain through a gear
    246 and a clutch. {\em Right}: The drive unit driving the elevation axis
    247 from the back side. Visible is the actuator of the safety holding brake
    248 and its corresponding brake disc mounted on the motor-driven axis. The
    249 motor is attached on the opposite side. }
     236 \includegraphics*[width=0.91\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure1.eps}
     237\caption{The top picture shows the MAGIC\,I telescope with the major
     238components of the drive system. The elevation drive unit, from its back
     239side, is enlarged in the bottom left picture. Visible is the actuator
     240of the safety holding brake and its corresponding brake disk mounted on
     241the motor-driven axis. The motor is attached on the opposite side. The
     242picture on the bottom right shows one of the azimuth bogeys with its
     243two railway rails. The motor is housed in the grey box on the
     244yellow drive unit. It drives the tooth double-toothed wheel gearing
     245into the chain through a gear and a clutch.}
     246% \includegraphics*[width=0.48\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure1a.eps}
     247% \hfill
     248% \includegraphics*[width=0.48\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure1b.eps}
     249%\caption{{\em Left}: One of the bogeys with its two railway rails. The
     250%motor is encapsulated in the grey box on the yellow drive unit. It drives
     251%%the tooth double-toothed wheel gearing into the chain through a gear
     252%and a clutch. {\em Right}: The drive unit driving the elevation axis
     253%from the back side. Visible is the actuator of the safety holding brake
     254%and its corresponding brake disk mounted on the motor-driven axis. The
     255%motor is attached on the opposite side. }
    250256\label{figure1}
    251257\end{center}
     
    256262The implementation of the drive system relies strongly on standard
    257263industry components to ensure robustness, reliability and proper
    258 support. The azimuth drive ring of 21\,m diameter is made from a normal
    259 railway rail, which was delivered in pre-bent sections and welded on
    260 site. The fixing onto the concrete foundation uses standard rail-fixing
    261 elements, and allows for movements caused by temperature changes. The
    262 maximum allowable deviation from the horizontal plane as well as
    263 deviation from flatness is $\pm 2$\,mm, and from the ideal circle it is
    264 1\,cm. Each of the six bogeys holds two standard crane wheels of 60\,cm
    265 diameter with a rather broad wheel tread. This allows for deviations in
    266 the 11.5\,m-distance to the central axis due to extreme temperature
    267 changes, which can even be asymmetric in case of different exposure to
    268 sunlight on either side. The central bearing of the azimuth axis is a
    269 high-quality ball bearing, while for the elevation axis, due to lower
    270 weight, a less expensive sliding bearing with a teflon layer was
    271 installed. These sliding bearings have a slightly spherical surface to
    272 allow for small misalignments during installation and some bending of
    273 the elevation axis stubs under load.
     264technical support. Its major drive components, described hereafter, are
     265shown on the pictures in fig.~\ref{figure2}.
     266
     267The azimuth drive ring of 20\,m diameter is made from a normal railway
     268rail, which was delivered in pre-bent sections and welded on site. Its
     269head is only about 74\,mm broad and has a bent profile. The fixing onto
     270the concrete foundation uses standard rail-fixing elements, and allows
     271for movements caused by temperature changes. The maximum allowable
     272deviation from the horizontal plane as well as deviation from flatness
     273is $\pm 2$\,mm, and from the ideal circle it is $\Delta$r\,=\,8\,mm.
     274The rail support was leveled with a theodolite every 60\,cm
     275with an overall tolerance of $\pm 1.5$\,mm every 60\,cm. In between the
     276deviation is negligible. Each of the six bogeys holds two standard
     277crane wheels of 60\,cm diameter with a rather broad wheel tread of
     278110\,mm. This allows for deviations in the 11.5\,m-distance to the
     279central axis due to extreme temperature changes, which can even be
     280asymmetric in case of different exposure to sunlight on either side.
     281For the central bearing of the azimuth axis, a high-quality ball
     282bearing was installed fairly assuming that the axis is vertically
     283stable. For the elevation axis, due to lower weight, a less expensive
     284sliding bearing with a teflon layer was used. These sliding bearings
     285have a slightly spherical surface to allow for small misalignments
     286during installation and some bending of the elevation axis stubs under
     287load.
    274288
    275289The drive mechanism is based on duplex roller chains and sprocket
    276290wheels in a rack-and-pinion mounting. The chains have a breaking
    277 strength of 17~tons and a chain-link spacing of 2.5\,cm. The initial
     291strength of 19~tons and a chain-link spacing of 2.5\,cm. The initial
    278292play between the chain links and the sprocket-wheel teeth is about
    2792933\,mm\,-\,5\,mm, according to the data sheet, corresponding to much
    280294less than an arcsecond on the telescope axes. The azimuth drive chain
    281295is fixed on a dedicated ring on the concrete foundation, but has quite
    282 some radial distance variation of up to 3\,cm. The elevation drive
     296some radial distance variation of up to 5\,mm. The elevation drive
    283297chain is mounted on a slightly oval ring below the mirror dish, because
    284298the ring forms an integral part of the camera support mast structure.
    285299
    286 Commercial synchronous motors (type designation Bosch Rexroth
    287 MHD\,112C-058) are used together with low-play planetary gears linked
     300% Bosch Rexroth AG, 970816 Lohr am Main, Germany
     301% www.boschrexroth.de
     302
     303% Wittenstein alpha GmbH, Walter-Wittenstein-Stra"se 1, D-97999 Igersheim
     304% www.wittenstein-alpha.de
     305
     306% updated
     307Commercial synchronous motors (type designation Bosch
     308Rexroth\footnote{\url{http://www.boschrexroth.de}\\Bosch Rexroth AG,
     30997816 Lohr am Main, Germany} MHD\,112C-058) are used together with
     310low-play planetary gears (type designation
     311alpha\footnote{\url{http://www.wittenstein-alpha.de}\\Wittenstein alpha
     312GmbH, 97999 Igersheim, Germany} GTS\,210-M02-020\,B09, ratio 20) linked
    288313to the sprocket wheels. These motors intrinsically allow for a
    289314positional accuracy better than one arcsecond of the motor axis. Having
     
    292317installation height of more than 2200\,m a.s.l., due to lower air
    293318pressure and consequently less efficient cooling, the nominal values
    294 given must be reduced by about 25\%. The azimuth motors are mounted on
    295 small lever arms. In order to follow the small radial irregularities of
    296 the azimuthal drive chain, the motors are pressed against it by
    297 springs. The elevation-drive motor is mounted on a nearly 1\,m long
     319given must be reduced by about 20\%. Deceleration is done operating the
     320motors as generator which is as powerful as acceleration. The motors
     321contain 70\,Nm holding brakes which are not meant to be used as driving
     322brake. The azimuth motors are mounted on small lever arms. In order to
     323follow the small irregularities of the azimuthal drive chain, the units
     324are forced to follow the drive chain, horizontally and  vertically, by
     325guide rolls. The elevation-drive motor is mounted on a nearly 1\,m long
    298326lever arm to be able to compensate the oval shape of the chain and the
    299327fact that the center of the circle defined by the drive chain is
    300 shifted 50\,cm away from the axis towards the camera.
     328shifted 356\,mm away from the axis towards the camera. The elevation
     329drive is also equipped with an additional brake, operated only as
     330holding brake, for safety reasons in case of extremely strong wind
     331pressure. No further brake are installed on the telescope.
    301332
    302333The design of the drive system control, c.f.~\citet{Bretz:2003drive},
     
    319350$\theta$\,=\,+100\textdegree{} to $\theta$\,=\,-70\textdegree{} where
    320351the change of sign implies a movement {\em across the zenith}. This
    321 so-called {\it reverse mode} is currently not in use, as it might imply
    322 hysteresis effects of the active mirror control system, still under
     352so-called {\it reverse mode} is currently not in use, as it might result
     353in hysteresis effects of the active mirror control system, still under
    323354investigation, due to shifting of weight at zenith. The accessible
    324355range in both directions and on both axes is limited by software to the
     
    334365\section{Setup of the motion control system}\label{sec3}
    335366
    336 Like for the mechanical drive system, also for the motion-control system
    337 standard industry components were used. The drive is controlled by the
    338 feedback of encoders measuring the angular positions of the motors and
    339 the telescope axes. The encoders on the motor axes provide
    340 information to microcontrollers dedicated for motion control,
    341 initiating and monitoring every movement. Professional build-in servo
    342 loops take over the suppression of oscillations. The correct pointing
    343 position of the system is ensured by a computer program evaluating the
    344 feedback from the telescope axes and initiating the motion executed by
    345 the micro controllers. Additionally, the motor-axis encoders are also
    346 evaluated to increase accuracy. The details of this system, as shown in
    347 figure~\ref{figure2}, are discussed below.
     367The motion control system similarly uses standard industry components.
     368The drive is controlled by the feedback of encoders measuring the
     369angular positions of the motors and the telescope axes. The encoders on
     370the motor axes provide information to micro controllers dedicated for
     371motion control, initiating and monitoring every movement. Professional
     372built-in servo loops take over the suppression of oscillations. The
     373correct pointing position of the system is ensured by a computer
     374program evaluating the feedback from the telescope axes and initiating
     375the motion executed by the micro controllers. Additionally, the
     376motor-axis encoders are also evaluated to increase accuracy. The
     377details of this system, as shown in figure~\ref{figure2}, are discussed
     378below.
    348379
    349380\begin{figure*}[htb]
     
    365396
    366397The angular telescope positions are measured by three shaft-encoders
    367 (Hengstler AC61/1214EQ.72OLZ). These absolute multi-turn encoders have
    368 a resolution of 4\,096 (10\,bit) revolutions and 16\,384 (14\,bit)
    369 steps per revolution, corresponding to an intrinsic angular resolution
    370 of 1.3\,arcmin per step. One shaft encoder is located on the azimuth
    371 axis, while two more encoders are fixed on either side of the elevation
    372 axis, increasing the resolution and allowing for measurements of the
    373 twisting of the dish (fig.~\ref{figure3}). All shaft encoders used are
    374 watertight (IP\,67) to withstand the extreme weather conditions
    375 occasionally encountered at the telescope site. The motor positions are
    376 read out at a frequency of 1\,kHz from 10\,bit relative rotary encoders
    377 fixed on the motor axes. Due to the gear ratio of more than one
    378 thousand between motor and load, the 14\,bit resolution of the shaft
    379 encoder system on the axes can be interpolated further using the
    380 position readout of the motors. For communication with the axis
    381 encoders, a CANbus interface with the CANopen protocol is in use
    382 (operated at 125\,kbps). The motor encoders are directly connected by
    383 an analog interface.
     398(type designation Hengstler\footnote{\url{http://www.hengstler.de}\\Hengstler GmbH,
     39978554 Aldingen, Germany} AC61/1214EQ.72OLZ). These absolute multi-turn
     400encoders have a resolution of 4\,096 (10\,bit) revolutions and 16\,384
     401(14\,bit) steps per revolution, corresponding to an intrinsic angular
     402resolution of 1.3$^\prime$ per step. One shaft encoder is located on
     403the azimuth axis, while two more encoders are fixed on either side of
     404the elevation axis, increasing the resolution and allowing for
     405measurements of the twisting of the dish (fig.~\ref{figure3}). All
     406shaft encoders used are watertight (IP\,67) to withstand the extreme
     407weather conditions occasionally encountered at the telescope site. The
     408motor positions are read out at a frequency of 1\,kHz from 10\,bit
     409relative rotary encoders fixed on the motor axes. Due to the gear ratio
     410of more than one thousand between motor and load, the 14\,bit
     411resolution of the shaft encoder system on the axes can be interpolated
     412further using the position readout of the motors. For communication
     413with the axis encoders, a CANbus interface with the CANopen protocol is
     414in use (operated at 125\,kbps). The motor encoders are directly
     415connected by an analog interface.
    384416
    385417\subsection{Motor control}
     
    388420units ({\em DKC}, type designation Bosch Rexroth,
    389421DKC~ECODRIVE\,03.3-200-7-FW), serving as intelligent frequency
    390 converters and power supplies. An input value, given either analog or
     422converters. An input value, given either analog or
    391423digital, is converted to a predefined output, e.g., command position,
    392424velocity or torque. All command values are processed through a chain of
    393 build-in controllers, cf. fig.~\ref{figure4}, resulting in a final
     425built-in controllers, cf. fig.~\ref{figure4}, resulting in a final
    394426command current applied to the motor. This internal chain of control
    395 loops, maintaining the movement of the motors, works at a frequency of
    396 1\,kHz fed back by the rotary encoders on the corresponding motor axes.
     427loops, maintaining the movement of the motors at a frequency of
     4281\,kHz, fed back by the rotary encoders on the corresponding motor axes.
    397429Several safety limits ensure damage-free operation of the system even
    398430under unexpected operation conditions. These safety limits are, e.g.,
     
    404436slave is driven by the command torque output of the master. This
    405437operation mode ensures that both motors can apply their combined force
    406 to the telescope structure without oscillations.
     438to the telescope structure without oscillations. In principle it is
     439possible to use a bias torque to eliminate play. This feature
     440was not used because the play is negligible anyhow.
    407441
    408442\begin{figure}[htb]
     
    414448position to the opposite side. The average offset from zero
    415449corresponds to a the twist of the two shaft encoders with respect to
    416 each other. Under normal conditions the torsion between both ends of
     450each other. The error bars denote the spread of several measurements.
     451Under normal conditions the torsion between both ends of
    417452the axis is less than the shaft-encoder resolution.}
    418453\label{figure3}
     
    423458\begin{figure*}[htb]
    424459\begin{center}
    425  \includegraphics*[width=0.6\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure4.eps}
     460 \includegraphics*[width=0.78\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure4.eps}
    426461 \caption{The internal flow control between the individual controllers
    427462inside the drive control unit. Depending on the type of the command
     
    433468\end{figure*}
    434469
    435 The master DKC for each axis is controlled by presetting a rotational
     470% zub machine control AG, Kastaniensteif 7, CH-6047 Kastanienbaum
     471% www.zub.de
     472
     473The master for each axis is controlled by presetting a rotational
    436474speed defined by $\pm$10\,V on its analog input. The input voltage is
    437 produced by a programmable microcontroller dedicated to analog motion
    438 control, produced by Z\&B ({\em MACS}, type designation MACS). The
    439 feedback is realized through a 500-step emulation of the motor's rotary
    440 encoders by the DKCs for each axis seperately. Elevation and azimuth
    441 movement is regulated by individual MACSs. The MACS controller itself
    442 communicates with the control software (see below) through a CANbus
    443 connection.
     475produced by a programmable micro controller dedicated to analog motion
     476control, produced by Z\&B\footnote{\url{http://www.zub.de}\\zub machine control AG, 6074
     477Kastanienbaum, Switzerland} ({\em MACS}, type
     478designation MACS). The feedback is realized through a 500-step
     479emulation of the motor's rotary encoders by the DKCs. Elevation and azimuth movement is regulated by individual
     480MACSs. The MACS controller itself communicates with the control
     481software (see below) through a CANbus connection.
    444482
    445483It turned out that in particular the azimuth motor system seems to be
    446484limited by the large moment of inertia of the telescope
    447 ($J_{\mathrm{az}}\approx4400$\,tm$^2$, for comparison
    448 $J_{\mathrm{el}}\approx850$\,tm$^2$; note that the exact numbers depend
     485($J_{\mathrm{az}}$\,$\approx$\,4400\,tm$^2$, for comparison
     486$J_{\mathrm{el}}$\,$\approx$\,850\,tm$^2$; note that the exact numbers depend
    449487on the current orientation of the telescope). At the same time, the
    450488requirements on the elevation drive are much less demanding.\\
    451489
    452 \noindent {\em MAGIC\,II}\quad For the drive system currently under commissioning for
    453 MAGIC\,II, several improvements have been provided:\\
     490\noindent {\em MAGIC\,II}\quad For the drive system
     491several improvements have been provided:\\\vspace{-2ex}
    454492\begin{itemize}
    455 \item 13\,bit absolute shaft-encoders (type designation Heidenhain
     493\item 13\,bit absolute shaft-encoders (type designation Heidenhain\footnote{\url{http://www.heidenhain.de}\\Dr.~Johannes Heidenhain GmbH, 83301 Traunreut, Germany}
    456494ROQ\,425) are installed, providing an additional sine-shaped
    457495$\pm$1\,Vss output within each step. This allows for a more accurate
     
    465503better motion control of the system.
    466504\item The analog transmission of the master's command torque to the
    467 slave is substituted by a direct digital bi-directional communication
    468 of the DKCs.
     505slave is replaced by a direct digital communication (EcoX)
     506of the DKCs. This allows for more robust and precise slave control.
     507Furthermore the motors could be coupled with relative angular synchronism
     508allowing to suppress deformations of the structure by keeping the
     509axis connecting both motors stable.
    469510\item A single professional programmable logic controller (PLC), in German:
    470511{\em Speicherprogammierbare Steuerung} (SPS, type designation Rexroth
     
    491532\subsubsection{Positioning}
    492533
    493 Whenever the telescope has to be repositioned, the relative distance to
     534Whenever the telescope has to be positioned, the relative distance to
    494535the new position is calculated in telescope coordinates and then
    495 converted to motor revolutions. Then, the micro-controllers are
     536converted to motor revolutions. Then, the micro controllers are
    496537instructed to move the motors accordingly. Since the motion is
    497538controlled by the feedback of the encoders on the motor axes, not on
     
    534575i.e., the movement of the axis is stopped.
    535576
    536 \subsection{Fast repositioning}
     577\subsection{Fast positioning}
    537578
    538579The observation of GRBs and their afterglows in very-high energy
     
    541582after their outburst via the {\em Gamma-ray Burst Coordination
    542583Network}~\cite{www:gcn}, typical burst durations of 10\,s to
    543 100\,s~\cite{Paciesas:1999} demand a fast repositioning of the
     584100\,s~\cite{Paciesas:1999} demand a fast positioning of the
    544585telescope. The current best value for the acceleration has been set to
    54558611.7\,mrad\,s$^{-2}$. It is constrained by the maximum constant force
     
    556597ignoring all other control elements.
    557598
    558 Currently, automatic repositioning by
     599Currently, automatic positioning by
    559600$\Delta\varphi$\,=\,180\textdegree{} in azimuth to the target position
    560 is achieved within 45\,s. The repositioning time in elevation is not
     601is achieved within 45\,s. The positioning time in elevation is not
    561602critical in the sense that the probability to move a longer path in
    562603elevation than in azimuth is negligible. Allowing the telescope drive
     
    570611the telescope structure.
    571612
     613With the upgraded MAGIC\,II drive system, during commissioning in 2008 August, a
     614maximum acceleration and deceleration of $a_{az}$\,=\,30\,mrad\,s$^{-2}$
     615and $a_{zd}$\,=\,90\,mrad/s$^{-2}$ and a maximum velocity of
     616$v_{az}$\,=\,290\,mrad\,s$^{-1}$ and $v_{zd}$\,=\,330\,mrad\,s$^{-1}$
     617could be reached. With these values the limits of the motor power are
     618exhausted. This allowed a movement of
     619$\Delta\varphi$\,=\,180\textdegree/360\textdegree{} in azimuth within 20\,s\,/\,33\,s.
     620
    572621\subsection{Tracking precision}
    573622
     
    586635axes into account. In almost all cases it is well below the resolution
    587636of the shaft encoders, and in 80\% of the time it does not exceed 1/8
    588 of this value ($sim$10\,arcsec). This means that the accuracy of the
     637of this value ($\sim$10$^{\prime\prime}$). This means that the accuracy of the
    589638motion control, based on the encoder feedback, is much better than
    590 1\,arcmin on the sky, which is roughly a fifth of the diameter of a
    591 pixel in the MAGIC photomultiplier (PM) camera (0.1\textdegree{},
    592 c.f.~\cite{Beixeras:2005}).
    593 
    594 In the case of a real telescope ultimate limits of the tracking
    595 precision are given by the precision with which the correct command
    596 value is known. Its calibration is discussed in the following.
    597 
     6391$^\prime$ on the sky, which is roughly a fifth of the diameter of a
     640pixel in the MAGIC camera (6$^\prime$, c.f.~\cite{Beixeras:2005}).
    598641\begin{figure}[htb]
    599642\begin{center}
     
    604647deviation is shown as absolute control deviation projected on the sky.
    605648The blue lines correspond to fractions of the shaft-encoder resolution.
     649The peak at half of the shaft-encoder resolution results from cases
     650in which one of the two averaged elevation encoders is off by one step.
    606651}
    607652\label{figure5}
     
    609654\end{figure}
    610655
     656In the case of a real telescope ultimate limits of the tracking
     657precision are given by the precision with which the correct command
     658value is known. Its calibration is discussed hereafter.
     659
    611660\section{Calibration}\label{sec4}
    612661
    613 To calibrate the position, command value-astrometric corrections,
     662To calibrate the position command value, astrometric corrections
    614663(converting the celestial target position into the target position of
    615664an ideal telescope) and misalignment corrections (converting it further
     
    627676into the position as seen from Earth's center (apparent position) --
    628677take into account precession and nutation of the Earth and annual
     678\begin{figure}[htb]
     679\begin{center} % Goldener Schnitt
     680 \includegraphics*[width=0.185\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure6.eps}
     681\caption{The transformation applied to a given set of catalog source
     682coordinates to real-telescope coordinates. These corrections include
     683all necessary astrometric corrections, as well as the pointing
     684correction to transform from an ideal-telescope frame to the frame of a
     685real telescope.
     686%A detailed description of all corrections and the
     687%calibration of the pointing model is given in section~\ref{sec4}.
     688}
     689\label{figure6}
     690\end{center}
     691\end{figure}
    629692aberration, i.e., apparent displacements caused by the finite speed of
    630693light combined with the motion of the observer around the Sun during
     
    637700misalignment correction, all these effects are taken into account.
    638701
    639 \begin{figure}[htb]
    640 \begin{center} % Goldener Schnitt
    641  \includegraphics*[width=0.185\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure6.eps}
    642 \caption{The transformation applied to a given set of catalog source
    643 coordinates to real-telescope coordinates. These corrections include
    644 all necessary astrometric corrections, as well as the pointing
    645 correction to transform from an ideal-telescope frame to the frame of a
    646 real telescope. A detailed description of all corrections and the
    647 calibration of the pointing model is given in section~\ref{sec4}.}
    648 \label{figure6}
    649 \end{center}
    650 \end{figure}
    651 
    652702\subsection{Pointing model}
    653703
    654704Imperfections and deformations of the mechanical construction lead to
    655 deviations from an ideal telescope. These deviations include the non-exact
    656 alignment of axes, and deformations of the telescope structure. To
    657 assure reliable pointing and tracking accuracy, such effects have to be
    658 taken into account. Therefore the tracking software employs an
    659 analytical pointing model based on the {\rm TPOINT}\texttrademark{}
    660 telescope modeling software~\cite{tpoint}, also used for
    661 optical telescopes. This model, called {\em pointing model},
    662 parameterizes deviations from the ideal telescope. Calibrating the
    663 pointing model by mispointing measurements of bright stars, which
    664 allows to determine the necessary corrections, is a standard procedure.
    665 Once calibrated, the model is applied online. Since an analytical model
    666 is used, the source of any deviation can be identified and traced back
    667 to components of the telescope mount.\\
     705deviations from an ideal telescope, including the non-exact
     706alignment of axes, and deformations of the telescope structure.
     707
     708%new
     709In the case of the MAGIC telescopes the optical axis of the mirror is
     710defined by an automatic alignment system. This active mirror control
     711is programmed not to change the optical axis once defined, but only
     712controls the optical point spread function of the mirror, i.e., it does
     713not change the center of gravity of the light distribution.
     714This procedure is applied whenever the telescope is observing including
     715any kind of calibration measurement for the drive system. The precision
     716of the axis alignment of the mirrors is better than 0.2$^\prime$ and can
     717therefor be neglected.
     718%new
     719
     720%To assure reliable pointing and tracking accuracy, such effects have to
     721%be taken into account.
     722Consequently, to assure reliable pointing and tracking accuracy,
     723mainly the mechanical effects have to be taken into account.
     724Therefore the tracking software employs an analytical pointing model
     725based on the {\rm TPOINT}\texttrademark{} telescope modeling
     726software~\cite{tpoint}, also used for optical telescopes. This model,
     727called {\em pointing model}, parameterizes deviations from the ideal
     728telescope. Calibrating the pointing model by mispointing measurements
     729of bright stars, which allows to determine the necessary corrections,
     730is a standard procedure. Once calibrated, the model is applied online.
     731Since an analytical model is used, the source of any deviation can be
     732identified and traced back to components of the telescope mount.\\
    668733
    669734Corrections are parameterized by alt-azimuthal terms~\cite{tpoint},
    670735i.e., derived from vector transformations within the proper coordinate
    671 system. The following possible misalignments are taken into account:\\
    672 
     736system. The following possible misalignments are taken into account:\\\vspace{-2ex}
    673737\begin{description}
    674738\item[Zero point corrections ({\em index errors})] Trivial offsets
     
    700764the encoders, has such a high static friction that in case of reversing
    701765the direction of the movement, the shaft-encoder will not indicate any
    702 movement, even though the telescope is rotating.
     766movement for a small and stable rotation angle, even though the
     767telescope is rotating. Since this offset is stable, it can easily
     768be corrected after it is fully passed. The passage of the hysteresis
     769is currently corrected offline only.
    703770\end{itemize}
    704771\vspace{1em}
     
    708775unnecessary. Another class of deformations of the telescope-support
    709776frame and the mirrors are non-deterministic and, consequently, pose an
    710 ultimate limit of the precision of the pointing correction.
    711 
    712 As discussed below, the size of the total correction (excluding the
    713 index error) is on the order of 0.1\textdegree{}. Therefore all individual
    714 correction terms are smaller or of similar size.
     777ultimate limit of the precision of the pointing.
     778
     779% Moved to results
    715780
    716781\subsection{Determination}
     
    719784
    720785To determine the coefficients of a pointing model, calibration
    721 data is recorded, consisting of mispointing measurements depending
     786data is recorded. It consists of mispointing measurements depending
    722787on altitude and azimuth angle. Bright stars are tracked with the
    723788telescope at positions uniformly distributed in local coordinates,
    724 i.e.\, in altitude and azimuth angle. To measure the real pointing
    725 position of the telescope, the reflection of a bright star on a
    726 screen in front of the MAGIC PM camera is determined. The center
     789i.e., in altitude and azimuth angle. The real pointing
     790position is derived from the position of the reflection of a bright
     791star on a screen in front of the MAGIC camera. The center
    727792of the camera is defined by LEDs mounted on an ideal ($\pm$1\,mm)
    728793circle around the camera center, cf.~\citet{Riegel:2005icrc}.
     
    735800
    736801A 0.0003\,lux, 1/2\(^{\prime\prime}\) high-sensitivity standard PAL CCD
    737 camera (\mbox{Watec}~WAT-902\,H, technical details given in
    738 table~\ref{table}) equipped with a zoom lens (type: Computar) is used
     802camera (type designation \mbox{Watec}~WAT-902\,H) equipped with a zoom lens (type: Computar) is used
    739803for the mispointing measurements. The camera is read out at a rate of
    740 25\,frames per second using a framer-grabber card in a standard PC. The
    741 tradeoff for the high sensitivity of the camera is its high noise level
    742 in each single frame recorded. Since there are no rapidly moving
    743 objects within the field of view, a high picture quality can be
     80425\,frames per second using a standard frame-grabber card in a standard
     805PC. The camera has been chosen providing adequate performance and
     806easy readout, due to the use of standard components, for a very cheap price
     807($<$\,500\,Euro). The tradeoff for the high sensitivity of the camera is its high
     808noise level in each single frame recorded. Since there are no rapidly
     809moving objects within the field of view, a high picture quality can be
    744810achieved by averaging typically 125\,frames (corresponding to 5\,s). An
    745 example is shown in figure~\ref{figure7}. This example also
    746 illustrates the high sensitivity of the camera, since both pictures of
    747 the telescope structure have been taken with the residual light of less
     811example is shown in figure~\ref{figure7}. This example also illustrates
     812the high sensitivity of the camera, since both pictures of the
     813telescope structure have been taken with the residual light of less
    748814than a half-moon. In the background individual stars can be seen.
    749815Depending on the installed optics, stars up to 12$^\mathrm{m}$ are
     
    753819images of stars on the screen.
    754820
    755 \begin{table}[htb]
    756 \begin{center}
    757 \small
    758 \begin{tabular}{|l|l|}\hline
    759 Model&Watec WAT-902H (CCIR)\\\hline\hline
    760 Pick-up Element&1/2" CCD image sensor\\
    761 &(interline transfer)\\\hline
    762 Number of total pixels&795(H)x596(V)\\\hline
    763 Minimum Illumination&0.0003\,lx. F/1.4 (AGC Hi)\\
    764 &0.002\,lx. F/1.4 (AGC Lo)\\\hline
    765 Automatic gain&High: 5\,dB\,-\,50\,dB\\
    766 &Low: 5\,dB\,-\,32\,dB\\\hline
    767 S/N&46\,dB (AGC off)\\\hline
    768 Shutter Speed&On: 1/50\,-\,1/100\,000\,s\\ (electronic iris)&Off: 1/50\,s\\\hline
    769 Backlight compensation&On\\\hline
    770 Power Supply&DC +10.8\,V\,-\,13.2\,V\\\hline
    771 Weight&Approx. 90\,g\\\hline
    772 \end{tabular}
    773 \end{center}
    774 \caption{Technical specifications of the CCD camera used for
    775 measuring of the position of the calibration stars on the PM camera lid.}
    776 \label{table}
    777 \end{table}
    778 
     821%\begin{table}[htb]
     822%\begin{center}
     823%\small
     824%\begin{tabular}{|l|l|}\hline
     825%Model&Watec WAT-902H (CCIR)\\\hline\hline
     826%Pick-up Element&1/2" CCD image sensor\\
     827%&(interline transfer)\\\hline
     828%Number of total pixels&795(H)x596(V)\\\hline
     829%Minimum Illumination&0.0003\,lx. F/1.4 (AGC Hi)\\
     830%&0.002\,lx. F/1.4 (AGC Lo)\\\hline
     831%Automatic gain&High: 5\,dB\,-\,50\,dB\\
     832%&Low: 5\,dB\,-\,32\,dB\\\hline
     833%S/N&46\,dB (AGC off)\\\hline
     834%Shutter Speed&On: 1/50\,-\,1/100\,000\,s\\ (electronic iris)&Off: 1/50\,s\\\hline
     835%Backlight compensation&On\\\hline
     836%Power Supply&DC +10.8\,V\,-\,13.2\,V\\\hline
     837%Weight&Approx. 90\,g\\\hline
     838%\end{tabular}
     839%\end{center}
     840%\caption{Technical specifications of the CCD camera used for
     841%measuring of the position of the calibration stars on the PM camera lid.}
     842%\label{table}
     843%\end{table}
    779844\begin{figure*}[htb]
    780845\begin{center}
     
    795860figure~\ref{figure8}. Using the seven LEDs mounted on a circle around
    796861the camera center, the position of the camera center is determined.
    797 Only the upper half of the area instrumented with PMs is visible, since
     862Only the upper half of the area instrumented is visible, since
    798863the lower half is covered by the lower lid, holding a special
    799864reflecting surface in the center of the camera. The LED positions are
    800865evaluated by a simple cluster-finding algorithm looking at pixels more
    801866than three standard deviations above the noise level. The LED position
    802 is defined as the center of gravity of its light distribution. The
    803 search region is defined by the surrounding black-coloured boxes. For
     867is defined as the center of gravity of its light distribution, its
     868search region by the surrounding black-colored boxes. For
    804869simplicity the noise level is determined just by calculating the mean
    805870and the root-mean-square within the individual search regions below a
     
    813878gravity, as well as the reconstructed circle on which the LEDs are
    814879located. The LEDs on the bottom part are hidden by the lower lid,
    815 holding a screen in front of the PM camera. For calibration, the center
    816 of gravity of the measured star, as visible in the center, is compared
    817 to the center of the circle given by the LEDs, coinciding with the
    818 center of the PM camera. The black regions are the search regions for
     880holding a screen in front of the camera.
     881%For calibration, the center
     882%of gravity of the measured star, as visible in the center, is compared
     883%to the center of the circle given by the LEDs, coinciding with the
     884%center of the PM camera.
     885The black regions are the search regions for
    819886the LEDs and the calibration star. A few dead pixels in the CCD camera
    820 can also be recognized. }
     887can also be recognized.}
    821888\label{figure8}
    822889\end{center}
     
    831898determination can be improved further by applying small offsets of
    832899the non-ideal LED positions. The radius distribution is Gaussian
    833 and its resolution is $\sigma\,\apprle$\,1\,mm
     900and its resolution is $\sigma$\,$\apprle$\,1\,mm
    834901($\mathrm{d}r/r\approx0.3$\textperthousand) on the camera plane
    835 corresponding to $\sim$1\,arcsec.
    836 
    837 The center of the LED ring is calculated as the average of all circle
    838 centers after quality cuts. The resolution of the center is
    839 $\sim$2\,arcsec. In this setup, the large number of LEDs guarantees
    840 operation even in case one LED is damaged or could not be detected due
    841 to scattered light.
     902corresponding to $\sim$1$^{\prime\prime}$.
     903
     904The center of the ring is calculated as the average of all circle
     905centers after quality cuts. Its resolution is
     906$\sim$2$^{\prime\prime}$. In this setup, the large number of LEDs guarantees
     907operation even in case one LED could not be detected due to damage or
     908scattered light.
    842909
    843910To find the spot of the reflected star itself, the same cluster-finder
     
    866933be improved to a value below the intrinsic resolution of the system,
    867934i.e., below shaft-encoder resolution. In more than 83\% of all cases the
    868 tracking accuracy is better than 0.02\textdegree{} ($\sim$1.3\,arcmin)
    869 and it hardly ever exceeds 0.04\textdegree. The few datasets exceeding
    870 0.04\textdegree{} are very likely due to imperfect measurement of the
    871 real pointing position of the telescope, i.e.\, the center of gravity of
     935tracking accuracy is better than 1.3$^\prime$
     936and it hardly ever exceeds 2.5$^\prime$. The few datasets exceeding
     9372.5$^\prime$ are very likely due to imperfect measurement of the
     938real pointing position of the telescope, i.e., the center of gravity of
    872939the star light.
     940
     941The average absolute correction applied (excluding the index error) is on
     942the order of 4$^\prime$. Given the size, weight and structure of
     943the telescope this proves a very good alignment and low sagging of the
     944structure. The elevation hysteresis, which is intrinsic to the
     945structure, the non-perpendicularity and non-centricity of the axes are
     946all in the order of 3$^\prime$, while the azimuth axis
     947misalignment is $<$\,0.6$^\prime$. These numbers are well in agreement
     948with the design tolerances of the telescope.
    873949
    874950\begin{figure}[htb]
     
    890966\subsubsection{Limitations}
    891967
    892 The ultimate limit on the achievable tracking precision are effects,
     968The ultimate limit on the achievable pointing precision are effects,
    893969which are difficult to correlate or measure, and non-deterministic
    894970deformations of the structure or mirrors. For example, the azimuth
     
    899975deformations. Other deformations are caused by temperature changes and
    900976wind loads which are difficult to control for telescopes without dome,
    901 and which cannot be modelled. It should be noted that the azimuth structure
     977and which cannot be modeled. It should be noted that the azimuth structure
    902978can change its diameter by up to 3\,cm due to day-night temperature
    903979differences, indicating that thermal effects have a non-negligible and
    904980non-deterministic influence.
    905981
     982Like every two axis mount, also an alt-azimuth mount has a blind spot
     983near its upward position resulting from misalignments of the axis which
     984are impossible to correct by moving one axis or the other. From the
     985size of the applied correction it can be derived that the blind spot
     986must be on the order of $\lesssim$\,6$^\prime$ around zenith.
     987Although the MAGIC drive system is powerful enough to keep on track
     988pointing about 6$^\prime$ away from zenith, for safety reasons, i.e.,
     989to avoid fast movment under normal observation conditions, the observation
     990limit has been set to $\theta$\,$<$\,30$^\prime$. Such fast movements
     991are necessary to change the azimuth position from moving the telescope
     992upwards in the East to downwards in the South. In the case of an ideal
     993telescope, pointing at zenith, even an infinitely fast movement would
     994be required.
     995
    906996\subsubsection{Stability}
    907997
    908 With each measurement of a calibration-star also the present tracking
    909 uncertainty is recorded. This allows for monitoring of the tracking
     998With each measurement of a calibration-star also the present pointing
     999uncertainty is recorded. This allows for monitoring of the pointing
    9101000quality and for offline correction. In figure~\ref{figure10} the
    911 evolution of the measured residuals over the years are shown. The
    912 continuous monitoring has been started in March 2005 and is still
    913 ongoing. Quantiles are shown since the distribution can be highly
    914 asymmetric. The points have been grouped, where the grouping reflects
    915 data taken under the same conditions (pointing model, mirror alignment,
    916 etc.) It should be noted, that the measured residuals depend on zenith
    917 and azimuth angle, i.e., the distributions shown are biased due to
    918 inhomogeneous distributions on the sky in case of low statistics.
    919 Therefore the available statistics is given in table~\ref{table2}.
    920 %, for convenience, together with the average measured mispointing.
    921 
    9221001\begin{figure}[htb]
    9231002\begin{center}
    9241003 \includegraphics*[width=0.48\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{figure10.eps}
    925  \caption{The distribution of mispointing measurements, which is an
    926 exact measure of accuracy of the command values send to the drive
    927 system. The plot shows its time-evolution. Details on the separation
    928 and the available statistics is given in the caption of
    929 table~\ref{table2}. Since the distribution is highly asymmetric,
    930 quantiles are shown, from bottom to top, at 5\%, 13\%, 32\%, 68\%, 87\%
    931 and 95\%. The dark grey region belong to the region between quantiles
    932 32\% and 68\%.
    933 }
     1004\caption{The distribution of mispointing measurements. The
     1005measurement is a direct measurement of the pointing accuracy. The plot
     1006shows its time-evolution. Details on the bin edges and the available
     1007statistics is given in the caption of table~\ref{table2}. Since the
     1008distribution is asymmetric, quantiles are shown, from bottom to top, at
     10095\%, 13\%, 32\%, 68\%, 87\% and 95\%. The dark grey region belong to
     1010the region between quantiles 32\% and 68\%. }
    9341011\label{figure10}
    935 \end{center}
     1012\end{center} 
    9361013\end{figure}
    937 
    938 The mirror focusing can influence the alignment of the optical axis of
    939 the telescope, i.e., it can modify the pointing model. Therefore a mirror
    940 refocusing can worsen the tracking accuracy, later corrected by a new
    941 pointing model. Also the determination of the pointing model relies on
    942 a good statistical basis, because the measured residuals are of a
    943 similar magnitude as the accuracy of a single calibration-star
    944 measurement. The visible improvements and deterioration are mainly a
    945 consequence of new mirror focusing and following implementations of new
    946 pointing models. The improvement over the past year is explained by the
    947 gain in statistics.
    948 
    949 On average the systematic pointing uncertainty was always better than
    950 three shaft-encoder steps (corresponding to 4\,arcmin), most of the
    951 time better than 2.6\,arcmin and well below one shaft-encoder step,
    952 i.e.\ 1.3\,arcmin, in the past year. Except changes to the pointing
    953 model or the optical axis, as indicated by the bin edges, no
    954 degradation or change with time of the pointing model could be found.
    955 
    956 \section{Scalability}\label{sec5}
    957 
    958 With the aim to reach lower energy thresholds the next generation of
    959 Cherenkov telescopes will become larger and heavier. Therefore more
    960 powerful drive systems will be needed. The scalable drive system of the
    961 MAGIC telescope is suited to meet this challenge. With its synchronous
    962 motors and their master-slave setup it can easily be extended to larger
    963 telescopes at moderate costs or even scaled down using less powerful
    964 components. A motion accuracy at least of the order of the
    965 shaft-encoder resolution is guaranteed. Real tracking accuracy --
    966 already including all possible pointing corrections -- is dominated by
    967 dynamic and unpredictable deformations of the mount, e.g., temperature
    968 expansion.
    969 
     1014evolution of the measured residuals over the years are shown. The
     1015continuous monitoring has been started in March 2005 and is still
     1016ongoing. Quantiles are shown since the distribution can be
     1017asymmetric depending on how the residuals are distributed on the sky. The
     1018points have been grouped, where the grouping reflects data taken under
     1019the same conditions (pointing model, mirror alignment, etc.). It should
     1020be noted, that the measured residuals depend on zenith and azimuth
     1021angle, i.e., the distributions shown are biased due to inhomogeneous
     1022distributions on the sky in case of low statistics. Therefore the
     1023available statistics is given in table~\ref{table2}.
    9701024\begin{table}[htb]
    9711025\begin{center}
    9721026\begin{tabular}{|l|c|}\hline
    9731027Begin&Counts\\\hline\hline
    974 2005/03/20&29\\
    975 2005/04/29&43\\
    976 2005/05/25&30\\
    977 2005/06/08&26\\
    978 2005/08/15&160\\
    979 2005/09/12&22\\
     10282005/03/20&29\\%&  2005/11/24&38\\
     10292005/04/29&43\\%&  2006/03/19&502\\
     10302005/05/25&30\\%&  2006/10/17&827\\
     10312005/06/08&26\\%&  2007/07/31&87\\
     10322005/08/15&160\\%& 2008/01/14&542\\
     10332005/09/12&22\\\hline%&  2008/06/18&128\\\hline
     1034\end{tabular}
     1035\hfill
     1036\begin{tabular}{|l|c|}\hline
     1037Begin&Counts\\\hline\hline
    98010382005/11/24&38\\
    98110392006/03/19&502\\
     
    98410422008/01/14&542\\
    98510432008/06/18&128\\\hline
    986 \end{tabular}
     1044\end{tabular}\hfill
    9871045\end{center}
    9881046\caption{Available statistics corresponding to the distributions
     
    9951053\end{table}
    9961054
    997 \section{Outlook}
     1055The mirror focusing can influence the alignment of the optical axis of
     1056the telescope, i.e., it can modify the pointing model. Therefore a
     1057calibration of the mirror refocusing can worsen the tracking accuracy,
     1058later corrected by a new pointing model. Although the automatic mirror
     1059control is programmed such that a new calibration should not change the
     1060center of gravity of the light distribution, it happened sometimes in
     1061the past due to software errors.
     1062
     1063The determination of the pointing model also relies on a good
     1064statistical basis, because the measured residuals are of a similar
     1065magnitude as the accuracy of a single calibration-star measurement. The
     1066visible improvements and deterioration are mainly a consequence of new
     1067mirror focusing and following implementations of new pointing models.
     1068The improvement over the past year is explained by the gain in
     1069statistics.
     1070
     1071On average the systematic pointing uncertainty was always better than
     1072three shaft-encoder steps (corresponding to 4$^\prime$), most of the
     1073time better than 2.6$^\prime$ and well below one shaft-encoder step,
     1074i.e.\ 1.3$^\prime$, in the past year. Except changes to the pointing
     1075model or the optical axis, as indicated by the bin edges, no
     1076degradation or change with time of the pointing model or
     1077a worsening of the limit given by the telescope mechanics could be found.
     1078
     1079\section{Scalability}\label{sec5}
     1080
     1081With the aim to reach lower energy thresholds, the next generation of
     1082Cherenkov telescopes will also include larger and heavier ones.
     1083Therefore more powerful drive systems will be needed. The scalable
     1084drive system of the MAGIC telescope is suited to meet this challenge.
     1085With its synchronous motors and their master-slave setup, it can easily
     1086be extended to larger telescopes at moderate costs, or even scaled down
     1087to smaller ones using less powerful components. Consequently,
     1088telescopes in future projects, with presumably different sizes, can be
     1089driven by similar components resulting in a major
     1090simplification of maintenance. With the current setup, a tracking
     1091accuracy at least of the order of the shaft-encoder resolution is
     1092guaranteed. Pointing accuracy -- already including all possible
     1093pointing corrections -- is dominated by dynamic and unpredictable
     1094deformations of the mount, e.g., temperature expansion.
     1095
     1096\section{Outlook}\label{outlook}
    9981097
    9991098Currently, efforts are ongoing to implement the astrometric subroutines
     
    10181117without influencing the general functionality of the system.
    10191118
     1119An upgrade of the MAGIC\,I drive system according to the improvements
     1120applied for MAGIC\,II is ongoing.
     1121
    10201122\section{Conclusions}\label{conclusions}
    10211123
     
    10231125system for the MAGIC telescope. From its hardware installation and
    10241126software implementation, the installed drive system exceeds its design
    1025 specifications. At the same time the system performs reliably and
    1026 stably, showing no deterioration after five years of routine operation.
    1027 The mechanical precision of the motor movement is almost ten times
    1028 better than the readout on the telescope axes. The tracking accuracy is
    1029 dominated by random deformations and hysteresis effects of the mount,
    1030 but still within limits within which the position of the telescope axes
    1031 can be measured. The system features integrated tools, like an
    1032 analytical pointing model. Fast repositioning for gamma-ray bursts
    1033 followup is achieved on average within less than 45 seconds, or, if
    1034 movements {\em across the zenith} are allowed, within less than 30
    1035 seconds. Thus, the drive system makes MAGIC the best suited telescope
    1036 for observations of gamma-ray burst at very high energies.
     1127specifications as given in section~\ref{design}. At the same time the
     1128system performs reliably and stably, showing no deterioration after
     1129five years of routine operation. The mechanical precision of the motor
     1130movement is almost ten times better than the readout on the telescope
     1131axes. The tracking accuracy is dominated by random deformations and
     1132hysteresis effects of the mount, but still negligible
     1133compared to the measurement of the position of the telescope axes. The
     1134system features integrated tools, like an analytical pointing model.
     1135Fast positioning for gamma-ray burst followup is achieved on average
     1136within less than 45 seconds, or, if movements {\em across the zenith}
     1137are allowed, 30 seconds. Thus, the drive system makes
     1138MAGIC the best suited telescope for observations of these phenomena at
     1139very high energies.
    10371140
    10381141For the second phase of the MAGIC project and particularly for the
    1039 second telescope, the system has been further improved by replacing the
    1040 partially analog communication with a completely digital one.
     1142second telescope, the drive system has been further improved.
    10411143By design, the drive system is easily scalable from its current
    10421144dimensions to larger and heavier telescope installations as required
    10431145for future projects. The improved stability is also expected to meet
    10441146the stability requirements, necessary when operating a larger number of
    1045 telecopes.
     1147telescopes.
    10461148
    10471149\section[]{Acknowledgments}
    10481150The authors acknowledge the support of the MAGIC collaboration, and
    1049 thank the IAC for providing excellent working conditions at the Roque
    1050 de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma. The MAGIC telescope project
    1051 is mainly supported by BMBF (Germany), MCI-NN (Spain), INFN and MUR
    1052 (Italy). We thank the construction department of the MPI for Physics,
    1053 particularly Peter Sawallisch, for their help in the design and
    1054 installation of the drive system. We are grateful for Eckart Lorenz's
    1055 help with the hardware installations and also for some important
    1056 comments concerning this manuscript. R.M.W.\ acknowledges financial
    1057 support by the Max Planck Society. His research is also supported in
    1058 part by the DFG Cluster of Excellence ``Origin and Structure of the
    1059 Universe''.
     1151thank the IAC for providing excellent working conditions at the
     1152Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos. The MAGIC project is mainly
     1153supported by BMBF (Germany), MCI (Spain), INFN (Italy). We thank the
     1154construction department of the MPI for Physics, for their help in the
     1155design and installation of the drive system as well as Eckart Lorenz,
     1156for some important comments concerning this manuscript. R.M.W.\
     1157acknowledges financial support by the MPG. His research is also
     1158supported by the DFG Cluster of Excellence ``Origin and Structure of
     1159the Universe''.
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