# Changeset 8771

Ignore:
Timestamp:
Nov 29, 2007, 8:58:33 PM (13 years ago)
Message:
*** empty log message ***

Location:
trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG
Files:
2 edited

### Legend:

Unmodified
 r8613 @INPROCEEDINGS{Riegel:2005icrc2, author = {{Riegel}, B. and Bretz, T. and Dorner, D. and Wagner, R.~M. and others}, author = {{Riegel}, B. and Bretz, T. and Dorner, D. and Wagner, R.~M.}, title = {A tracking monitor for the {MAGIC} telescope}, booktitle = {$29^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Blandford, author = {{Blandford}, R.~D. and {K\"onigl}, A.}, title = {Relativistic jets as compact radio sources}, journal = {\apj}, year = 1979, month = aug, volume = 232, pages = {34-48}, doi = {10.1086/157262}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1979ApJ...232...34B}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Dermer, author = {{Dermer}, C.~D. and {Schlickeiser}, R. and {Mastichiadis}, A.}, title = {High-energy gamma radiation from extragalactic radio sources}, journal = {\aap}, year = 1992, month = mar, volume = 256, pages = {L27-L30}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1992A%26A...256L..27D}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Begelman, author = {{Begelman}, M.~C. and {Fabian}, A.~C. and {Rees}, M.~J.}, title = "{Implications of very rapid TeV variability in blazars}", journal = {ArXiv e-prints}, eprint = {0709.0540}, year = 2007, month = sep, volume = 709, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007arXiv0709.0540B}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Meszaros, author = {{Meszaros}, P. and {Rees}, M.~J.}, title = {Gamma-Ray Bursts: Multiwaveband Spectral Predictions for Blast Wave Models}, journal = {\apjl}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/9309011}, year = 1993, month = dec, volume = 418, pages = {L59+}, doi = {10.1086/187116}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1993ApJ...418L..59M}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Rachen, author = {{Rachen}, J.~P. and {Biermann}, P.~L.}, title = {{E}xtragalactic {U}ltra-{H}igh {E}nergy {C}osmic-{R}ays - {P}art {O}ne - {C}ontribution from {H}ot {S}pots in {Fr-II} {R}adio {G}alaxies}, journal = {\aap}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/9301010}, year = 1993, month = may, volume = 272, pages = {161-+}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1993A%26A...272..161R}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Mannheim:1999, author = {{Mannheim}, K.}, title = {Frontiers in High-Energy Astroparticle Physics}, booktitle = {Reviews in Modern Astronomy}, year = 1999, series = {Reviews in Modern Astronomy}, volume = 12, editor = {{Schielicke}, R.~E.}, pages = {167-+}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1999RvMA...12..167M}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Blazejowski, author = {{B{\l}a{\.z}ejowski}, M. and others}, title = "{A Multiwavelength View of the TeV Blazar Markarian 421: Correlated Variability, Flaring, and Spectral Evolution}", journal = {\apj}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0505325}, year = 2005, month = sep, volume = 630, pages = {130-141}, doi = {10.1086/431925}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2005ApJ...630..130B}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Rieger:2007, author = {{Rieger}, F.~M.}, title = {Supermassive binary black holes among cosmic gamma-ray sources}, journal = {\apss}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0611224}, year = 2007, month = jun, volume = 309, pages = {271-275}, doi = {10.1007/s10509-007-9467-y}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007Ap%26SS.309..271R}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Kranich, author = {{Kranich}, D.}, title = {Evidence for a {QPO} structure in the {TeV} and X-ray light curve during the 1997 high state {$\gamma$} emission of {Mkn}\,501}, booktitle = {International Cosmic Ray Conference}, year = 1999, series = {International Cosmic Ray Conference}, volume = 3, month = aug, pages = {358-+}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1999ICRC....3..358K}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Osone, author = {{Osone}, S.}, title = "{Study of 23 day periodicity of Blazar Mkn501 in 1997}", journal = {Astroparticle Physics}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0506328}, year = 2006, month = oct, volume = 26, pages = {209-218}, doi = {10.1016/j.astropartphys.2006.06.004}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2006APh....26..209O}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Rieger:2003, author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.}, title = {On the central black hole mass in Mkn 501}, journal = {\aap}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0210326}, year = 2003, month = jan, volume = 397, pages = {121-125}, doi = {10.1051/0004-6361:20021482}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2003A%26A...397..121R}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Hong, author = {{Hong}, X.~Y. and others}, title = "{A relativistic helical jet in the {$\gamma$}-ray AGN 1156+295}", journal = {\aap}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0401627}, year = 2004, month = apr, volume = 417, pages = {887-904}, doi = {10.1051/0004-6361:20031784}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2004A%26A...417..887H}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Aharonian:2006, author = {{Aharonian}, F. and others}, title = "{The H.E.S.S.\ Survey of the Inner Galaxy in Very High Energy Gamma Rays}", journal = {\apj}, year = 2006, month = jan, volume = 636, pages = {777-797}, doi = {10.1086/498013}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2006ApJ...636..777A}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @MASTERSTHESIS{Meyer:Diploma, author = {Meyer, M.}, title  = {{K}alibrierung des {MAGIC}-{T}eleskops mit {M}yonen}, school = {Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg}, year   = {2004} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2003drive, author = {Bretz, T. and Dorner, D. and Wagner, R. M.}, title = "{The tracking system of the MAGIC telescope}", booktitle = {$28^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference}, year = 2003, } @MASTERSTHESIS{Riegel:Diploma, author = {Riegel, B.}, title  = {{S}ystematische {U}ntersuchung der {B}ildparameter f\"ur das {MAGIC}-{T}eleskop}, school = {Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg}, year   = {2005} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2003icrc, author = {{Bretz}, T.}, title = {The {MAGIC} {A}nalysis and {R}econstruction {S}oftware}, booktitle = {$28^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference}, year = 2003, month = Aug } @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2004gamma, author = {{Bretz}, T.}, title = {{MARS} - {R}oadmap to a standard analysis}, booktitle = {$2^{nd}$ International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy}, year = 2004, month = Jul } @ARTICLE{Paneque:2004, author = {{Paneque}, D. and {Gebauer}, H.~J. and {Lorenz}, E. and {Mirzoyan}, R. }, title = "{A method to enhance the sensitivity of photomultipliers for Air Cherenkov Telescopes by applying a lacquer that scatters light}", journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A}, year = 2004, month = feb, volume = 518, pages = {619-621}, doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.101}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2004NIMPA.518..619P}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Milagro:2007, author = {{Abdo}, A.~A. and others}, title = "{TeV Gamma-Ray Sources from a Survey of the Galactic Plane with Milagro}", journal = {ArXiv e-prints}, eprint = {0705.0707}, year = 2007, month = may, volume = 705, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007arXiv0705.0707A}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Rieger:2000, author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.}, title = "{Implications of a possible 23 day periodicity for binary black hole models in Mkn 501}", journal = {\aap}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0005478}, year = 2000, month = jul, volume = 359, pages = {948-952}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2000A%26A...359..948R}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Rieger:2001, author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.}, title = "{A Possible Black Hole Binary in Mkn 501}", booktitle = {American Institute of Physics Conference Series}, year = 2001, series = {American Institute of Physics Conference Series}, volume = 558, editor = {{Aharonian}, F.~A. and {V{\"o}lk}, H.~J.}, pages = {716-+}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2001AIPC..558..716R}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Rieger:2003, author = {{Rieger}, F.~M. and {Mannheim}, K.}, title = "{On the central black hole mass in Mkn 501}", journal = {\aap}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0210326}, year = 2003, month = jan, volume = 397, pages = {121-125}, doi = {10.1051/0004-6361:20021482}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2003A%26A...397..121R}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Aharonian:2007pks, author = {{Aharonian}, F. and others}, title = "{An Exceptional Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Flare of PKS 2155-304}", journal = {\apjl}, eprint = {arXiv:0706.0797}, year = 2007, month = aug, volume = 664, pages = {L71-L74}, doi = {10.1086/520635}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007ApJ...664L..71A}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @MASTERSTHESIS{Haffke:Dipl, author = {Haffke, M.}, title  = "{Berechnung und Implementierung neuer Atmosph\"arenmodelle in die MAGIC-Monte-Carlo-Kette}", school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund}, month  = {Mar}, year   = {2007} } @MASTERSTHESIS{Dreyer:Dipl, author = {Dreyer, J.}, title  = {Hard- und {S}oftwareentwicklung im {R}ahmen der {E}xperimente {AMANDA} und {IceCube}}, school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund}, month  = {Nov}, year   = {2005} } @MASTERSTHESIS{Refflinghaus:Dipl, author = {Refflinghaus, F.}, title  = "{Datenkompression der Photomultiplier-Signale des AMANDA-Neutrinodetektors}", school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund}, month  = {Nov}, year   = {2005} } @MASTERSTHESIS{Bartelt:Dipl, author = {Bartelt, M.}, title  = "{Test von alternativen Konzepten zur Hochspannungsversorgung des IceCube-Detektors}", school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund}, month  = {Dez}, year   = {2004} } @MASTERSTHESIS{Deeg:Dipl, author = {Deeg, M.}, title  = "{Prototypenentwicklung eines Detektorsystems für ultrahochenergetische Kosmische Strahlung}", school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund}, month  = {Feb}, year   = {2003} } @PHDTHESIS{Messarius:PhD, author = {Messarius, T.}, title  = {Entwurf und Realisation des AMANDA Softwaretriggers f\"ur das TWR Datenauslese System}, school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund}, month  = {Aug}, year   = {2003} } @PHDTHESIS{Wagner:PhD, author = {Wagner, W.}, title  = "{Design and Realisation of a new AMANDA Data Aquisition System with Transient Waveform Recorders}", school = {Universit{\"a}t Dortmund}, month  = {Oct}, year   = {2003} } @PHDTHESIS{Schroeder:PhD, author = {Schroeder, F.}, title  = "{Simulation und Beobachtung von Luftschauern unter großen Zenitwinkeln}", school = {Bergische Universit{\"a}t Wuppertal}, year   = {2001} } @ARTICLE{hepph0407075, author  = {{Albert}, J.}, title   = "{Implementation of the Random Forest Method for the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope MAGIC}", journal = {ArXiv e-prints}, eprint  = {0709.3719}, year    = {2007}, month   = {Sep}, volume  = {709}, adsurl  = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007arXiv0709.3719A}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Curtef:CDM, author = {Curtef, V. and Backes, M. and Hadasch, D.}, title  = {Improvements of the energy reconstruction for the MAGIC telescope by means of analysis and Monte Carlo techniques}, booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten}, volume = 328, year = 2007, } @INPROCEEDINGS{Rueger, author = {Rueger, M. and Spanier, F.}, booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten}, volume = 328, year = 2007, } @INPROCEEDINGS{Burkart, author = {Burkart, T. and Spanier, F.}, booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten}, volume = 328, year = 2007, } @INPROCEEDINGS{Ruegamer, author = {Ruegamer, S. and others}, title  = {Wide Range Multifrequency Observations of Northern TeV Blazars}, booktitle = {Astronomische Nachrichten}, volume = 328, year = 2007, } @ARTICLE{Kneiske, author = {{Kneiske}, T.~M. and {Bretz}, T. and {Mannheim}, K. and {Hartmann}, D.~H.}, title = {Implications of cosmological gamma-ray absorption. {II}. Modification of gamma-ray spectra}, journal = {\aap}, year = 2004, month = jan, volume = 413, pages = {807-815}, doi = {10.1051/0004-6361:20031542}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2004A%26A...413..807K&db_key=AST}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Mannheim:1995, author    = {{Mannheim}, K.}, title     = "{Gamma Rays from Compact Objects. (Ludwig Biermann Award Lecture 1995)}", booktitle = {Reviews in Modern Astronomy}, year      = 1996, series    = {Reviews in Modern Astronomy}, volume    = 9, editor    = {{Schielicke}, R.~E.}, pages     = {17-48} } @ARTICLE{Albert:501, author  = {{MAGIC Collaboration}}, title   = "{Variable VHE gamma-ray emission from Markarian 501}", journal = {ArXiv Astrophysics e-prints}, eprint  = {astro-ph/0702008}, year    = 2007, month   = feb, adsurl  = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007astro.ph..2008M}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Muenich:Icrc, author = {M"unich, K. and L"unemann, Jan}, title = {Measurement of the atmospheric lepton energy spectra with {AMANDA-II}}, booktitle = {$30^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference}, year = 2007, } @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2005drive, author = {Bretz, T. and Dorner, D. and Wagner, R.M. and Riegel, B.}, title = { A Scalable Drive System Concept for Future Projects}, booktitle = {Towards a network of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors VII}, year = 2005, month = Apr } @ARTICLE{Moralejo:2004, author = {{Moralejo}, A. and others}, title = "{Monte Carlo estimate of flux sensitivity of MAGIC for point-like sources}", journal = {Internal MAGIC report}, year = 2004, month = {Dec}, } @ARTICLE{MAGICsensi, author = {{MAGIC Collaboration}}, title = "{MAGIC sensitivity at \url{http://magic.mppmu.mpg.de/physics/results/}}", journal = {Official MAGIC website}, eprint = {http://magic.mppmu.mpg.de/physics/results/released/sensit.jpg}, } @ARTICLE{Magnussen:1998, author = {{Magnussen}, N.}, title = "{The MAGIC Telescope Project for Gamma Astronomy above 10 GeV}", journal = {ArXiv Astrophysics e-prints}, eprint = {astro-ph/9805184}, year = 1998, month = may, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998astro.ph..5184M}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Vassiliev:1999, author = {{Vassiliev}, V.~V.}, title = "{VERITAS: Performance characteristics (baseline design)}", booktitle = {International Cosmic Ray Conference}, year = 1999, series = {International Cosmic Ray Conference}, volume = 5, pages = {299-+}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ICRC....5..299V}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Leier:2006, author = {{Leier}, D. and {Becker}, J.~K. and {Groß}, A. and {Rhode}, W.}, title = "{Coincident observations between Neutrino- and TeV-Cherenkov-Telescopes}", journal = {Internal IceCube report}, year = 2006, month = {Apr}, } @ARTICLE{Barcelo, author = {{Pegna}, R. and {Barcel{\'o}}, M. and {Bitossi}, M. and {Cecchi}, R. and {Fagiolini}, M. and {Paoletti}, R. and {Piccioli}, A. and {Turini}, N. }, title = "{A GHz sampling DAQ system for the MAGIC-II telescope}", journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A}, year = 2007, month = mar, volume = 572, pages = {382-384}, doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.375}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007NIMPA.572..382P}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @MISC{Fraunhofer, author = {Braun, S.}, title  = {Private communication}, school = {IWS Dresden, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology}, month  = {Sep}, year   = {2007}, } @ARTICLE{AUGER-AGN, author = {{The Pierre Auger Collaboration}}, title = "{Correlation of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Extragalactic Objects}", journal = {Science}, eprint = {0711.2256}, year = 2007, month = nov, volume = 318, pages = {938}, } @ARTICLE{Tescaro:2007, author = {{Tescaro}, D. and others }, title = "{Study of the performance and capability of the new ultra-fast 2 GSample/s FADC data acquisition system of the MAGIC telescope}", journal = {ArXiv e-prints}, eprint = {0709.1410}, year = 2007, month = sep, volume = 709, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007arXiv0709.1410T}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Merrit, title    = {Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution}, author   = {Merrit, D. and Milosavljevic, M.}, journal  = {Living Reviews in Relativity}, year     = {2005}, number   = {8}, volume   = {8}, keywords = {}, url      = {http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2005-8} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Juan:2000, author = {{Cortina}, J. and {Barrio}, J.~A. and {Rauterberg}, G. and {The HEGRA Collaboration} }, title = "{The New Data Acquisition Systems of the First Telescope in HEGRA}", booktitle = {American Institute of Physics Conference Series}, year = 2000, series = {American Institute of Physics Conference Series}, volume = 515, editor = {{Dingus}, B.~L. and {Salamon}, M.~H. and {Kieda}, D.~B.}, pages = {368-+}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AIPC..515..368C}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Kestel:2000, author = {{Kestel}, M. and {The HEGRA Collaboration} }, title = "{The upgrade of the HEGRA CT1 telescope with new mirrors and new Trigger system}", booktitle = {16$^{th}$ European cosmic ray symposium}, year = 1998, series = {Nuclear Physics B, Proc. Suppl.}, editor = {{Medina}, J.}, }
 r8616 \documentclass[12pt,openbib]{article} \usepackage{german,graphicx,amssymb,amsmath,wasysym,stmaryrd,times,a4wide,wrapfig,exscale,xspace,url,fancyhdr} \usepackage{german,graphicx,eurosym,amssymb,amsmath,wasysym,stmaryrd,times,a4wide,wrapfig,exscale,xspace,url,fancyhdr} \usepackage[round]{natbib} {\sc Mannheim, Karl, Prof.~Dr.}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{Universit"atsprofessor (C4)}\\\hline\hline {\ }&{\bf Birthday}&{\bf Nationality}\\ {\ }&Jan 4 1960&German\\\hline {\ }&Jan 4 1963&German\\\hline \multicolumn{3}{|l|}{\bf Institut, Lehrstuhl}\\ \multicolumn{3}{|l|}{Institut f"ur Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik}\\ Long-term VHE $\gamma$-ray monitoring of bright blazars with a dedicated Cherenkov telescope Langzeitbeobachtung von hellen VHE $\gamma$-Blazaren mit einem dedizierten Cherenkov Teleskop \paragraph{1.3 Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}~\\ Astronomy and Astrophysics, Particle Astrophysics \paragraph{\bf 1.4 Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}~\\ 3\,years (+ seit wann das Vorhaben l"auft, seit wann es von der DFG gef"ordert wird) (evtl. gr"o"ser als der Antragszeitraum?) After successful completion of the three-year work plan developed in this proposal, we will ask for an extension of the project for another two years to carry out an observation program centered on the signatures of supermassive binary black holes. \paragraph{\bf 1.5 Application period (Antragszeitraum)}~\\ 3\,years. Work on the project may and will begin immediately after the funding. 3\,years. The work on the project will begin immediately after the funding. \paragraph{\bf 1.6 Summary (Zusammenfassung)}~\\ % AUCH IN DEUTSCH BEIFGEN We propose to set up an imaging air Cherenkov telescope with low-cost but high performance design for robotic and remote operation. The goal is to achieve long-term monitoring of bright blazars which will unravel the origin and nature of their variability (und den zugrunde liegen Beschleunigungsmachanismen der kosmischen Strahlung). The telescope design is based on a technological upgrade of one of the former telescopes of the HEGRA collaboration still located at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos on the Canarian Island La Palma (Spain). With the upgrade an improvement in senitivity by 25\%{\bf (?)} and a lower energy threshold in the order of 350\,GeV{\bf (?)} will be achieved. {\bf IceCube erw"ahnen?} {\em Nicht gescheduled von anderen IACTs?} {\em We propose to set up a robotic imaging air Cherenkov telescope with low cost, but high performance design for remote operation. The goal is to dedicate this gamma-ray telescope to long-term monitoring observations of nearby, bright blazars at very high energies. We will (i) search for orbital modulation of the blazar emission due to supermassive black hole binaries, (ii) study the statistics of flares and their physical origin, and (iii) correlate the data with corresponding data from the neutrino observatory IceCube to search for evidence of hadronic emission processes. The observations will also trigger follow-up observations of flares with higher sensitivity telescopes such as MAGIC, VERITAS, and H.E.S.S.\ Joint observations with the Whipple monitoring telescope will start a future 24h-monitoring of selected sources with a distributed network of robotic telescopes. The telescope design is based on a full technological upgrade of one of the former telescopes of the HEGRA collaboration (CT3) still located at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos on the Canarian Island La Palma (Spain). After this upgrade, the telescope will be operated robotically, a much lower energy threshold below 350\,GeV will be achieved and the observation time required for gaining the same signal as with CT3 will be reduced by a factor of 6. Unser Vorhaben besteht darin, ein robotisches Luft-Cherenkov-Teleskop mit geringen Kosten aber hoher Leistung fernsteuerbar in Betrieb zu nehmen. Das Ziel ist es, dieses gamma-ray Teleskop ganz der Langzeitbeobachtung von nahen, hellen Blazaren bei sehr hohen Energien zu widmen. Wir werden (i) nach Modulationen der Blazar-Emission durch Bin"arsysteme von supermassiven Schwarzen L"ochern suchen, (ii) die Statistik von gamma-Ausbr"uchen und deren physikalischen Ursprung untersuchen und (iii) die Daten mit entsprechenden Daten von dem Neutrino-Telskop IceCube korrelieren, um Nachweise f"ur hadronische Emissionsprozesse zu finden. Die Beobachtungen werden zus"atzlich Nachfolgebeobachtungen von gamma-Ausbr"uchen mit h"ohersensitiven Teleskopen wie MAGIC, VERITAS und H.E.S.S.\ triggern. Auf einander abgestimmte Beobachtungen zusammen mit dem Whipple Teleskop werden der Auftakt zu einer zuk"unftigen 24-Stunden-Beobachtung von selektierten Quellen mit einem verteilten Netzwerk robotischer Cherenkov-Teleskope sein. Das Teleskop-Design basiert auf einem kompletten technologischen Upgrade eines der Teleskope der fr"uheren HEGRA-Kollaboration, welches noch immer am Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos auf der kanarischen Insel La Palma (Spanien) gelegen ist. Nach diesem Upgrade wird das Teleskop robotisch betrieben werden und eine wesentlich geringere Energieschwelle von unter 350\,GeV aufweisen, w"ahrend gleichzeitig die notwendige Beobachtungszeit, um dasselbe Signal wie CT3 zu erhalten, um einen Faktor 6 verringert wird. \newpage \section[2]{Stand der Forschung, eigene Vorarbeiten\\Science case, preliminary work by proposer} \subsection[2.1]{Science case (Stand der Forschung)} Since the termination of the HEGRA observations, the succeeding experiments MAGIC and H.E.S.S. have impressively extended the physical scope of gamma ray astronomy detecting tens of formerly unknown gamma ray sources and analyzing their energy spectra, morphology, and temporal behavior. This became possible by lowering the energy threshold from 700\,GeV to less than 100\,GeV and increasing at the same time the sensitivity by a factor of five. A diversity of astrophysical source types such as pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants, microquasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, clusters of galaxies, gamma ray bursts and blazars have been studied with these telescopes. The main class of extragalactic, very high energy gamma-rays sources detected with imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes are blazars, i.e. accreting supermassive black holes exhibiting a relativistic jet that is closely aligned with the line of sight. The non-thermal blazar spectrum covers up to 20 orders of magnitude in energy, from long-wavelength radio waves to multi-TeV gamma-rays. In addition, blazars are characterized by rapid variability, high degrees of polarization, and super-luminal motion of knots in their high-resolution radio images. The observed behavior can readily be explained assuming relativistic bulk motion and in situ particle acceleration, e.g. at shock waves, leading to synchrotron (radio-to-x-ray) and self-Compton (gamma-ray) emission \citep{Blandford}. Additionally, inverse Compton scattering of external photons may play a role in producing the observed gamma rays \citep{Dermer,Begelman}. Variability may hold the key to understanding the details of the emission processes and the source geometry, and the development of time-dependent models is currently on the agenda of model builders worldwide. Although particle acceleration inevitably affects electrons and protons (ions), the electrons are commonly believed to be responsible for producing the observed emission owing to their lower mass and thus much stronger energy losses (at the same energy). The relativistic protons, which could either originate from the accretion flow or from entrained ambient matter, will quickly dominate the momentum flow of the jet. This {\em baryon pollution} has been suggested to solve the energy transport problem in gamma ray bursts, and is probably present in blazar jets as well, even if they originate as pair jets in a black hole ergosphere\citep{Meszaros}. Protons and ions accelerated in the jets of blazars can reach extremely high energies before energy losses become important \citep{Mannheim:1993}. Escaping particles contribute to the observed flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in a major way. Blazars and their unbeamed hosts, the radio galaxies, are thus the prime candidates for origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays \citep{Rachen}, and this can be investigated with the IceCube and AUGER experiments. Recent results of the AUGER experiment show a significant anisotropy of the highest energy cosmic rays and point at either nearby AGN or sources with a similar spacial distribution as their origin \citep{AUGER-AGN}. In some flares, a large ratio of the gamma-ray to optical luminosity is observed. This is difficult to reconcile with the primary leptonic origin of the emission, since the accelerated electron pressure would largely exceed the magnetic field pressure. For shock acceleration to work efficiently, particles must be confined by the magnetic field for a time longer than the cooling time. The problem vanishes in the following model: Photo-hadronic interactions of accelerated protons and synchrotron photons induce electromagnetic cascades, which in turn produce secondary electrons causing high energy synchrotron gamma-radiation. This demands much stronger magnetic fields in line with magnetic confinement \citep{Mannheim:1995}. Short variability time scales can result from dynamical changes of the emission zone, running e.g. through an inhomogeneous environment. The contemporaneous spectral energy distributions for hadronic and leptonic models bear many similarities, but also marked differences, such as multiple bumps which are possible even in a one-zone hadronic model \citep{Mannheim:1999}. These properties allow conclusions about the accelerated particles. Noteworthy, even for nearby blazars the spectrum must be corrected for attenuation of the gamma rays due to pair production in collisions with low-energy photons from the extragalactic background radiation field \citep{Kneiske}. Ultimately, the hadronic origin of the emission must be probed with correlated gamma-ray and neutrino observations, since the pion decay initiating the cascades involves a fixed ratio of electron-positron pairs, gamma-rays, and neutrinos. A dedicated monitoring campaign jointly with IceCube has the best chance for success. Pilot studies done with MAGIC and IceCube indicate that the investigation of neutrino event triggered gamma-ray observations are statistically inconclusive \citep{Leier:2006}. The variability time scale of blazars ranges from minutes to months, generally showing the largest amplitudes and the shortest time scales at the highest energies. Recently, a doubling time scale of two minutes has been observed in a flare of Mrk\,501 with the MAGIC telescope \citep{Albert:501}. A giant flare of PKS\,2155-304 discovered by H.E.S.S.\ \citep{Aharonian:2007pks} has shown similarly short doubling time scales and a flux of up to 16 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. Indications for TeV flares without evidence for an accompanying x-ray flare, coined orphan flares, have been observed, questioning the synchrotron-self-Compton mechanism being responsible for the gamma-rays. Model ramifications involving several emission components, external seed photons, or hadronically induced emission may solve the problem \citep{Blazejowski}. Certainly, the database for contemporaneous multi-wavelength observations is still far from proving the synchrotron-self-Compton model. Generally, observations of flares are prompted by optical or x-ray alerts, leading to a strong selection bias. The variability presumably reflects the non-steady feeding of the jets and the changing interplay between particle acceleration and cooling. In this situation, perturbations of the electron density or the bulk plasma velocity are traveling down the jet. The variability could also reflect the changing conditions of the external medium to which the jet flow adapts during its passage through it. In fact, a clumpy, highly inhomogeneous external medium is typical for active galactic nuclei, as indicated by their clumpy emission line regions, if visible against the Doppler-enhanced blazar emission. Often the jets bend with a large angle indicating shocks resulting from reflections off intervening high-density clouds. Changes in the direction of the jet flow lead to large flux variations due to differential Doppler boosting. Helical trajectories, as seen in high-resolution radio maps resulting from the orbital modulation of the jet base in supermassive black hole binaries, would lead to periodic variability on time scales of months to years \citep{Rieger:2007}. Binaries are expected to be the most common outcome of the repeated mergers of galaxies which have originally built up the blazar host galaxy. Each progenitor galaxy brings its own supermassive black hole as expected from the Magorrian-Kormendy relations. It is subject to stellar dynamical evolution in the core of the merger galaxy, of which only one pair of black holes is expected to survive near the center of gravity. Supermassive black hole binaries close to coalescence are thus expected to be generic in blazars. Angular momentum transport by collective stellar dynamical processes is efficient to bring them to distances close to where the emission of gravitational waves begins to dominate their further evolution until coalescence. Their expected gravitational wave luminosity is spectacularly high, even long before final coalescence and the frequencies are favorable for the detectors under consideration (LISA). Detection of gravitational waves relies on exact templates to filter out the signals and the templates can be computed from astrophysical constraints on the orbits and masses of the black holes. TeV gamma-rays, showing the shortest variability time scales, probe deepest into the jet and are thus the most sensitive probe of the orbital modulation at the jet base. Relativistic aberration is helpful in bringing down the observed periods to below the time scale of years. A tentative hint for a 23-day periodicity of the TeV emission from Mrk\,501 during a phase of high activity in 1997 was reported by HEGRA \citep{Kranich}, and was later confirmed including x-ray and Teleacope Array data \citep{Osone}. The observations can be explained in a supermassive black hole binary scenario \citep{Rieger:2000}. Indications for helical trajectories and periodic modulation of optical and radio lightcurves on time scales of tens of years have also been described in the literature (e.g. \cite{Hong,Merrit}). To overcome the limitations of biased sampling, a complete monitoring database for a few representative bright sources needs to be obtained. Space missions with all-sky observations at lower photon energies, such as GLAST, GRIPS, or eROSITA, will provide significant multi-wavelength exposure simultaneous to the VHE observations, and this is a new qualitative step for blazar research. For the same reasons, the VERITAS Collaboration keeps the former Whipple telescope alive, albeit its performance seems to have strongly degraded. It is obvious that the large Cherenkov telescopes such as MAGIC, H.E.S.S.\ or VERITAS are mainly used to discover new sources at the sensitivity limit. Thus they will not perform monitoring observations of bright sources with complete sampling during their visibility. However, these telescopes will be triggered by monitoring telescopes and thus improve the described investigations. In turn, operating a smaller but robotic telescope is an essential and cost-effective contribution to the plans for next-generation instruments in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. Know-how for the operation of future networks of robotic Cherenkov telescopes, e.g. a monitoring array around the globe or a single-place array like CTA, is certainly needed given the high operating shift demands of the current installations. In summary, there are strong reasons to make an effort for the continuous monitoring of the few exceptionally bright blazars. This can be achieved by operating a dedicated monitoring telescope of the HEGRA-type, referred to in the following as DWARF (Dedicated multiWavelength Agn Research Facility). Its robotic design will keep the demands on personal and infrastructure on the low side, rendering it compatible with the resources of University groups. The approach is also optimal to educate students in the strongly expanding field of astroparticle physics. Assuming conservatively the performance of a single HEGRA-type telescope, long-term monitoring of at least the following blazars is possible: Mrk\,421, Mrk\,501, 1ES\,2344+514, 1ES\,1959+650, H\,1426+428, PKS\,2155-304. We emphasize that DWARF will run as a facility dedicated to these targets only, providing a maximum observation time for the program. Utilizing recent developments, such as improvements of the light collection efficiency due to an improved mirror reflectivity and a better PM quantum efficiency, a 30\% improvement in sensitivity and a lower energy-threshold is reasonable. Current studies show that with a good timing resolution (2\,GHz) a further 50\% increase in sensitivity (compared to a 300\,MHz system) is feasible. Together with an extended mirror area and a large camera, a sensitivity improvement compared to a single HEGRA telescope of a factor of 2.5 and an energy threshold below 350\,GeV is possible. \subsection[2.2]{Preliminary work by proposers (Eigene Vorarbeiten)} From the experience with the construction, operation and data analysis of Amanda, IceCube, HEGRA and MAGIC the proposing groups contribute the necessary knowledge and experience to build and operate a small imaging air Cherenkov telescope. \paragraph{Hardware} The Dortmund group is working on experimental and phenomenological astroparticle physics. In the past, the following hardware components were successfully developed: a Flash-ADC based DAQ (TWR, transient waveform recorder), currently in operation for data acquisition in the AMANDA subdetector within the IceCube telescope \citep{Wagner:PhD}, an online software Trigger for the TWR-DAQ system \citep{Messarius:PhD}, online data compression mechanisms (TWR DAQ) \citep{Refflinghaus:Dipl}, monitoring software for the TWR-DAQ-data \citep{Dreyer:Dipl} and in-ice-HV-power-supply for IceCube. This development was done with the companies CAEN, Pisa, Italy and Iseg, Rossendorf, Germany. The HV modules were long time tested under different temperature conditions connected to operating photomultipliers \citep{Bartelt:Dipl}. Prototypes for the scintillator counters of the planned Air Shower Array {\em SkyView} were developed and operated for two years \citep{Deeg:Dipl}. Members of the group (engineers) were involved in the fast trigger development for H1 and are involved in the FPGA-programming for the LHCb data read out. The group may further use the well equipped mechanical and electronic workshops in Dortmund and the electronic development departure of the faculty. The ultra fast drive system of the MAGIC telscopes, suitable for fast repositioning in case of Gamma-Ray Bursts, has been developed, commissioned and programmed by the W"urzburg group \citep{Bretz:2003drive,Bretz:2005drive}. To correct for axis misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts), a pointing correction algorithm was developed \citep{Dorner:Diploma}. Its calibration is done by measurement of the reflection of bright guide stars on the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel diameter. Hardware and software (CCD readout, image processing and pointing correction algorithms) have also been developed and are in operation successfully since more than three years \citep{Riegel:2005icrc2}. Mirror structures made of plastic material have been developed as Winston Cones for balloon flight experiments previously by the group of Wolfgang Dr"oge. W"urzburg has also participated in the development of a HPD test bench, which has been setup in Munich and W"urzburg. With this setup, HPDs for future improvement of the sensitivity of the MAGIC camera are investigated. \paragraph{Software} The W"urzburg group has developed a full MAGIC analysis package, flexible and modular enough to easily process DWARF data \citep{Bretz:2005paris,Riegel:2005icrc,Bretz:2005mars}. A method for absolute light calibration of the PMs based on Muon images has been adapted and further improved for the MAGIC telescope \citep{Meyer:Diploma,Goebel:2005}. Both, data analysis and Monte Carlo production, have been fully automatized, such that both can run with sparse user interaction \citep{Dorner:2005icrc}. The analysis was developed to be powerful and as robust as possible to be best suited for automatic processing \citep{Dorner:2005paris}. Experience with large amount of data (up to 15\,TB/month) has been gained over five years now. The datacenter is equipped with a professional multi-stage (hierarchical) storage system. Two operators are paid by the physics faculty. Currently efforts in W"urzburg and Dortmund are ongoing to turn the old inflexible Monte Carlo programs, used by the MAGIC collaboration, into modular packages which allows easy simulation of other setups. Experience with Monte Carlo simulations, especially CORSIKA, is contributed by the Dortmund group, which has actively implemented changes into the CORSIKA program, such as an extension to large zenith angles, prompt meson production and a new atmospheric model \citep{Haffke:Dipl,Schroeder:PhD} for the local atmosphere of La Palma. Furthermore the group has developed high precision Monte Carlos for Lepton propagation in different media \citep{hepph0407075}. An energy unfolding method and program has been adapted for IceCube and MAGIC data analysis \citep{Curtef:CM,Muenich:ICRC}. \paragraph{Phenomenology} Both groups further have experience with source models and theoretical computations of gamma ray and neutrino spectra expected from blazars. The relation between the two messengers is a prime focus of interest. Experience with corresponding multi-messenger data analyses involving MAGIC and IceCube data is available in the Dortmund group. Research activities are also related with relativistic particle acceleration \citep{Meli} and gamma ray attenuation \citep{Kneiske}. The W"urzburg group has organized and carried out multi-wavelength observations of bright blazars involving MAGIC, Suzaku, the IRAM telescopes, and the optical KVA telescope \citep{Ruegamer}. Signatures of supermassive black hole binaries, which are most relevant also for gravitational wave detectors, are investigated jointly with the German LISA consortium (Burkart, Elbracht ongoing research, funded by DLR). Secondary gamma rays due to dark matter annihilation events are investigated both from their particle physics and astrophysics aspects. Another main focus of research is on models of radiation and particle acceleration processes in blazar jets (hadronic and leptonic models), leading to predictions of correlated neutrino emission \citep{Rueger}. This includes simulations of particle acceleration due to the Weibel instability \citep{Burkart}. Much of this research at W"urzburg is carried out in the context of the research training school GRK\,1147 {\em Theoretical Astrophysics and Particle Physics}. \section[3]{Ziele/Goals} \subsection[3.1]{Ziele/Goals} The aim of the project is to put the former CT3 of the HEGRA collaboration on the Roque de los Muchachos back into operation - with an enlarged mirror surface, a new camera with higher quantum efficiency, and new fast data acquisition system, under the name of DWARF. The energy threshold will be lowered, and  the sensitivity of DWARF will be greatly improved compared to HEGRA CT3 ({\bf see plot xxx/at the end}). Commissioning and the first year of data taking should be carried out within the three years of the requested funding period. \begin{figure}[ht] \begin{center} \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{CT3.eps} \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{DWARF.eps} \caption{Left: xxxxx Right: yyyy} \label{CT3} \label{DWARF} \end{center} \end{figure} The telescope will be operated robotically to reduce costs and man power demands.  Furthermore, we seek to obtain know-how for the operation of future networks of robotic Cherenkov telescopes (e.g. a monitoring array around the globe or CTA) or telescopes at inaccessible sites. From the experience with the construction and operation of MAGIC or HEGRA, the proposing groups consider the planned focused approach (small number of experienced scientists) as optimal for achieving the project goals. The available automatic analysis package developed by the W"urzburg group for MAGIC is modular and flexible, and can thus be used with minor changes for the DWARF project. \begin{figure}[htb] \begin{center} \includegraphics*[width=0.8\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{visibility.eps} \caption{blablbaaaa} \label{visibility} \end{center} \end{figure} %[[Image:dwarf-source-visibility.png|thumb|300px|Source visibility ([[Media:dwarf-source-visibility.eps|eps]])]] The scientific focus of the project will be on the long-term monitoring of bright, nearby VHE emitting blazars.  At least one of the proposed targets will be visible any time of the year (see plot). For calibration purposes, some time will be scheduled for observations of the Crab nebula.  The blazar observations will allow \begin{itemize} \item Kerziele des Antrags f"ur die bewilligenden Gremien \item Bei Bewilligung: Internet Datenbank \item Verwendung von themenrelevanten Schl"uselbegriffe \item M"oglichst keine Abk"urzungen \item Verst"andlichkeit auch f"ur nicht Fachleute (gegeben?) \item nicht mehr als 15 Zeilen oder max. 1600 Zeichen. \end{itemize} } \newpage \section[2]{Stand der Forschung, eigene Vorarbeiten\\State of the art, preliminary work by proposer} \subsection[2.1]{State of the art (Stand der Forschung)} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Knapp und pr"azise in der unmittelbaren Beziehung zum Vorhaben \item Als Begr"undung f"ur eigene Arbeit \item inkl. einschl"agiger Arbeiten anderer Wissenschaftler \item $\to$ Einordnung eigener Arbeit, welcher Beitrag zu welchen Fragen \end{itemize} } {\bf Hier gibt es glaub ich drei Punkte: Physik, IACTs und gAPD} \paragraph{Introduction:} Since the termination of the HEGRA observations, the succeeding experiments MAGIC and H.E.S.S.\ have impressively extended the physical scope of gamma ray observations by detecting tens of formerly unknown gamma ray sources and analyzing their energy spectra and temporal behavior. This became possible by lowering the energy threshold from 700\,GeV to less than 100\,GeV and increasing at the same time the sensitivity by a factor of five. To fully exploit the discovery potential of the improved sensitivity, the discovery of new, faint objects has become the major task for the new telescopes. A diversity of astrophysical source types such as pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants, microquasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, clusters of galaxies, gamma ray bursts, and blazers can be studied with these telescopes and limits their availability for monitoring purposes of well-known bright sources. There are strong reasons to make an effort for the continuous monitoring of the few exceptionally bright blazars. This can be achieved by operating a dedicated monitoring telescope of the HEGRA-type, referred to in the following as DWARF (Dedicated multiWavelength Agn Research Facility). The reasons are outlined in detail below. \textbf{The science case:} The variability of blazars, seen across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, arises from the dynamics of relativistic jets and the particle acceleration going on in them. The jets are launched from the vicinity of accreting supermassive black holes, and theoretical models predict variability arising from the interplay between jet expansion, particle injection, acceleration and cooling.\\ Long-term monitor observations of bright blazars are the key to obtain a solid and complete data base for variability investigations. {\bf Hier sollte ganz klar rauskommen was der aktuelle Stand der Forschung ist und wieso man um weiter zu kommen unbedingt ein long-term monitoring IACT braucht} {\bf Geigermode APDs?} \subsubsection{High energy gamma and neutrino sources} {\bf Aus den folgenden beiden Abschnitten kann man vielleicht einen (k"urzeren) machen?} The TeV photon astronomy succeeded in discovering {\bf 14} extragalactic and {\bf ???} galactic objects at the sky during the past decades. Additionally there are two diffuse regions within our galaxy which have been detected by H.E.S.S.\cite{Aharonian:2006} and Milagro \cite{Milagro:2007}. %The first source was discovered in the %year 19{\bf??} by the {\bf HEGRA} collaboration {\it (War das nicht wer %anders, die zu allererst den Crab sahen?...ZITAT?)}. In comparison to x-ray measurments, which are able to scan the entire sky for sources and thus have cataloged more than {\bf 1000 ???} sources, this number appears to be quite small. One reason for this is the small field of view of imaging air cherenkov telesopes (IACTs), another reason the absorption of the TeV photon signal of distant ($z>0.2$) sources due to extragalactic background light (EBL). Due to this small statistic at the moment it is of particular importance that instruments with high sensitivity concentrate on the observation of new objects in the TeV sky and not on the quantitative, permanent observation of already known sources. % BRAUCHT MAN DEN FOLGENDEN ABSATZ WIRKLICH %Even when a source was observed over a longer period of time %this does mean {\bf  less than three month ???? {\it Viel l"anger sind %die Quellen am St"uck doch gar nicht sichtbar, oder? Sinnvoller w"are %es wom"oglich die wenigen Beobachtungsstunden in diesen X Monaten %hervorzuheben.}} But one has to take into account that during this time %also periods of bad weather and times with strong moon light can %significantly reduce  observation time. Furthermore one has to consider %that the sources are visible in the sky only for a few hours each night. %{\bf Ist die Aufz"ahlung nich total "ubertrieben? Ist es f"ur unseren %Antrag wirklich interessant welchem Typ die detektierten AGN angeh"oren %und  wie sie hei"sen?} The so far observed galactic objects are microqasars and supernova remnands (SNR). The identified extragalactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN). %NOETIG??? The objects are listed in table~\ref{dummy} {\bf %TESHIMAS VORTRAG IN MADISON}. The AGN are 13 BLLacs and one FR-I galaxy, M87. So High-peaked BL Lacertae objects are the prime source population for studies with Cherenkov telescopes. It is obvious that monitoring observations of strong blazars are orthogonal to the mission of the larger Cherenkov telescopes with their discovery potential for new sources (luminosity function, redshift distribution). {\bf Das hatten wir oben eigtnlich schonmal} In case of hadronic particle acceleration within the TeV emitters, the signal may arise from $\pi^0$-decays. These neutral pions are decay products of delta resonances, which are formed in proton-photon interactions. Another decay channel of the delta resonance leads to the production of charged pions and thus to neutrino production, coincident with the TeV photons. Therefrom TeV sources are always interesting objects for investigations with high energy neutrino telescopes. The strong variability in the temporal evolution of the AGN TeV photon spectra cannot be explained conclusively yet, {\it warum braucht man f"ur die Untersuchung Langzeitbeobachtungen?} {\bf SENSITIVIT\"ATSPLOT, Was hat der hier zu suchen?, Aber irgendwo muessen wir noch glaubhaft machen dass unsere Sensitivit"at ausreicht}\\ {\bf TABELLE QUELLEN, Was bringt das f"ur den Antrag oder den Referee?}\\ {\bf AGN Physik kann man nicht ohne die unteren Paragraphen erkl"aren, Muss man die hier erkl"aren? Wir m"ussen nur deutlich machen warum wir Langzeitbeobachtungen brauchen, nicht, dass wir die Physik verstehen}\\ {\it Die Frage ist, ob man galaktische Quellen mit in die Langzeit-Beobachtung nehmen will, dann mu"s man das einzeln durchgehen. Ich bau die Argumentation gerade nur auf AGN auf, keine galaktischen Quellen!} \begin{itemize} \item Welche Quellen wurden oberhalb von 1 TeV bislang beobachtet? \item Welche Sensitivit"at braucht man? \item $\to$ Hier muesste doch der Abschnitt aus Ziele und ein Verweis darauf reichen, das HEGRA die Quellen detektiert hat und wir besser sein werden, oder? \end{itemize} \paragraph{Physikalische Modelle} Erkl"are die verschiedenen Szenarien: {\bf Ist das wirklich n"otig. Da sollten doch referenzen reichen... das ist ja wirklich nichts aktuelles!} \begin{itemize} \item Inverse Compton \item Proton Synchrotron \item Pion decay \end{itemize} Unterschiede darstellen: Pion bump ist nicht so Spitz; Inverse Compton: wenn man den 2. bump erh"oht, erh"oht sich automatisch auch der erste; oft widerspruch zu den Daten. Ich glaube, Proton Synchrotron hat das Problem nicht so, und auch Pion Zerfall nat"urlich nicht. Au"serdem: Stand der Dinge, um die Variabilit"at zu erkl"aren {\bf (Wichtig?) } \paragraph{Ergebnisse von Multiwavelangth-Kampangen} {\it hier m"ussen die verschiedenen Szenarien - inverse Compton von elektronen/ proton Synchrotron und Pion-Zerf"alle an Einzelf"allen diskutiert werden. Es gibt Bsp., bei denen Inverse Compton sehr gut klappt; dann gibt's welche, wo das gar nicht hinhaut. Einen Fall gibt's, wo Integral-Daten "uberhaupt nicht ins Bild passen. Da gibts z.B. ein Papier von Aharonian zu auf astro-ph - irgendwann aus den letzten 3 Monaten.} Experimente erw"ahnen: EGRET, COMPTEL, Integral, H.E.S.S., MAGIC, wer noch???  f"ur bisherige Spektren; GLAST zum F"ullen der L"ucke!!! Auch hier: Diskussion der Variabilit"at; Orphan Flares''... \paragraph{Die Photon-Neutrino-Verbindung} {\bf Steht das nicht oben schon {\em AGNs are interstng Targets for Neutrino Teleskops}?} \subsection{Eigene Vorarbeiten/Preliminary work by proposer} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Vollst"andige und konkrete Darstellung der eigenen Vorarbeiten \item Fremde/eigene Literatur kennzeichenen (ggf. \"im Druck\") \item Relevante wissenschaftl. Ver"offentlichung der letzen f"unf Jahre \item Relavante Vor"offentlichung beif"ugen \end{itemize} } Hie sollte was stehen zu (Ich denke der Abschnitt ist wichtig um zu zeigen, dass man auch leisten kann was man verspricht) \begin{itemize} \item Aufbau von Drive und Starguider (W"urzburg) \item Erfahrungen mit Spiegeln (Dr"oge, W"urzburg) \item Erfahrungen mit PMTs/HV (Dortmund) \item Erfahrungen mit HPDs (W"urzburg) \item Die modulare und powerfull Analyse Software (W"urzburg) \item Das bestreben die MCs modular umzuschreiben (W"urzburg, Dortmund?) \item Erfahrungen mit MCs: Unfolding, Athmosphaere, Corsika? (Dortmund) \item Die Automatisierung der Analyse und MCs, wichtig! (W"urzburg) \item Neutrino Studien, um zu zeigen, dass die angestrebten Korrelationen auch wirklich von jemandem ausgewertet werden k"onnen (Dortmund) \item Multi-Wellenl"angen Kampagnen (Suzaku, Swift), W"urzburg/Dortmund? \item Bestehende Monitoring Proposal (MAGIC) \item Die SSC Modellrechnungen aus W"urzburg \item LISA? (W"urzburg) \end{itemize} \subsubsection{Beteiligung an Experimenten} \paragraph{MAGIC} \paragraph{IceCube} The Dortmund group is IceCube member and working since years on phenomenological calculations and data analysis of possible coincidences between VHE-gamma and neutrino-emission. \\ The available automatic analysis package developed by the W"urzburg group for MAGIC is modular and flexible, and can thus be used with minor changes for the DWARF project.\\ Monte Carlo production and storage will take place at Universit"at Dortmund Monte-Carlo-Erfahrung Dortmund $\to$ Marijkes Diplomarbeit A microcontroller based motion control unit (SPS) similar to the one of the current MAGIC II drive system will be used.\\ $\to$DriveSystem-Erfahrung W"urzburg To correct for axis misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g. bending of camera holding masts) a pointing correction algorithm as used in the MAGIC tracking system will be applied. It is calibrated by measurement of the reflection of bright guide stars on the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel diameter. \\ $\to$ Diplomarbeit Benjamin Riegel (W"urzburg) \section[3.1]{Ziele/Goals} \subsection{Ziele/Goals} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Gestraffte Darstellung des wissenschaftlichen Programs und Zielsetzung \item Ich denke das ist eine Art Abstract des Arbeitsprogramms. \end{itemize} } The present application aims at putting the former CT3 of the HEGRA collaboration on the Roque de los Muchachos back into operation - with an enlarged mirror surface and a new camera and data taking, under the name of DWARF. The sensitivity above  500\,GeV of this new instrument will thus correspond with the one of the also disused  Whipple telescope. \textbf{WHIPPLE wird aber noch benutzt!!!} The layout of the telescope shall be carried out modular in such a sense that components of future telescopes (mirror, camera, DAQ) can be tested and optimized at this bodywork. %Wissenschaftlich sollen folgende Punkte realisiert werden: With the upgraded instrument the following scientific aims shall be realized: \begin{enumerate} \item Long-term observations of temporal variations of TeV gamma ray sources.\\ An understanding of this variability will deepen our knowledge about \begin{itemize} \item the composition and generation of the jets, intimately connected to the physics of the ergosphere of rapidly spinning black holes embedded into the hot plasma from the accretion flow. \item the plasma physics responsible for highly efficient particle acceleration, bearing similarities to plasma physics of the interaction between extremely intense laser beams and matter. \item {the orbital modulation of jets due to binary black holes expected from galaxy merger models.\\ \textbf{the search for signatures of binary black hole systems from orbital modulation of VHE gamma ray emission} \cite{Rieger:2000, Rieger:2001}\\ \item {\bf Wird das nicht ein bisschen viel Rieger? \item Rieger; Periodic variability and binary black hole systems in blazars \item Rieger; Supermassive binary black holes among cosmic gamma-ray sources \item Rieger; On the geometric origin of periodicity in blazar-type sources }} \end{itemize} Long-term monitor observations of bright blazars are the key to obtain a solid data base for variability investigations. Assuming conservatively the performance of a single HEGRA-type telescope, long-term monitoring of at least the following blazars is possible: Mrk421, Mrk501, 1ES 2344+514, 1ES 1959+650, H 1426+428, PKS 2155-304. We emphasize that DWARF will run as a facility dedicated to these targets only, providing a maximum observation time for the program. \textbf{\textit{oder ist dieser Abschnitt doch besser in 3.2. aufgehoben?!}} \item Coincident observations with gamma telescopes in different energy ranges:\\ Flux variations will be determined and compared with variability properties in other wavelength ranges. \item Coincident observations with the neutrino telescope IceCube:\\ Hadronic emission processes and possible coincidences between VHE-gamma and neutrino-emission will be studied. \item Furthermore, we seek to obtain know-how for the operation of future networks of Cherenkov telescopes (e.g. a monitoring array around the globe or CTA) or telescopes at inaccessible sites. \end {enumerate} \subsection{Arbeitsprogramm/Work schedule} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Detaillierte Angaben "uber Vorgehen w"ahrend der Laufzeit \item Hauptkriterium f"ur die Genehmigung \item Halber Antrag \item Warum welche Mittel f"ur was beantragt werden \item Welche Methoden stehen zur Verf"ugung \item Welche Methoden m"ussen entwickelt werden \item Welche Hilfe von au"serhalb der eigenen Arbeitsgruppe ist notwendig \end{itemize} } At least one of the proposed targets will be visible any time of the year (see plot/appendix). For calibration purposes, some time will be scheduled for observations of the Crab nebula, which is the brightest known VHE emitter with constant flux.\\ In detail the following investigations are planned: \begin{itemize} \item As direct result of the measurements, the duty cycle, the baseline emission, and the power spectrum of flux variations will be determined and compared with variability properties in other wavelength ranges. \item The lightcurves will be interpreted using models for the nonthermal emission from relativistically expanding plasma jets. In particular models currently developed in the context of the Research Training Group "Theoretical Astrophysics" in W"urzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK1147) shall be used. Particle acceleration is studied with hybrid MHD and particle-in-cell methods. \item The black hole mass and accretion rate will be determined from the emission models. Estimates of the black hole mass from emission models, a possible orbital modulation, and the Magorrian relation (relating the black hole mass with the stellar bulge mass of the host galaxy) will be compared. \cite{Rieger:2003} {\bf eigentlich ist das nicht mehr die Stelle mit Zitaten sondern die wo wir sagen, dass wir das Know-how - in Form von Frank - haben.} \item \textbf{To achieve a maximal database for these studies the observation  schedule will be arranged together with the one for Whipple. (Letter of  support?) ($\rightarrow$ collaboration with Veritas)} \item When flaring states will be discovered during the monitor program, MAGIC will issue a Target of Opportunity observation to obtain better time resolution (Letters of support?). Corresponding \item to determine the duty cycle, the baseline emission, and the power spectrum of flux variations. \item to cooperate with the Whipple monitoring telescope for an extended time coverage. \item to prompt Target of Opportunity (ToO) observations with MAGIC in the case of flares increasing time resolution. Corresponding Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) proposals to H.E.S.S.\ and Veritas are in preparation. \item DWARF observations will be combined with simultaneous MAGIC observations. By this kind of observation the energy range of the MAGIC telescope can be stretched to higher energies. This in turn leads to the so far unique possibility to cover an energy range of tens of GeV to several tens of TeV at the same time allowing the study of the inverse compton peaks as well as absorption due to EBL simultaneously. By a software coincidence trigger the sensitivity in the overlapping energy region might be improved further. \item Correlating the arrival times of neutrinos detected by the neutrino telescope IceCube with simultaneous measurements of DWARF will allow to test the hypothesis that flares in blazar jets are connected to hadronic emission processes and thus to neutrino emission from these sources. The investigation proposed here is complete for both, neutrino and gamma observations, and can therefore lead to conclusive results. \item The diffusive fluxes of escaping UHE cosmic rays obtained from AUGER or flux limits of neutrinos from IceCube, respectively, will be used to constrain models of UHE cosmic ray origin and large-scale magnetic fields. \item Multi-frequency observations together with the Mets"ahovi Radio Observatory and the optical Tuorla Observatory are planned (Letters of support appendix). The measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL and GLAST results, when available. X-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and Suzaku facilities will be proposed. \item The most ambitious scientific goal of this proposal is the search for signatures of binary black hole systems from orbital modulation of VHE gamma ray emission. In case of a confirmation of the present hints in the temporal behaviour of Mrk501, gravitational wave templates could be computed with high accuracy to establish their discovery with LISA (PhD project at W"urzburg funded by the German LISA consortium). \item to observe simultaneously with MAGIC which will provide an extended bandwidth from below 100\,GeV to multi-TeV energies. \item to obtain multi-frequency observations together with the Mets"ahovi Radio Observatory and the optical Tuorla Observatory (Letters of support appendix). The measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL and GLAST results, when available. x-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and Suzaku facilities will be proposed. \end{itemize} \textbf{The technical setup:} At the Observatorio de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site, the mount of the former HEGRA telescope CT3 now owned by the MAGIC collaboration is still operational. One hut for electronics close to the telescope is available. Additional space is available in the MAGIC counting house.  The MAGIC Memorandum of Understanding allows for operating it as an auxiliary instrument, and basic support from the shift crew of MAGIC is guaranteed, although robotic operation is the primary goal. Robotic operation is necessary to reduce costs and man power demands. \textbf{Besides it reduces air pollution by significantly reducing traveling.} Furthermore, we seek to obtain know-how for the operation of future networks of Cherenkov telescopes (e.g. a monitoring array around the globe or CTA) or telescopes at inaccessible sites. From the experience with the construction and operation of MAGIC or HEGRA, respectively, the proposing groups consider the planned focused approach (small number of experienced scientists) as optimal for achieving the project goals. The available automatic analysis package developed by the W"urzburg group for MAGIC is modular and flexible, and can thus be used with minor changes for the DWARF project. Therefore construction, commissioning and operation of a small scale Cherenkov telescope are best suitable for education and training of students by experienced scientists. Interpretation of the data will yield crucial information about \begin{itemize} \item the nature of the emission processes going on in relativistic jets. We plan to interpret the data with models currently developed in the context of the Research Training Group {\em Theoretical Astrophysics} in W"urzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK\,1147), including particle-in-cell and hybrid MHD models. \item the black hole mass and accretion rate fitting the data with emission models.  Results will be compared with estimates of the black hole mass from  the Magorrian relation. \item the flux of relativistic protons (ions) by correlating the rate of neutrinos detected with the neutrino telescope IceCube and the rate of gamma ray photons detected with DWARF, and thus the rate of escaping cosmic rays. \item the orbital modulation owing to a supermassive binary black hole. Constraints on the binary system will allow to compute most accurate templates of gravitational waves, which is a connected project at W"urzburg in the German LISA consortium funded by DLR. \end{itemize} \subsection{Arbeitsprogramm/Work schedule} To complete the mount to a functional Cherenkov telescope within a period of one year, the following steps are necessary: \paragraph{Camera:} For long-term observations stability of the camera is a major criterion. To keep the systematic errors small good background The work schedule assumes that the work will begin in January 2008, immediately after funding. Later funding would accordingly shift the schedule. Each year is divided into quarters (see figure xxx). \paragraph{Software} \begin{itemize} \item MC adaption (Do/Wue): Due to the large similarities with the MAGIC telescope, within half a year new Monte Carlo code can be programmed using parts of the existing MAGIC Monte Carlo code. For tests and cross-checks another period of six months is necessary. \item Analysis adaption (Wue): The modular concept of the Magic Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) allows a very fast adaption of the telescope setup, camera and data acquisition properties within half a year. \item Adaption Drive software (Wue): Since the new drive electronics will be based on the design of the MAGIC II drive system the control software can be reused unchanged. The integration into the new slow control system will take about half a year. It has to be finished at the time of arrival of the drive system components in 2009/1. \item Slow control/DAQ (Do): A new data acquisition and slow control system for camera and auxiliary systems has to be developed. Based on experiences with the AMANDA DAQ, the Domino DAQ developed for MAGIC II will be adapted and the slow control integrated within three quarters of a year. Commissioning will take place with the full system in 2009/3. \end{itemize} \paragraph{Mirrors (Wue)} First prototypes for the mirrors are already available. After testing (six months), the production will start in summer 2008 and shipment will be finished before the full system assembly 2009/2. \paragraph{Drive (Wue)} After a planning phase of half a year to simplify the MAGIC II drive system for a smaller telescope (together with the delivering company), ordering, production and shipment should be finished in 2009/1. The MAGIC I and II drive systems have been planned and implemented successfully by the Wuerzburg group. \paragraph{Auxiliary (Wue)} Before the final setup in 2009/1, all auxiliary systems (weather station, computers, etc.) will have been specified, ordered and shipped. \paragraph{Camera (Do)} The camera has to be ready six month after the shipment of the other mechanical parts of the telescope. For this purpose camera tests have to take place in 2009/2, which requires the assembly of the camera within six months before. By now, a PM test bench which allows to finish planning and ordering of the camera parts and PMs until summer 2008, before the construction begins, is set up in Dortmund. In addition to the manpower permanently provided by Dortmund for production and commissioning, two engineers will participate in the construction phase. \paragraph{Full System (Do/Wue)} The full system will be assembled after delivering of all parts in the beginning of spring 2009. Start of the commissioning is planned four months later. First light is expected in autumn 2009. This would allow an immediate full system test with a well measured, strong and steady source (CrabNebula). After the commissioning phase will have been finished in spring 2010, full robotic operation will be provided. Based on the experience with setting up the MAGIC telescope we estimate this workschedule as conservative. \subsubsection[3.3]{Experiments with humans (Untersuchungen am Menschen)} none \subsubsection[3.4]{Experiments with animals (Tierversuche)} none \subsubsection[3.5]{Experiments with recombinant DNA (Gentechnologische Experimente)} none \section[4]{Beantragte Mittel/Funds requested} We request funding for a total of three years. Summarizing, the expenses for the telescope (see section xxx) are dominated by the camera and data acquisition. The financial volume for the complete hardware inclusive transport amounts to 372.985\,\euro. \subsection[4.1]{Required Staff (Personalbedarf)} For this period, we request funding for two postdocs and two PhD students, one in Dortmund and one in W"urzburg each. The staff members shall fulfill the tasks given in the work schedule above. To cover these tasks completely, one additional PhD student per group and a various number of Diploma students will complete the working group Suitable candidates interested in these positions are Dr.\ Thomas Bretz, Dr.\ dest.\ Daniela Dorner, Dr.\ dest.\ Kirsten M"unich, cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes, cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch and cand.\ phys.\ Dominik Neise. \subsection[4.2]{Scientific equipment (Wissenschaftliche Ger"ate)} Support: At the Observatorio de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site, the mount of the former HEGRA telescope CT3 now owned by the MAGIC collaboration is still operational. One hut for electronics close to the telescope is available. Additional space is available in the MAGIC counting house. The MAGIC Memorandum of Understanding allows for operating it as an auxiliary instrument (see appendix), and emergency support from the shift crew of MAGIC is guaranteed, although autonomous robotic operation is the primary goal. To achieve the planned sensitivity and threshold given in fig.\ \ref{sensitivity} the following components have to be bought. To obtain reliable results as fast as possible well known components have been chosen.\\ \begin{figure}[hb] \centering{ \includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps} \caption{Integral flux sensitivity of current and former Cherenkov telescopes \citep{Moralejo:2004,Juan:2000,MAGICsensi,Magnussen:1998,Vassiliev:1999} as well as the expectations for DWARF, with both a PMT- and an APD-camera. These expectations are based on the sensitivity of the HEGRA CT1 telescope, scaled by the improvements mentioned in the text. } \label{sensitivity} } \end{figure} {\bf Camera}\dotfill 207.550,00\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} To setup a camera with 313 pixels the following components are needed:\\ \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Photomultiplier Tube EMI\,9083 KFLA-UD\hfill 220,00\,\euro\\ Active voltage divider ({\bf !!!!})\hfill 80,00\,\euro\\ High voltage support and control\hfill {\bf 300,00}\,\euro\\ Preamplifier\hfill 50,00\,\euro\\ Spare parts (overall)\hfill 3000,00\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ For long-term observations, the stability of the camera is a major criterion. To keep the systematic errors small, a good background estimation is mandatory. The only possibility for a synchronous determination of the background is the determination from the night-sky observed in the same field-of-view with the same instrument. To achieve this the observed position is moved out of the camera center which this, the observed position is moved out of the camera center which allows the estimation of the background from positions symmetric with respect to the camera center (so called wobble-mode). This observation mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of two \textbf{$\sqrt{2}$?} because spending observation for dedicated background observations becomes obsolete, which also ensures a better time coverage of the observed sources. Having a camera large enough allowing more than one independent position for background estimation increases sensitivity further by better background statistics. This is the case if the source can be shifted 0.6deg-0.7deg out of the camera center. A camera completely containing shower images of events in the energy region of 1TeV-10TeV should have a diameter in the order of 5 deg. To decrease the dependence of the background measurement on the camera geometry, a camera layout as symmetric as possible will be chosen. Consequently a camera allowing for wobble-mode observations should be round and have a diameter of 4.5deg-5.0deg. To achieve this requirements a 313 Pixel camera (see figure \ref{camDWARF}) will been build based on the experience with HEGRA and MAGIC. 19 mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI 4035) will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). With a 20$\%$ improved quantum efficiency they ensure a granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be equipped with a preamplifier, an active high-voltage supply and control. The total expense for a single pixel will be in the order of 600 EURO. If development of geigermode APDs (QE$\ge$50$\%$) will be fast enough, respectively the price low enough, and their long term stability is proven well in time, their usage will be considered. For a transition time one of the old HEGRA cameras might be borrowed (see figure \ref{camCT3}). With a special coating (wavelength shifter) its quantum efficiency might be improved by ~8$\%$\cite{Paneque:2004}. \textbf{8\% sind f"ur flat-window-pmts angegeben... nach den Zeichnungen in z.B. German Hermanns Diss. sind sie aber nicht v"ollig flach...demnach k"onnten wir wohl 19\% zitieren.} \textbf{Figure?} \paragraph{Camera support:} The camera chassis must be water tight. An automatic lid protecting the PMs at day-time will be installed. For further protection a plexi-glass window will be installed in the front of the camera. By over-coating the window with an anti-reflex layer of magnesium-fluoride a gain in transmission of 5$\%$ is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes obsolete, i.e. observation time for the source is doubled. This ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources. A further increase in sensitivity can be achieved by better background statistics from not only one but several independent positions for the background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. For wobble mode observations allowing for this, the source position should be shifted $0.6^\circ-0.7^\circ$ out of the camera center. %} \begin{figure}[ht] \begin{center} \includegraphics*[width=0.4\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam271.eps} \includegraphics*[width=0.4\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam313.eps} \caption{Left: Schematic picture of the 271 pixel CT-3 camera with a field of view of 4.6$^\circ$. Right: Schematic picture of the 313 pixel camera for DWARF with a field of view of 5$^\circ$.} \label{camCT3} \label{camDWARF} \end{center} \end{figure} A camera completely containing shower images of events in the energy region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of 5$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera geometry, a camera layout as symmetric as possible will be chosen. Consequently a camera allowing to fulfill these requirements should be round and have a diameter of $4.5^\circ-5.0^\circ$. Therefor a camera with 313 Pixel camera (see figure \ref{camDWARF}) is chosen. The camera will be built based on the experience with HEGRA and MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083\,KFLA-UD) will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). They have a 25\% improved quantum efficiency and ensure a granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be equipped with a preamplifier, an active high-voltage supply and control. The total expense for a single pixel will be in the order of 650\,\euro. All possibilities of borrowing one of the old HEGRA cameras for a transition time have been probed and refused by the owners of the cameras. \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Camera support}\dotfill 204.000,00\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500\,\euro) The camera chassis must be water tight and will be equipped with an automatic lid protecting the PMs at day-time. For further protection, a plexi-glass window will be installed in front of the camera. By coating this window with an anti-reflex layer of magnesium-fluoride, a gain in transmission of {\bf 5\%} is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a light-guide (Winston Cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000 EURO). The current design will be improved by using a high reflectivity aluminized Mylar mirror-foil, overcoated with a dialectical layer (SiO2 alternated with Niobium Oxide), to reach a reflectivity in the order of 98$\%$. In total this will gain ~15$\%$ in light-collection efficiency compared to the old CT3 system. For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500\,Eur?) An electric and optical shielding of the individual PMs is planned. The mechanical work is done at Universit"at Dortmund. \paragraph{Data acquisition:} operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000\,\euro\ for all winston cones). The current design will be improved by using a high reflectivity aluminized Mylar mirror-foil, coated with a dialectical layer ($Si\,O_2$ alternated with Niobium Oxide), to reach a reflectivity in the order of {\bf 98\%}. An electric and optical shielding of the individual PMs is planned. In total a gain of {\bf $\sim$ 15\%} in light-collection efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be acheived. \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Data acquisition}\dotfill 61.035,00\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} 313 pixels a\\ \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Readout\hfill 95,00\,\euro\\ Trigger\hfill 100,00\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ For the data acquisition system a hardware readout based on an analog ring buffer (Domino II/III), currently developed for the MAGIC II readout, will be used. This technology allows sampling the pulses with high frequencies and allows to readout several channels with a single Flash-ADC resulting in low-costs. The low power consumption will allow including the digitization near the signal source which makes an analog signal transfer obsolete. The advantage is less pick-up noise and less signal dispersion. By high sampling rates (0.5\,GHz-1.2\,GHz) additional information about the pulse shape can be obtained. This increasing the over-all sensitivity further, because the short integration time allows for almost perfect suppression of noise due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger- (readout-) rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system like USB\,2.0. (30.000-45.000: 95-145/channel). {\bf Current result obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC dat aacquisition show that for a single telescope a sensitivity improvement with a fast FADC system is achievable.} As for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is enough, ring buffer (Domino\ II/III), currently developed for the MAGIC\ II readout, will be used \citep{Barcelo}. This technology allows to sample the pulses with high frequencies and readout several channels with a single Flash-ADC resulting in low costs. The low power consumption will allow to include the digitization near the signal source which makes the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. The advantage is less pick-up noise and less signal dispersion. By high sampling rates (1.2\,GHz), additional information about the pulse shape can be obtained. This increases the over-all sensitivity further, because the short integration time allows for almost perfect suppression of noise due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger- (readout-) rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system like USB\,2.0. %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ Current results obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC data acquisition show that for a single telescope a sensitivity improvement 40$\%$ with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}. As for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is sufficient, but also a simple three-next-neighbors (closed package) could be programmed. ($<$30.000: $<$100/channel). To guarantee a homogenous trigger setup over the whole camera the individual pixel rates, dominated by night-sky noise, will be monitored and kept constant. programmed. (both cases $\sim$30.000\,Eur: $<$100\,Eur/channel). Additional data reduction and preprocessing in the readout hardware or the readout computer is provided. Assuming conservatively storage of raw-data at a readout rate of 30\,Hz the storage space needed is less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount of data can easily be stored and processed by the W"urzburg Datacenter (current online capacity $>$20\,TB, offline capacity $>$30\,TB, $>$16\,CPUs). To archive the data safely 25 tapes (LTO3 with 400\,GB each, $\sim$1000\,Eur) and a SATA disk-array ($\sim$4000\,Eur) will be bought. \paragraph{On-site computing:} For on-site computing less than three standard PCs are needed ($\sim$8.000\,Eur). This includes readout and storage, preprocessing, and telescope control. For safety reasons a firewall is mandatory. For local storage and backup two RAID\,5 SATA disk arrays with less than one Terabyte capacity each will fulfill the requirement ($\sim$4.000\,Eur). The data will be transmitted as soon as possible after data taking via Internet to the W"urzburg Datacenter. Monte Carlo production and storage will take place at Universit"at Dortmund For the absolute time necessary for an accurate source tracking a GPS clock will be bought. \paragraph{Mount and Drive:} The present mount is used. Only a smaller investment for safety, corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500). For movement motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of 10.000 EURO have to be bought. The drive system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three reasons: 1) Fast movement might be mandatory for future ToO observations. 2) Wobble-mode observations will be done changing the wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons. 3) To ensure good time coverage  of more than one source visible at the same the observed source will be changed in constant time intervals ($\sim$20\,min). Therefore three 150 Watt servo motors are intended. A microcontroller based motion control unit (SPS) similar to the one of the current MAGIC II drive system will be used. For communication with the readout-system a standard Ethernet connection based on the TCP/IP- and UDP-protocol is applied. \paragraph{Security:} An uninterruptible power-supply unit (UPS) with 5-10\,kW will be installed to protect the equipment against power cuts and ensure a safe telescope position at the time of sun-rise. ($<$2000\,Eur) \paragraph{Mirrors:} than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount of data can easily be stored and processed by the W"urzburg Datacenter (current online capacity $>$35\,TB, offline capacity $>$80\,TB, $>$26\,CPUs). %}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Mirrors}\dotfill 15.000,00\,\euro\\[-3ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ \begin{quote} The existing mirrors are replaced by new plastic mirrors which are currently developed by the group of Wolfgang Dr"oge. The cheap and light-weight material has been formerly used for Winston cones flown in balloon experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master, coated with a reflecting and a protective material. Previous tests have given promising results. By a change of the mirror geometry the mirror area can be increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture \ref{CT3} and currently developed by Wolfgang Dr"oge's group. The cheap and light-weight material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master coated with a reflecting and a protective material. Tests have given promising results. By a change of the mirror geometry, the mirror area can be increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture \ref{CT3} and montage \ref{DWARF}); this includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per mirror by using a hexagonal layout. A further increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of the mount and will therefore be considered only in later phase of the experiment. If the current development cannot be finished in time a re-machining of the old glass mirrors (8.5\,m$^2$) is possible with high purity aluminum and quartz coating. (Both cases: 30 mirrors, 10k, offer by L-Tec $\lesssim$500\,Eur/mirror * 30\,mirrors = 15.000\,Eur without transfer) \textbf{In both cases the mirrors can be coated with the same high reflectivity aluminized Mylar mirror-foil, and a dialectical layer of SiO2 as for the Winston Cones (ref: Fraunhofer, private communication?). By this a gain in reflectivity of ~10\% is achieved.} To keep track of the alignment, reflectivity and optical quality of the individual mirrors, and the point-spread function of the total mirror, during long-term observations the application of an automatic mirror adjustment system, as developed by ETH Z"urich and successfully operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended. The system will be provided by ETH Z"urich. (1.000 EURO/pannel) For a 3.5\,m \textbf{4\,m} diameter mirror the delay between an isochronous parabolic mirror and a spherical mirror at the edge is in the order of\textbf{well below} 1ns (see figure/appendix). For a sampling rate in the order of 2\,GHz a mirror mounting with a parabolic shape is not needed. Since their small size the individual mirrors can have a spherical shape. \paragraph{Telescope calibration:} Tracking: To correct for axis misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g. bending of camera holding masts) a pointing correction algorithm as used in the MAGIC tracking system will be applied. It is calibrated by measurement of the reflection of bright guide stars on the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as already in operation for MAGIC I and II, (300\,Eur camera, 300\,Eur optics, 300\,Eur housing) will be installed. PM Gain: For the calibration of the PM gain a calibration system as used for the MAGIC telescope is build. (2.000\,Eur) Summarizing, the expenses for the telescope are dominated by the camera and DAQ. The financial volume for the complete hardware inclusive transport amounts roughly 400.000\,Eur. \textbf{Future extensions:} The known duty cycle of 10\% ($\sim$1000\,h/year) for a Cherenkov telescope operated at La Palma limits the time-coverage of the observations. Therefore we propose a worldwide network of ($<$10) small scale Cherenkov telescopes to be build in the future allowing 24\,h monitoring of the bright AGNs. Such a system is so far completely unique in this energy range. In a first stage of the project mounts of other former HEGRA telescopes could be used operated at locations in Croatia, the United States and Mexico. For an increased sensitivity and improved energy threshold the use of a low-cost mount build by the company MERO for solar power generation is proposed. The mount is based on the experiences with the MAGIC telescope, also builds by MERO, and has a diameter in the order of eight meters. Including support (concrete foundation, railways, etc) the costs are below 100.000\,Eur. \textbf{The intended future use of a camera built of G-APDs will by their highly improved QE (50\% instead of 20\%) increase the sensitivity by a factor of $\sim$2 and additionally lower the threshold by an equal amount.\\ MAGIC PMTs?} \begin{figure}[ht] mirror by using a hexagonal layout instead of a round one. A further increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of the mount and will therefore be considered only in a later phase of the experiment. If the current development of the plastic mirrors cannot be finished in time, a re-machining of the old glass mirrors (8.5\,m$^2$) is possible with high purity aluminum and quartz coating. In both cases the mirrors can be coated with the same high reflectivity aluminized Mylar mirror-foil, and a dialectical layer of SiO2 as for the Winston Cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is achieved, see plot \citep{Fraunhofer}. \begin{figure}[thb] \centering{ \includegraphics[width=12cm]{cam271.eps} \caption{Schematic picture of the 313 pixel camera for DWARF with a field of view of 5$^\circ$.} \label{camDWARF} \includegraphics[width=0.32\textwidth]{cherenkov.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.32\textwidth]{reflectivity.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.32\textwidth]{qe.eps} \caption{xxx yyy zzz } \label{reflectivity} } \end{figure} \begin{figure}[ht] \centering{ \includegraphics[height=0.4\textheight]{cam313.eps} \caption{Schematic picture of the 271 pixel CT-3 camera with a field of view of 4.6$^\circ$.} \label{camCT3} } \end{figure} \begin{figure}[ht] \centering{ \includegraphics[height=0.4\textheight]{cam313.eps} \caption{Picture of the HEGRA CT-3 taken at a time when it was still in operation.} \label{CT3} } \end{figure} \begin{figure}[ht] \centering{ \includegraphics[height=0.4\textheight]{cam313.eps} \caption{Photo montage of DWARF as it will look alike after the mirror replacement.} \label{DWARF} } \end{figure} \clearpage \newpage \paragraph{3.3 ???? Untersuchungen}~\\ n/a \paragraph{3.4 ???? Untersuchungen}~\\ n/a \paragraph{3.5 ???? Untersuchungen}~\\ n/a \newpage \section[4]{Beantragte Mittel/Funds requested} We request funding for a total of three years. \subsection[4.1]{Personalbedarf/Required staff} %Wir beantragen die F"orderung von je einem Postdoc und Doktoranden in %W"urzburg und Dortmund. We request funding for two postdocs (BATIIa, 3y) and two Ph.D. students (BATIIa/2, 3y), one in Dortmund and one in W"urzburg each. (im Antrag ist der qualifizierte Einsatz der studentischen Hilfskraefte darzulegen, KEINE Betr"age angeben!) (Bezahlung ab wann?, Kurzer Abriss der Aufgaben, ggf. Namen) \anmerk{2 Institute x 3 Jahre x (1 PD = 60.000 + 1 PhD = 30.000) = 2 x 250.000 = 500.000} %Von den Mitarbeitern sollen folgende Aufgaben erf"ullt werden: The staff members shall fulfill the following tasks: \begin{itemize} \item Postdoc W"urzburg \item Doktorand W"urzbug \item Postdoc Dortmund \item Doktorand Dortmund \end{itemize} %Geeignete und ggf. interessierte Kandidaten f"ur Postdocstellen sind... Suitable candidates interested in these positions are Dr. xxx, Dr. yyy, Dipl.-Phys. zzz and Dipl.-Phys. www. \subsection[4.2]{Wissenschaftliche Ger"ate/Scientific equipment} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Alle Ger"ate "uber 10kEur, so spezifizieren, dass nach Bewilligung von der DFG beschafft werden k"onnen \item Alle Ger"ate unter 10kEur, "Ubersicht mit Modellen, Begr"undung der Notwendigkeit \end{itemize} } {\bf Camera} (self-made)\dotfill 204.000,00\,Eur\\[1ex] 313\,pixels \'a\\ Both solutions would require the same expenses. To keep track of the alignment, reflectivity and optical quality of the individual mirrors and the point-spread function of the total mirror during long-term observations, the application of an automatic mirror adjustment system, as developed by ETH Z"urich and successfully operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended. The system will be provided by ETH Z"urich. {\bf For a diameter mirror of less than 2.4\,m, the delay between an parabolic (isochronus) and a spherical mirror shape at the edge is well below 1ns (see figure). Thus for a sampling rate of 1.2\,GHz parabolic individual mirrors are not needed. Due to their small size the individual mirrors can have a spherical shape.} %}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Calibration System}\dotfill 6.650\,\euro+IPR?\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} Components\\ \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Photomultiplier Tube EMI 4051\hfill 350,00\,Eur\\ High voltage support and control (EMI)\hfill 250,00\,Eur\\ Preamplifier\hfill 50,00\,Eur\\ Absolute light calibration\hfill 2.000,00\,\euro\\ Individual pixel rate control\hfill ???,00\,\euro\\ Weather station\hfill 500,00\,\euro\\ GPS clock\hfill 1.500,00\,\euro\\ CCD cameras with readout\hfill 2.650,00\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{The chosen PMT is the successor of the PMT type formerly used in  the HEGRA cameras. It has an 25\% enhances quantum efficiency and will be delivered with the HV support and control, including the control electronics such as the high voltage power supply.}\\[2ex] {\bf Data acquisition}(self-made)\dotfill 77.000\,Eur\\[1ex] 313\,pixels \'a\\ %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ For the absolute light calibration (gain-calibration) of the PMs a calibration box as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope will be produced. To ensure a homogeneous acceptance over the whole camera essential for wobble-mode observations the trigger rate of the individual pixels have to be measured. Therefore the slow control system will be equipped with a feedback on the individual pixel rate. To correct for axis misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g. bending of camera holding masts), a pointing correction algorithm as used in the MAGIC tracking system will be applied. It is calibrated by measurements of the reflection of bright guide stars on the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as already in operation for MAGIC\ I and~II, ({\bf 300\,\euro\ camera, 600\,\euro\ optics, 300\,\euro\ housing, 250\,\euro\ Frame grabber}) will be installed. A second identical CCD camera for online monitoring (starguider) will be bought. A GPS clock is necessary for an accurate tracking. The weather station helps judging the data quality. %}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Computing}\dotfill 12.000,00\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Readout/channel\hfill 145,00\,Eur\\ Trigger/channel\hfill 100,00\,Eur\\ On-site\hfill 12.000\,\euro\\ Three PCs\hfill 8.000\,\euro\\ SATA RAID 3TB\hfill 4.000\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{Wie schreiben wir das auf? Wenn ich es richtig verstehe k"onnen wir nicht schreiben wir w"urden f"ur Riccardo die Elektronik bezahlen, denn sagt die DFG das m"u"ste Riccardo selber beantragen. Es ist ja nicht  ausgeschlossen, da"s er es tut.}\\[2ex] {\bf Calibration System}\dotfill 9.000\,Eur\\[1ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ For on-site computing three standard PCs are needed ($\sim$8.000\,\euro). This includes readout and storage, preprocessing and telescope control. For safety reasons, a firewall is mandatory. For local cache-storage and backup, two RAID\,5 SATA disk arrays with one Terabyte capacity each will fulfill the requirement ($\sim$4.000\,\euro). The data will be transmitted as soon as possible after data taking via Internet to the W"urzburg Datacenter. Enough storage capacity and computing power is available there and already reserved for this purpose. Monte Carlo production and storage will take place at University Dortmund.%}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Mount and Drive}\dotfill 17.500,00\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ The present mount is used. Only a smaller investment for safety, corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500\,\euro). For movement, motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of 10.000\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF drive system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three reasons: 1)~Fast movement might be mandatory for future ToO observations. 2)~Wobble-mode observations will be done changing the wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons. 3)~To ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at the same time, the observed source will be changed in constant time intervals ($\sim$20\,min). Therefore three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A micro-controller based motion control unit (Siemens SPS L\,20) similar to the one of the current MAGIC\ II drive system will be used. For communication with the readout-system, a standard ethernet connection based on the TCP/IP- and UDP-protocol will be setup. %}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Security}\dotfill 4.000,00\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Absolute light calibration\hfill 2.000\,Eur\\ Individual pixel rate control\hfill ?.???\,Eur\\ Weather station\hfill 500\,Eur\\ GPS clock\hfill 1.500\,Eur\\ CCD camera with readout\hfill 5.000\,Eur\\ UPS\hfill 2.000,00\,\euro\\ Security fence\hfill 2.000,00\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{The GPs clock is necessary for an accurate tracking. The light calibration box (was ist das?) will be baught from the institute which produced the MAGIC calibration box. The weather station helps judging the data  quality and the CCD cameras are necessary for calibration of the tracking system (misalignment of the telescope) and mispointing correction, e.g. due to wind gusts.}\\[2ex] {\bf Mirrors} (total expense)\dotfill 15.000\,Eur\\ {\bf On-site computing}\dotfill 12.000\,Eur\\ %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ An uninterruptable power-supply unit (UPS) with 5\,kW-10\,kW will be installed to protect the equipment against power cuts and ensure a safe telescope position at the time of sunrise. ($<$2.000\,Eur) A fence for protection in case of robotic movement will be installed.%}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf Other expenses}\dotfill 7.500,00\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Robotics\hfill 7.500,00\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ For remote operation a variety of remote controllable electronic components such as ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be bought. Monitoring equipment, for example different kind of sensors, is also mandatory.%}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf 4.2 Consumables (Verbrauchsmaterial)}\dotfill 10.750,00\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Three PCs\hfill 8.000\,Eur\\ SATA RAID 3\,TB\hfill 4.000\,Eur\\ 10 LTO\,4 tapes (8\,TB)\hfill 750,00\,\euro\\ Consumables (overalls) tools and materials\hfill 10.000,00\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] {\bf Computing}\dotfill 4.000\,Eur\\ \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} 3\,TB disk extension\hfill 4.000\,Eur\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ %For remote operation a variety of remote controllable electronic %components such as ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be %bought. Monitoring equipment, for example different kind of sensors, is %also mandatory.%}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{1ex} \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Summe 4.1:\hfill{\bf 500.000\,Eur}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.1+4.2:\hfill{\bf 352.985,00\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\ %@{\extracolsep{1em} \vfill %\begin{tabular*}{\textwidth}{@{}l@{\extracolsep\fill}r@{}} %\begin{tabular*}{\textwidth}{l@{\extracolsep\fill}|r|r} %{\bf Ger"at A} (Typ)&& 1.000,75\,Eur\\ %Angebor der Firma xyz vom&&\\[1ex] %{\bf Ger"at B} (Typ)&& 1.000,75\,Eur\\ %Angebot der Firma... vom&&\\[1ex] %{\bf Camera} (Eigenbau)&& 204.000\,Eur\\[0.1ex] %313\,Pixel*650\,Euro/Pixel&&\\ %\multicolumn{2}{p{0.5\textwidth}} %{ %  \begin{tabular}{@{\hspace{1.5em}}l@{\extracolsep\fill}r} %  313 Pixel a 650,00\,Eur&xxx,yy Eur\\ %  \multicolumn{2}{p{1.0\textwidth}} %  { %      \end{tabular} %  }\\[0.1ex] %  Winston Cones&3.000,00\,Eur\\ %  Holding and chassis&3.000,00\,Eur\\ %  \end{tabular} %begin{list}{-}{\topsep 0pt\parskip 0pt } %\begin{itemize} %\item Pixel: 650EURO/Pixel %   \begin{itemize} %   %\begin{itemize} %   \item 300-350Euro Photomultiplier (EMI 4051) %   \item 50EURO Preamplifier %   \item 200-250EURO HV control and support (EMI) %   \end{itemize} %\item Winston Cones: 3000Eur (?) %\item Camera holding and chassis: 3000EURO(?) %\end{itemize} %}\\ %Linie nur rechts&&\\ \cline{3-3}\\[-1.5ex] %&Summe 4.2&{\bf 250.000 Eur}\\ \cline{3-3}\\[-1.9ex]\cline{3-3} %\end{tabular*} \subsection[4.3]{Reisen/Travel expenses} In total, we apply for an amount of 72.200\,\euro\ for travelling. This large amount of travel funding is required due to the very close cooperation between Dortmund and W"urzburg and the work demands on the construction site.\\[-2ex] \begin{quote} %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ Per year one senior group member from Dortmund and W"urzburg should present the status of the work in progress on an international workshop or conference: 2 x 3 years x 1500\,\euro\dotfill 9000,00\,\euro\\ One participation on the biannual MAGIC collaboration meeting: 2 x 3 years x 1000\,\euro\dotfill 6000,00\,\euro\\ PhD student exchange between W"urzburg and Dortmund 1 student x 1 week x 24 (every six weeks) x 800\,\euro\dotfill 19.200,00\,\euro\\ For setup of the telescope at La Palme the following travel expenses are necessary: 4 x 2 weeks at La Palma x 2 persons x 1800\,\euro\dotfill 28.800,00\,\euro\\ %} \end{quote} \subsection[4.5]{Publikationskosten/Publication costs} Will be covered by the proposing institutes. \subsection[4.6]{Other costs (Sonstige Kosten)} Storage container\dotfill 5.000,00\,\euro\\ dismantling (will be covered by proposing institutes)\dotfill n/a\\ Transport\dotfill 15.000,00\,\euro\\ \section[5]{Voraussetzungen f"ur die Durchf"uhrung des Vorhabens\\Preconditions for carrying out the project} none \subsection[5.1]{The research team (Zusammensetzung der Arbeitsgruppe)} \paragraph{Dortmund} \begin{itemize} %\item Data acquisition: 313channel*245EURO/channel ~ 77.000EURO %  \begin{itemize} %  \item 145 (95) EURO/channel Readout %  \item 100EURO/channel Trigger %  \end{itemize} %\item Calibration System: 9.000EURO %  \begin{itemize} %  \item 2000EURO Absolute light calibration? %  \item IPR control? %  \item Weather station 500EURO %  \item 1500EURO GPS clock %  \item 5.000EURO CD Cameras + readout %  \end{itemize} %\item On-site computing: 12.000EURO %  \begin{itemize} %  \item 3xPC: 8000EURO %  \item SATA RAID 3TB: 4000EURO %  \end{itemize} % %\item Computing: 4.000EURO %  \begin{itemize} %  \item 3TB SATA Disk space: 4000EURO(?) %  \end{itemize} \item AMC: 1000EURO/pannel \item UPS: 2000EURO \item 7.500EURO Robotics \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt} \setlength{\parsep}{0pt} \item Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode (Grundausttattung) \item Dr.\ Tanja Kneiske (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), DFG-Forschungsstipendium) \item Dr.\ Julia Becker (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), Drittmittel) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Kirsten M"unich (Doktorand (IceCube), Drittmittel) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jens Dreyer (Doktorand (IceCube), Grundausttattung) \item M.Sc.\ Valentin Curtef (Doktorand (MAGIC), Grundausstattung) \item cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes (Diplomand (MAGIC), zum F\"orderbeginn diplomiert) \item cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch (Diplomand (MAGIC)) \item cand.\ phys.\ Anne Wiedemann (Diplomand (IceCube)) \item cand.\ phys.\ Dominik Neise (Diplomand (MAGIC)) \item Dipl.-Ing.\ Kai Warda (Elektronik) \item PTA Matthias Domke (Systemadministration) \end{itemize} \subsection{Verbrauchsmaterial/Consumables} {\em \paragraph{W"urzburg} \begin{itemize} \item Chemikalien, Glaswaren, etc. (Werkzeug?) \item Stromrechnung La Palma (IAC Beitrag?), wie hoch pro Jahr? \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt} \setlength{\parsep}{0pt} \item Prof.\ Dr.\ Karl Mannheim (Landesmittel) \item Prof.\ Dr.\ Thomas Trefzger (Landesmittel) \item Prof.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Dr"oge (Landesmittel) \item Dr.\ Thomas Bretz (Postdoc (MAGIC), BMBF) \item Dr.\ Felix Spanier (Postdoc, Landesmittel) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jordi Albert (Doktorand, DFG-GRK1147) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Karsten Berger (Doktorand (MAGIC), Landesmittel) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Thomas Burkart (Doktorand (LISA), DLR) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Oliver Elbracht (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Dominik Els"asser (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Daniela Dorner (Doktorand (MAGIC), BMBF) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Daniel H"ohne (Doktorand (MAGIC), Landesmittel) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Markus Meyer (Doktorand, DFG-GRK1147) \item M.Sc.\ Surajit Paul (Doktorand, DFG-GRK1147) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Stefan R"ugamer (Doktorand (MAGIC), Landesmittel) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Michael R"uger (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern) \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Martina Wei"s (Doktorand, Elitenetzwerk Bayern) \item cand.\ phys.\ Sebastian Huber \item cand.\ phys.\ Tobias Hein \item cand.\ phys.\ Tobias Viering \end{itemize} } \begin{itemize} \item operation costs: 5000EURO/3years \item 25 LTO3 Tapes: 1000EURO \item 10.000EURO Consumables \end{itemize} \subsection{Reisen/Travel expenses} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Alle Reisen begr"unden \item Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Wissenschaftlern \item Einladung von G"asten (Zahl und Dauer) \item Workshops \item Kongressreisen (KEIN weiterer Antrag bei der DFG m"oglich) \item Telskop Aufbau \end{itemize} } \begin{itemize} \item 35.000EURO Travel and construction \end{itemize} \subsection{Publikationskosten/Publication costs} %keine none \subsection {Sonstige Kosten} %keine\\ \begin{itemize} \item 5.000EURO transport and storage container \item Dismantling (0, will be covered by proposing institutes) \item 15.000EURO Transport \item \textbf{2.000EURO security fence} \item \textbf{150.000EURO Kick-off Meeting Lapland} \end{itemize} \section[5]{Voraussetzungen f"ur die Durchf"uhrung des Vorhabens\\Preconditions for carrying out the project} %Vor Durchf"uhrung ist die Zustimmung der Magic-Kollaboration und des %IAC einzuholen. Nach Vorgespr"achen ist von der Erteilung dieser %Zustimmung auszugehen. Before realization the consent of the Magic collaboration and the IAC is required. According to preliminary talks this consent is expected to be given. \subsection{Zusammensetzung der Arbeitsgruppe/The research team} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Name, akademischer Grad, Dienststellung aller die am geplanten Vorhaben mitarbeiten sollen \item technisches Personal, Hilfskr"afte: Anzahl reicht \item Trenning nach Drittmitteln (Stipendien) und Istitutsmitteln \end {itemize} } \noindent {\bf Dortmund}: \begin{itemize} \item Prof. Dr. Dr. Wolfgang Rhode (Grundausttattung) \item Dr. Tanja Kneiske (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), Forschungsstipendium) \item Dr. Julia Becker (Postdoc (Ph"anomenologie), Grundausttattung) \item Dipl.-Phys. Jens Dreyer (Doktorand (IceCube), Grundausttattung) \item Dipl.-Phys Kirsten M"unich (Doktorandin (IceCube), Projekt-finanziert) \item M.Sc. Valentin Curtef (Doktorand (MAGIC), Projekt-finanziert) \item cand. phys. Jan L"unemann (Diplomand (IceCube), zum F\"orderbeginn diplomiert) \item cand. phys. Dominik Leier (Diplomand (Ph"anomenologie), zum F\"orderbeginn diplomiert) \item cand. phys. Michael Backes (Diplomand (MAGIC), zum F\"orderbeginn diplomiert) \item cand. phys. Daniela Hadasch (Diplomandin (MAGIC)) \item Dipl.-Ing. Kai Warda (Elektronik) \item PTA Matthias Domke (Systemadministration) \end{itemize} \noindent{\bf W"urzburg}: \begin{itemize} \item Prof. Dr. Karl Mannheim (Grundausttattung) \item Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Dr"oge (Grundausttattung???) \item Dipl.-Phys. nn (Grundausstattung) \item Dipl.-Phys. nn (Fremdfinanziert) \end{itemize} \subsection{Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Wissenschaftlern\\Co-operation with other scientists} {\em Nennung der Wissenschaftler mit denen eine konkrete(!) Zusammenarbeit oder Abstimmung besteht} Both applying groups co-operate with the international MAGIC-Collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W"urzburg funded by the BMBF, Dortmund by means of appointment for the moment.)\\ {\bf Dr.~Adrian Biland, Prof.~Dr.~Eckart Lorenz (both ETH Z"urich)}\\ {\bf Prof.~Riccardo Paoletti (Università di Siena and INFN sez. di Pisa, Italy)}\\ \noindent The group in Dortmund is involved in the IceCube experiment (BMBF funding) and maintains close contacts to the collaboration partners. Moreover on the field  of phenomenology there do exist good working contacts to the groups of  Prof.~Dr.~Reinhard~Schlickeiser, Ruhr-Universit"at Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter~Biermann,  MPIfR Bonn. There are furthermore contacts to Dr.~Anita Reimer, Stanford (USA) and Prof.~Dr.~Ray~Protheroe, Adelaide (Australien).\\ {\bf Francis Halzen, evtl. John Quenby}\\ \noindent W"urzburg is involved in ... maintains contacts to ...\\ Prof.~Dr.~Wolfgang Dr\"oge\\ \subsection{Arbeiten im Ausland, Kooperation mit Partnern im Ausland\\Work outside Germany, Cooperation with foreign partners} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Wird das Vorhaben ganz oder teilw. im Ausland durchgef"uhrt \item Findet konkrete Kooperation (Kolaboration!) statt (welche L"ander) \item Art und Umfang der Zusammenhang darlegen (Name, Adresse, Stellung) \end{itemize} } \subsection[5.2]{Co-operation with other scientists (Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Wissenschaftlern)} Both applying groups co-operate with the international MAGIC-Collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W"urzburg funded by the BMBF, Dortmund by means of appointment for the moment). W"urzburg is also in close scientific exchange with the group of Prof.~Dr.~Victoria Fonseca, UCM Madrid and the University of Turku (Finland) operating the KVA optical telescope at La Palma. Other cooperations refer to the projects JEM-EUSO (science case), GRIPS (simulation), LISA (astrophysical input for templates), STEREO (data analysis), and SOLAR ORBITER (electron-proton telescope). A cooperation with GLAST science team members (Dr.~Anita and Dr.~Olaf Reimer, Stanford) is also relevant for the proposed project. The group in Dortmund is involved in the IceCube experiment (BMBF funding) and maintains close contacts to the collaboration partners. Moreover on the field of phenomenology there do exist good working contacts to the groups of Prof.~Dr.~Reinhard Schlickeiser, Ruhr-Universit"at Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter Biermann, MPIfR Bonn. There are furthermore intense contacts to Prof.~Dr.~Francis Halzen, Madison, Wisconsin. The telescope design will be worked out in close cooperation with the group of Prof.~Dr.~Felicitas Pauss, Dr.~Adrian Biland and Prof.~Dr.~Eckart Lorenz (ETH Z"urich). They will provide help in design studies, construction and software development. The DAQ design will be contributed by the group of Prof.~Dr.~Riccardo Paoletti (Università di Siena and INFN sez.\ di Pisa, Italy). The group of the newly appointed {\em Lehrstuhl f"ur Physik und Ihre Didaktik} (Prof.~Dr.~Thomas Trefzger} has expressed their interest to join the project. They bring in a laboratory for photo-sensor testing, know-how from former contributions to ATLAS and a joint interest in operating a data pipeline using GRID technologies. \subsection[5.3]{Work outside Germany, Cooperation with foreign partners (Arbeiten im Ausland, Kooperation mit Partnern im Ausland)} The work on DWARF will take place at the ORM on the Spanish island La Palma. It will be performed in close collaboration with the MAGIC-collaboration. \subsection{Apparative Ausstattung/Scientific equipment available} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Am Ort vorhandene gr"o"sere Ger"ate \end{itemize} } Both in Dortmund and in W"urzburg there are extensive computer capacities available for data storing as well as for data analysis. %Dortmund: Der Fachbereich Physik der Universit"at Dortmund verf"ugt "uber %modern ausgestattete mechanische und elektronische Werkst"atten %einschlie"slich einer Elektronik-Entwicklung. Der Lehrstuhlbereich %Astroteilchenphysik verf"ugt "uber g"angige zur Erstellung moderner %DAQ erforderliche apparative Ausstattung.\\ Dortmund: The Fachbereich Physik at the Universit"at Dortmund has modern equipped mechanical and electrical workshops including a department for development of electronics at its command. The Lehrstuhlbereich Astroteilchenphysik possesses common technical equipment required for constructing modern DAQ. W"urzburg:... \subsection{Laufende Mittel f"ur Sachausgaben\\The institution's general contribution} {\em \begin{itemize} \item Angaben "uber Instituts-/Drittmittel (trennen) die f"ur das Projekt(!) j"arhrlich zur Verf"ugung stehen \end{itemize} } %Das gegenw"artige Budget des Lehrstuhls f"ur Astronomie der Universit"at %W"urzburg betr"agt $\approx$ 12345 EURO pro Jahr.\\ %Das gegenw"artige Budget des Lehrstuhlbereiches Astroteilchnphysik der %Universit"at Dortmund betr"agt $\approx$ 20000 EURO pro Jahr. Current total institute budget from the Universit"at Dortmund $\approx$ 20000 EURO per year.\\ Current total institute budget from the Universit"at W"urzburg $\approx$ xxxxx EURO per year.\\ MAGIC-Collaboration. \subsection[5.4]{Scientific equipment available (Apparative Ausstattung)} In Dortmund and W"urzburg extensive computer capacities for data storage as well as for data analysis are available. The faculty of physics at the University of Dortmund has modern equipped mechanical and electrical workshops including a department for development of electronics at its command. The chair of astroparticle physics possesses common technical equipment required for constructing modern DAQ. The faculty of physics at the University of W"urzburg comes with a mechanical and an electronic workshop, as well as a special laboratory of the chair for astronomy suitable for photosensor testing. \subsection[5.5]{The institution's general contribution (Laufende Mittel f"ur Sachausgaben)} Current total institute budget from the University Dortmund $\approx$ 20.000\,\euro\ per year.\\ Current total institute budget from the University W"urzburg $\approx$ 30.000\,\euro\ per year.\\ %\paragraph{5.6 Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit"aten}~\\ \subsection[5.6]{Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit"aten}~\\ none \subsection[5.7]{Other requirements (Sonstige Voraussetzungen)}~\\ none \newpage \paragraph{5.6 Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit"aten}~\\ none \paragraph{5.7 Other requirements (Sonstige Voraussetzungen)}~\\ none \thispagestyle{empty} \paragraph{6 Declarations (Erkl"arungen)} The corresponding persons (Vertrauensdozenten) at the Universit"at Dortmund (Prof. Dr. Gather) and at the Universit"at W"urzburg (Prof. XXXXX) have been informed about the submission of this proposal. Universit"at Dortmund (Prof.\ Dr.\ Gather) and at the Universit"at W"urzburg (Prof.\ Dr.\ G.\ Bringmann) have been informed about the submission of this proposal. \paragraph{7 Signatures (Unterschriften)}~\\ %\section{References} \newpage %(Referenzen aus unseren Gruppen sind mit einem Stern gekennzeichnet *) (References of our groups are marked by an asterix *) \bibliography{application}