# Changeset 8773

Ignore:
Timestamp:
Dec 3, 2007, 3:08:16 PM (13 years ago)
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*** empty log message ***

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trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG
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2 edited

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• ## trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG/application.bib

 r8772 } @ARTICLE{Paneque:2004, author = {{Paneque}, D. and {Gebauer}, H.~J. and {Lorenz}, E. and {Mirzoyan}, R. }, title = "{A method to enhance the sensitivity of photomultipliers for Air Cherenkov Telescopes by applying a lacquer that scatters light}", journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A}, year = 2004, month = feb, volume = 518, pages = {619-621}, doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.101}, adsurl = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2004NIMPA.518..619P}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @ARTICLE{Milagro:2007, author = {{Abdo}, A.~A. and others}, @ARTICLE{Albert:501, author  = {{MAGIC Collaboration}}, title   = "{Variable VHE gamma-ray emission from Markarian 501}", journal = {ArXiv Astrophysics e-prints}, eprint  = {astro-ph/0702008}, year    = 2007, month   = feb, adsurl  = {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007astro.ph..2008M}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} author = {{Albert}, J. and others }, title = "{Variable Very High Energy {$\gamma$}-Ray Emission from Markarian 501}", journal = {\apj}, eprint = {arXiv:astro-ph/0702008}, year = 2007, month = nov, volume = 669, pages = {862-883}, doi = {10.1086/521382}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApJ...669..862A}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} } @INPROCEEDINGS{Muenich:Icrc, author = {M"unich, K. and L"unemann, Jan}, author = {M\"{u}nich, K. and L\"{u}nemann, J.}, title = {Measurement of the atmospheric lepton energy spectra with {AMANDA-II}}, booktitle = {$30^{th}$ International Cosmic Ray Conference}, @INPROCEEDINGS{Bretz:2005drive, author = {Bretz, T. and Dorner, D. and Wagner, R.M. and Riegel, B.}, title = { A Scalable Drive System Concept for Future Projects}, title = {A Scalable Drive System Concept for Future Projects}, booktitle = {Towards a network of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors VII}, year = 2005, @ARTICLE{MAGICsensi, author = {{MAGIC Collaboration}}, author = {{MAGIC website}}, title = "{MAGIC sensitivity at \url{http://magic.mppmu.mpg.de/physics/results/}}", journal = {Official MAGIC website}, editor = {{Medina}, J.}, } @ARTICLE{Meli, author = {{Meli}, A. and {Becker}, J.~K. and {Quenby}, J.~J.}, title = "{Cosmic ray acceleration in subluminal and superluminal relativistic shock environments}", journal = {ArXiv e-prints}, eprint = {0709.3031}, year = 2007, month = sep, volume = 709, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007arXiv0709.3031M}, adsnote = {Provided by the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
• ## trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG/application.tex

 r8772 %\renewcommand{\familydefault}{\sfdefault} %\usepackage{helvet} \originalTeX \setlength{\parindent}{0pt} %\topmargin=-1.5cm \title{Neuantrag auf Gew"ahrung einer Sachbeihilfe\\Proposal for a new research project} \title{Neuantrag auf Gew\"{a}hrung einer Sachbeihilfe\\Proposal for a new research project} \author{Prof.\ Dr.\ Karl\ Mannheim\\Prof.\ Dr.\ Dr.\ Wolfgang Rhode} \maketitle %\noindent {\it Das Inhaltsverzeichnis dient nur zur "Ubersicht und ist im eigentlichen Antrag nicht enthalten. \\ % %\ % %{\underline{\bf to do Liste}}\\ %\begin{itemize} %   \item [1.6] Es muss sich jemand einen der Texte (oder ein Konglomerat daraus) aussuchen. %   \item [2.1] ist inhaltlich (u.A.) um die (z.T. in deutsch) angegebenen Stichpunkte zu erg"anzen. %   \item [2.2] ist noch (von Wolfgang und Karl?) zu schreiben. %   \item [3.1] ist inhaltlich (u.A.) um die (z.T. in deutsch) angegebenen Stichpunkte zu erg"anzen. %   \item [3.2] ist w"ortlich aus dem LoI kopiert und bedarf wom"oglich einer "Uberarbeitung im Sinne der Kapitel"uberschrift. %   \item [4.x] sind sprachlich, inhaltlich und optisch zu "uberarbeiten. %   \item [5.1] ist sprachlich (in deutsch lassen?) und inhaltlich (v.A. W"urzburg) zu "uberarbeiten. %   \item [5.2] ist inhaltlich (u.A.) um die angegebenen Stichpunkte und Informationen aus W"urzburg zu erg"anzen. %   \item [--] Plots und Bilder sind noch zu erg"anzen. %   \item [--] Referenzen sind im ganzen Text noch zu erg"anzen. %   \item [{\bf alles}] muss nat"urlich noch auf Orthographie und "`sprachliche Eleganz"' hin gegengelesen werden. %\end{itemize} %\newpage %} %\tableofcontents %\newpage %%% %{\LARGE{\bf %\begin{center} %Neuantrag auf Gew"ahrung einer Sachbeihilfe\\Proposal for a research project %\end{center} %}} \section[1]{Allgemeine Angaben/General Information} %\anmerk{Die Gliederung ist von der DFG vorgegeben} %Neuantrag auf Gew"ahrung einer Sachbeihilfe. \subsection[1.1]{Antragsteller/Applicants} % IN CASE A PROJECT IS DISTRIBUTED BETWEEN SEVERAL INSTITUTES % PLEASE GIVE AT LEAST ONE APPLICANT FOR EACH INSTITUTE; % ALSO, IN THIS CASE, THE PROPOSAL MUST MAKE CLEAR WHICH % RESOURCES GO TO WHERE, HOW THE WORK IS SPLIT, HOW THE INTERACTION % SHALL PROCEED ETC. %\setlength{\tabcolsep}{5em} \germanTeX \begin{tabular}{|p{0.44\textwidth}|p{0.22\textwidth}|p{0.22\textwidth}|}\hline {\bf Name}&\multicolumn{2}{l|}{\bf Akademischer Grad}\\ \multicolumn{3}{|c|}{{\bf email}: mannhein@astro.uni-wuerzbueg.de}\\\hline \end{tabular} \originalTeX \newpage \paragraph{1.2 Topic (Thema)}~\\ %% MAXIMAL 140 Zeichen fuer den DFG Jahresbericht %% AUCH IN DEUTSCH BEIFGEN %\paragraph{1.2 Topic}~\\ \subsection[1.2]{Topic} Long-term VHE $\gamma$-ray monitoring of bright blazars with a dedicated Cherenkov telescope %\paragraph{1.2 Thema}~\\ \subsection[1.2]{Thema} Langzeitbeobachtung von hellen VHE $\gamma$-Blazaren mit einem dedizierten Cherenkov Teleskop \paragraph{1.3 Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}~\\ %\paragraph{1.3 Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)}~\\ \subsection[1.3]{Discipline and field of work (Fachgebiet und Arbeitsrichtung)} Astronomy and Astrophysics, Particle Astrophysics \paragraph{\bf 1.4 Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}~\\ %\paragraph{\bf 1.4 Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)}~\\ \subsection[1.4]{Scheduled duration in total (Voraussichtliche Gesamtdauer)} After successful completion of the three-year work plan developed in this proposal, we will ask for an extension of the project for another of supermassive binary black holes. \paragraph{\bf 1.5 Application period (Antragszeitraum)}~\\ %\paragraph{\bf 1.5 Application period (Antragszeitraum)}~\\ \subsection[1.5]{Application period (Antragszeitraum)} 3\,years. The work on the project will begin immediately after the funding. \paragraph{\bf 1.6 Summary (Zusammenfassung)}~\\ \newpage %\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Summary}~\\ \subsection[1.6]{Summary} We propose to set up a robotic imaging air Cherenkov telescope with low cost, but high performance design for remote operation. The goal is to observations of flares with higher sensitivity telescopes such as MAGIC, VERITAS, and H.E.S.S.\ Joint observations with the Whipple monitoring telescope will start a future 24h-monitoring of selected monitoring telescope will start a future 24\,h-monitoring of selected sources with a distributed network of robotic telescopes. The telescope design is based on a full technological upgrade of one of the former robotically, a much lower energy threshold below 350\,GeV will be achieved and the observation time required for gaining the same signal as with CT3 will be reduced by a factor of 6. Unser Vorhaben besteht darin, ein robotisches Luft-Cherenkov-Teleskop as with CT3 will be reduced by a factor of six. \germanTeX %\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Zusammenfassung}~\\ \subsection[1.6]{Zusammenfassung} {\bf Unser Vorhaben besteht darin, ein robotisches Luft-Cherenkov-Teleskop mit geringen Kosten aber hoher Leistung fernsteuerbar in Betrieb zu nehmen. Das Ziel ist es, dieses gamma-ray Teleskop ganz der Energieschwelle von unter 350\,GeV aufweisen, w"ahrend gleichzeitig die notwendige Beobachtungszeit, um dasselbe Signal wie CT3 zu erhalten, um einen Faktor 6 verringert wird. einen Faktor sechs verringert wird.} \originalTeX \newpage The main class of extragalactic, very high energy gamma-rays sources detected with imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes are blazars, i.e. detected with imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes are blazars, i.e.\ accreting supermassive black holes exhibiting a relativistic jet that is closely aligned with the line of sight. The non-thermal blazar transport problem in gamma ray bursts, and is probably present in blazar jets as well, even if they originate as pair jets in a black hole ergosphere\citep{Meszaros}. Protons and ions accelerated in the hole ergosphere \citep{Meszaros}. Protons and ions accelerated in the jets of blazars can reach extremely high energies before energy losses become important \citep{Mannheim:1993}. Escaping particles contribute Assuming conservatively the performance of a single HEGRA-type telescope, long-term monitoring of at least the following blazars is possible: Mrk\,421, Mrk\,501, 1ES\,2344+514, 1ES\,1959+650, telescope, long-term monitoring of at least the following known blazars is possible: Mrk\,421, Mrk\,501, 1ES\,2344+514, 1ES\,1959+650, H\,1426+428, PKS\,2155-304. We emphasize that DWARF will run as a facility dedicated to these targets only, providing a maximum improvement in sensitivity and a lower energy-threshold is reasonable. Current studies show that with a good timing resolution (2\,GHz) a further 50\% increase in sensitivity (compared to a 300\,MHz system) is further 40\% increase in sensitivity (compared to a 300\,MHz system) is feasible. Together with an extended mirror area and a large camera, a sensitivity improvement compared to a single HEGRA telescope of a The ultra fast drive system of the MAGIC telscopes, suitable for fast repositioning in case of Gamma-Ray Bursts, has been developed, commissioned and programmed by the W"urzburg group commissioned and programmed by the W\"{u}rzburg group \citep{Bretz:2003drive,Bretz:2005drive}. To correct for axis misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g.\ bending Mirror structures made of plastic material have been developed as Winston Cones for balloon flight experiments previously by the group of Wolfgang Dr"oge. W"urzburg has also participated in the development of a HPD test bench, which has been setup in Munich and W"urzburg. With Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge. W\"{u}rzburg has also participated in the development of a HPD test bench, which has been setup in Munich and W\"{u}rzburg. With this setup, HPDs for future improvement of the sensitivity of the MAGIC camera are investigated. \paragraph{Software} The W"urzburg group has developed a full MAGIC analysis package, The W\"{u}rzburg group has developed a full MAGIC analysis package, flexible and modular enough to easily process DWARF data \citep{Bretz:2005paris,Riegel:2005icrc,Bretz:2005mars}. A method for years now. The datacenter is equipped with a professional multi-stage (hierarchical) storage system. Two operators are paid by the physics faculty. Currently efforts in W"urzburg and Dortmund are ongoing to faculty. Currently efforts in W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund are ongoing to turn the old inflexible Monte Carlo programs, used by the MAGIC collaboration, into modular packages which allows easy simulation of MAGIC and IceCube data is available in the Dortmund group. Research activities are also related with relativistic particle acceleration \citep{Meli} and gamma ray attenuation \citep{Kneiske}. The W"urzburg \citep{Meli} and gamma ray attenuation \citep{Kneiske}. The W\"{u}rzburg group has organized and carried out multi-wavelength observations of bright blazars involving MAGIC, Suzaku, the IRAM telescopes, and the leading to predictions of correlated neutrino emission \citep{Rueger}. This includes simulations of particle acceleration due to the Weibel instability \citep{Burkart}. Much of this research at W"urzburg is instability \citep{Burkart}. Much of this research at W\"{u}rzburg is carried out in the context of the research training school GRK\,1147 {\em Theoretical Astrophysics and Particle Physics}. \section[3]{Ziele/Goals} \subsection[3.1]{Ziele/Goals} \section[3]{Goals and Work Schedule (Ziele und Arbeitsprogramm)} \subsection[3.1]{Goals (Ziele)} The aim of the project is to put the former CT3 of the HEGRA efficiency, and new fast data acquisition system, under the name of DWARF. The energy threshold will be lowered, and  the sensitivity of DWARF will be greatly improved compared to HEGRA CT3 ({\bf see plot xxx/at the end}). Commissioning and the first year of data taking DWARF will be greatly improved compared to HEGRA CT3 (see figure~\ref{sensitivity}). Commissioning and the first year of data taking should be carried out within the three years of the requested funding period. (small number of experienced scientists) as optimal for achieving the project goals. The available automatic analysis package developed by the W"urzburg group for MAGIC is modular and flexible, and can thus be the W\"{u}rzburg group for MAGIC is modular and flexible, and can thus be used with minor changes for the DWARF project. \begin{figure}[htb] \begin{center} \includegraphics*[width=0.8\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{visibility.eps} \caption{blablbaaaa} \includegraphics*[width=0.7\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{visibility.eps} \caption{Source visibility in hours per night versus month of the year for a maximum observation zenith angle of 65$^\circ$. Shown are all sources which we want to monitor including the CrabNebula necessary for calibration and quality assurance. } \label{visibility} \end{center} \end{figure} %[[Image:dwarf-source-visibility.png|thumb|300px|Source visibility ([[Media:dwarf-source-visibility.eps|eps]])]] The scientific focus of the project will be on the long-term monitoring of bright, nearby VHE emitting blazars.  At least one of the proposed targets will be visible any time of the year ({\bf see plot}). For targets will be visible any time of the year (see figure~\ref{visibility}). For calibration purposes, some time will be scheduled for observations of the Crab nebula.  The blazar observations will allow extended bandwidth from below 100\,GeV to multi-TeV energies. \item to obtain multi-frequency observations together with the Mets"ahovi Radio Observatory and the optical Tuorla Observatory (Letters of support appendix). The measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL and GLAST results, when available. x-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and Suzaku facilities will be proposed. Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory and the optical Tuorla Observatory. The measurements will be correlated with INTEGRAL and GLAST results, when available. x-ray monitoring using the SWIFT and Suzaku facilities will be proposed. \end{itemize} jets. We plan to interpret the data with models currently developed in the context of the Research Training Group {\em Theoretical Astrophysics} in W"urzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK\,1147), including Astrophysics} in W\"{u}rzburg (Graduiertenkolleg, GK\,1147), including particle-in-cell and hybrid MHD models. \item the black hole mass and accretion rate fitting the data with Constraints on the binary system will allow to compute most accurate templates of gravitational waves, which is a connected project at W"urzburg in the German LISA consortium funded by DLR. W\"{u}rzburg in the German LISA consortium funded by DLR. \end{itemize} \subsection{Arbeitsprogramm/Work schedule} \subsection[3.2]{Work schedule (Arbeitsprogramm)} To complete the mount to a functional Cherenkov telescope within a The work schedule assumes that the work will begin in January 2008, immediately after funding. Later funding would accordingly shift the schedule. Each year is divided into quarters ({\bf see figure xxx}). schedule. Each year is divided into quarters (see figure~\ref{schedule}). \begin{figure}[htb] \begin{center} \includegraphics*[angle=0,clip]{schedule.eps} % \caption{Left: The old HEGRA CT3 telescope as operated within the % HEGRA Sytem. Right: A photomontage how the revised CT3 telescope % could look like with more and hexagonal mirrors.} \label{schedule} %\label{DWARF} \end{center} \end{figure} \paragraph{Software} \begin{itemize} \item MC adaption (Do/Wue): Due to the large similarities with the MAGIC telescope, within half a year new Monte Carlo code can be programmed using parts of the existing MAGIC Monte Carlo code. For tests and cross-checks another period of six months is necessary. \item Analysis adaption (Wue): The modular concept of the Magic Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) allows a very fast adaption of the telescope setup, camera and data acquisition properties within half a year. \item Adaption Drive software (Wue): Since the new drive electronics will be based on the design of the MAGIC II drive system the control software can be reused unchanged. The integration into the new slow control system will take about half a year. It has to be finished at the time of arrival of the drive system components in 2009/1. \item MC adaption (Do/W\"{u}): Due to the large similarities with the MAGIC telescope, within half a year new Monte Carlo code can be programmed using parts of the existing MAGIC Monte Carlo code. For tests and cross-checks another period of six months is necessary. \item Analysis adaption (W\"{u}): The modular concept of the Magic Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) allows a very fast adaption of the telescope setup, camera and data acquisition properties within half a year. \item Adaption Drive software (W\"{u}): Since the new drive electronics will be based on the design of the MAGIC II drive system the control software can be reused unchanged. The integration into the new slow control system will take about half a year. It has to be finished at the time of arrival of the drive system components in 2009/1. \item Slow control/DAQ (Do): A new data acquisition and slow control system for camera and auxiliary systems has to be developed. Based on experiences with the AMANDA DAQ, the Domino DAQ developed for MAGIC II will be adapted and the slow control integrated within three quarters of a year. Commissioning will take place with the full system in 2009/3. \end{itemize} \paragraph{Mirrors (Wue)} First prototypes for the mirrors are already available. After testing (six months), the production will start in summer 2008 and shipment will be finished before the full system assembly 2009/2. \paragraph{Drive (Wue)} After a planning phase of half a year to simplify the MAGIC II drive system for a smaller telescope (together with the delivering company), ordering, production and shipment should be finished in 2009/1. The MAGIC I and II drive systems have been planned and implemented successfully by the Wuerzburg group. \paragraph{Auxiliary (Wue)} Before the final setup in 2009/1, all auxiliary systems (weather station, computers, etc.) will have been specified, ordered and shipped. \paragraph{Mirrors (W\"{u})} First prototypes for the mirrors are already available. After testing (six months), the production will start in summer 2008 and shipment will be finished before the full system assembly 2009/2. \paragraph{Drive (W\"{u})} After a planning phase of half a year to simplify the MAGIC II drive system for a smaller telescope (together with the delivering company), ordering, production and shipment should be finished in 2009/1. The MAGIC I and II drive systems have been planned and implemented successfully by the Wuerzburg group. \paragraph{Auxiliary (W\"{u})} Before the final setup in 2009/1, all auxiliary systems (weather station, computers, etc.) will have been specified, ordered and shipped. \paragraph{Camera (Do)} The camera has to be ready six month after the shipment of the other mechanical parts of the telescope. For this purpose camera tests have to take place in 2009/2, which requires the assembly of the camera within six months before. By now, a PM test bench which allows to finish planning and ordering of the camera parts and PMs until summer 2008, before the construction begins, is set up in Dortmund. In addition to the manpower permanently provided by Dortmund for production and commissioning, two engineers will participate in the construction phase. \paragraph{Full System (Do/Wue)} The full system will be assembled after delivering of all parts in the beginning of spring 2009. Start of the commissioning is planned four months later. First light is expected in autumn 2009. This would allow an immediate full system test with a well measured, strong and steady source (CrabNebula). After the commissioning phase will have been finished in spring 2010, full robotic operation will be provided. \paragraph{Full System (Do/W\"{u})} The full system will be assembled after delivering of all parts in the beginning of spring 2009. Start of the commissioning is planned four months later. First light is expected in autumn 2009. This would allow an immediate full system test with a well measured, strong and steady source (CrabNebula). After the commissioning phase will have been finished in spring 2010, full robotic operation will be provided. Based on the experience with setting up the MAGIC telescope we estimate this workschedule as conservative. \subsubsection[3.3]{Experiments with humans (Untersuchungen am Menschen)} \subsection[3.3]{Experiments with humans (Untersuchungen am Menschen)} none \subsubsection[3.4]{Experiments with animals (Tierversuche)} \subsection[3.4]{Experiments with animals (Tierversuche)} none \subsubsection[3.5]{Experiments with recombinant DNA (Gentechnologische Experimente)} \subsection[3.5]{Experiments with recombinant DNA (Gentechnologische Experimente)} none \section[4]{Beantragte Mittel/Funds requested} \clearpage \section[4]{Funds requested (Beantragte Mittel)} We request funding for a total of three years. Summarizing, the expenses for the telescope ({\bf see section xxx}) are dominated by the camera and data acquisition. The financial volume for the complete hardware inclusive transport amounts to 372.985,-\,\euro. \subsection[4.1]{Required Staff (Personalbedarf)} expenses for the telescope are dominated by the camera and data acquisition. %The financial volume for the complete hardware inclusive %transport amounts to {\bf 372.985,-\,\euro}. \subsection[4.1]{Required Staff (Personalkosten)} For this period, we request funding for two postdocs and two PhD students, one in Dortmund and one in W"urzburg each. The staff members shall fulfill the tasks given in the work schedule above. To cover these tasks completely, one additional PhD student per group and a various number of Diploma students will complete the working group students, one in Dortmund and one in W\"{u}rzburg each. The staff members shall fulfill the tasks given in the work schedule above. To cover these tasks completely, one additional PhD and a various number of Diploma students will complete the working group. Suitable candidates interested in these positions are Dr.\ Thomas Bretz, Dr.\ dest.\ Daniela Dorner, Dr.\ dest.\ Kirsten M"unich, cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes, cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch and cand.\ phys.\ Dominik Neise. \subsection[4.2]{Scientific equipment (Wissenschaftliche Ger"ate)} Support: At the Observatorio de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site, Bretz, Dr.\ dest.\ Daniela Dorner, Dr.\ dest.\ Kirsten M\"{u}nich, cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes, cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch and cand.\ phys.\ Dominik Neise. \subsection[4.2]{Scientific equipment (Wissenschaftliche Ger\"{a}te)} At the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site, the mount of the former HEGRA telescope CT3 now owned by the MAGIC collaboration is still operational. One hut for electronics close to the telescope is available. Additional space is available in the MAGIC counting house. The MAGIC Memorandum of Understanding allows for operating it as an auxiliary instrument (see appendix), and emergency support from the shift crew of MAGIC is guaranteed, although autonomous robotic operation is the primary goal. To achieve the planned sensitivity and threshold given in fig.\ \ref{sensitivity} the following components have to be bought. To obtain reliable results as fast as possible well known components have been chosen.\\ operating DWARF as an auxiliary instrument (see appendix). Also emergency support from the shift crew is guaranteed, although autonomous robotic operation is the primary goal. To achieve the planned sensitivity and threshold (figure~\ref{sensitivity}) the following components have to be bought. To obtain reliable results as fast as possible well known components have been chosen. \begin{figure}[hb] \centering{ \includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps} \caption{Integral flux sensitivity of current and former Cherenkov telescopes \citep{Moralejo:2004,Juan:2000,MAGICsensi,Magnussen:1998,Vassiliev:1999} as well as the expectations for DWARF, with both a PMT- and an APD-camera. These expectations are based on the sensitivity of the HEGRA CT1 telescope, scaled by the improvements mentioned in the text. } \label{sensitivity} } \includegraphics[width=0.55\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps} \caption{Integral flux sensitivity of current and former telescopes \citep{Juan:2000,MAGICsensi,Vassiliev:1999} as well as the expectations for DWARF, with both a PMT- and a GAPD-camera. These expectations are based on the sensitivity of HEGRA~CT1, scaled by the improvements mentioned in the text. } \label{sensitivity} } \end{figure} \clearpage {\bf Camera}\dotfill 207.550,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes obsolete, i.e. observation time for the source is doubled. This becomes obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources. %} \begin{figure}[ht] A camera completely containing shower images of events in the energy region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of 5$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera geometry, a camera layout as symmetric as possible will be chosen. Consequently a camera allowing to fulfill these requirements should be round and have a diameter of $4.5^\circ-5.0^\circ$. \begin{figure}[th] \begin{center} \includegraphics*[width=0.4\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam271.eps} \includegraphics*[width=0.4\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam313.eps} \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam271.eps} \includegraphics*[width=0.495\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{cam313.eps} \caption{Left: Schematic picture of the 271 pixel CT-3 camera with a field of view of 4.6$^\circ$. Right: Schematic picture of the 313 pixel camera for DWARF with a field of view of 5$^\circ$.} \end{figure} A camera completely containing shower images of events in the energy region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of 5$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera geometry, a camera layout as symmetric as possible will be chosen. Consequently a camera allowing to fulfill these requirements should be round and have a diameter of $4.5^\circ-5.0^\circ$. Therefor a camera with 313 pixel camera (see figure \ref{camDWARF}) is Therefor a camera with 313 pixel camera (see figure~\ref{camDWARF}) is chosen. The camera will be built based on the experience with HEGRA and MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083\,KFLA-UD) will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). They have a 25\% improved quantum efficiency and ensure a granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be equipped with a preamplifier, an active high-voltage supply and control. The total expense for a single pixel will be in the order of 650,-\,\euro. a 25\% improved quantum efficiency (see figure~\ref{qe}) and ensure a granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be equipped with a preamplifier, an active high-voltage supply and control. The total expense for a single pixel will be in the order of 650,-\,\euro. All possibilities of borrowing one of the old HEGRA cameras for a cameras. {\bf At ETH~Z"urich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the {\bf At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the ability, i.e.\ stability, aging, quantum efficiency, etc., of using Geiger-mode APDs (Advanced Photon Detector aka. Silicon PM) as photon Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon detector in the camera of a Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are extremely high quantum efficiency (>50\%), easier gain stabilization and extremely high quantum efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and simplified application compared to classical PMs. If these test measurements are successfully finished until 8/2008 we consider to use APDs in favor of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take GAPDs in favor of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take place at University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts from ETH. Construction would also take place at the electronics {\bf Camera support}\dotfill 204.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500\,\euro) For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500,-\,\euro) The camera chassis must be water tight and will be equipped with an automatic lid protecting the PMs at day-time. For further protection, a planned. In total a gain of {\bf $\sim$ 15\%} in light-collection In total a gain of {\bf $\sim$15\%} in light-collection efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be acheived. \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} Current results obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC data acquisition show that for a single telescope a sensitivity improvement 40$\%$ with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}. As for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is sufficient, but also a simple three-next-neighbors (closed package) could be programmed. (both cases $\sim$30.000,-\,\euro: $<$100,-\,\euro/channel). Additional data reduction and preprocessing in the readout hardware or the readout computer is provided. Assuming conservatively storage of raw-data at a readout rate of 30\,Hz the storage space needed is less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount of data can easily be stored and processed by the W"urzburg Datacenter (current online capacity $>$40\,TB, offline capacity $>$80\,TB, $>$40\,CPUs). %}\\[2ex] improvement of 40\% with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}. As for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is sufficient, but also a simple neighbor-logic could be programmed (both cases $\sim$100,-\,\euro/channel). Additional data reduction and preprocessing within the readout chain is provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz the storage space needed will be less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount of data can easily be stored and processed by the W\"{u}rzburg Datacenter (current capacity $>$80\,TB, $>$40\,CPUs). \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} \begin{quote} The existing mirrors are replaced by new plastic mirrors which are currently developed by Wolfgang Dr"oge's group. The cheap and currently developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and light-weight material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master coated with a reflecting and a protective material. Tests have given promising results. By a change of the mirror geometry, the mirror area can be increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture \ref{CT3} and montage \ref{DWARF}); this includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture~\ref{CT3} and montage~\ref{DWARF}); this includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per mirror by using a hexagonal layout instead of a round one. A further increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of aluminized Mylar mirror-foil, and a dialectical layer of SiO2 as for the Winston Cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is achieved, {\bf see plot} \citep{Fraunhofer}. \begin{figure}[thb] \centering{ \includegraphics[width=0.32\textwidth]{cherenkov.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.32\textwidth]{reflectivity.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.32\textwidth]{qe.eps} \caption{xxx yyy zzz } \label{reflectivity} } \end{figure} achieved, see figure~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}. Both solutions would require the same expenses. individual mirrors and the point-spread function of the total mirror during long-term observations, the application of an automatic mirror adjustment system, as developed by ETH~Z"urich and successfully adjustment system, as developed by ETH~Z\"{u}rich and successfully operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended. \begin{figure}[p] \centering{ \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{cherenkov.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{reflectivity.eps} \includegraphics[width=0.57\textwidth]{qe.eps} \caption{Top to bottom: The cherenkov spectrum as observed by a telescope located at 2000\,m above sea level. The mirror's reflectivity of a 300\,nm thick aluminum layer with a protection layer of 10\,nm and 100\,nm thickness respectively. For comparison the reflectivity of HEGRA CT1's mirrors \citep{Kestel:2000} are shown. The bottom plot depicts the quantum efficiency of the prefered PMs (EMI) together with the predecessor used in CT1. A proper coating \citep{Paneque:2004} will further enhance its effciency. An even better increase would be the usage of Geiger-mode APDs.} \label{cherenkov} \label{reflectivity} \label{qe} } \end{figure} %The system %will be provided by ETH Z"urich. produced. To ensure a homogeneous acceptance over the whole camera essential for wobble-mode observations the trigger rate of the individual pixels have to be measured. Therefore the slow control system will be equipped with a feedback on the individual pixel rate. To ensure a homogeneous acceptance of the camera, essential for wobble-mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels will be measured and controlled. To correct for axis misalignments and possible deformations of the structure (e.g. bending of camera holding masts), a pointing correction structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts), a pointing correction algorithm as used in the MAGIC tracking system will be applied. It is calibrated by measurements of the reflection of bright guide stars on the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as already in operation for MAGIC\ I and~II, ({\bf 300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics, 300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ Frame grabber}) will be installed. diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as for MAGIC\ I and~II, ({\bf 300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics, 300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ Frame grabber}) will be installed. A second identical CCD camera for online monitoring (starguider) will each will fulfill the requirement ($\sim$4.000,-\,\euro). The data will be transmitted as soon as possible after data taking via Internet to the W"urzburg Datacenter. Enough storage capacity and computing power W\"{u}rzburg Datacenter. Enough storage capacity and computing power is available there and already reserved for this purpose. corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro). For movement, motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the For the movement, motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of 10.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF \begin{quote} \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} UPS\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\ Uninterruptable power-supply (UPS)\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\ Security fence\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ An uninterruptable power-supply unit (UPS) with 5\,kW-10\,kW will be A UPS with 5\,kW-10\,kW will be installed to protect the equipment against power cuts and ensure a safe telescope position at the time of sunrise. ($<$2.000,-\,\euro) telescope position at the time of sunrise. A fence for protection in case of robotic movement will be {\bf Other expenses}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} Robotics\hfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} %   Robotics\hfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\ %   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ For remote operation a variety of remote controllable electronic For remote, robotic operation a variety of remote controllable electronic components such as ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be bought. Monitoring equipment, for example different kind of sensors, is also mandatory.%}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{3ex} {\bf 4.2 Consumables (Verbrauchsmaterial)}\dotfill 10.750,-\,\euro\\[-3ex] \begin{quote} \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth} 10 LTO\,4 tapes (8\,TB)\hfill 750,-\,\euro\\ Consumables (overalls) tools and materials\hfill 10.000,-\,\euro\\ \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ %For remote operation a variety of remote controllable electronic %components such as ethernet controlled sockets and switches will be %bought. Monitoring equipment, for example different kind of sensors, is %also mandatory.%}\\[2ex] \end{quote}\vspace{1ex} \end{quote} \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.1+4.2:\hfill{\bf 352.985,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.2:\hfill{\bf 342.235,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\ \subsection[4.3]{Reisen/Travel expenses} In total, we apply for an amount of 72.200,-\,\euro\ for travelling. This large amount of travel funding is required due to the very close cooperation between Dortmund and W"urzburg and the work demands on the construction site.\\[-2ex] \subsection[4.3]{Consumables (Verbrauchsmaterial)} \begin{quote} %   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.9\textwidth} 10 LTO\,4 tapes (8\,TB)\dotfill 750,-\,\euro\\ Consumables (overalls) tools and materials\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro %   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex] \end{quote} \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.3:\hfill{\bf 10.750,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\ \subsection[4.4]{Reisen (Travel expenses)} The large amount of travel funding is required due to the very close cooperation between Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg and the work demands on the construction site.\\[-2ex] \begin{quote} %\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{ Per year one senior group member from Dortmund and W"urzburg should present the status of the work in progress on an international workshop or conference: 2 x 3 years x 1500\,\euro\dotfill 9.000,-\,\euro\\ One participation on the biannual MAGIC collaboration meeting: 2 x 3 years x 1000\,\euro\dotfill 6.000,-\,\euro\\ PhD student exchange between W"urzburg and Dortmund 1 student x 1 week x 24 (every six weeks) x 800\,\euro\dotfill 19.200,-\,\euro\\ Per year one senior group member from Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg should present the status of the work in progress at an international workshop or conference:\\ 2 x 3\,years x 1.500,-\,\euro\dotfill 9.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex] One participation at the biannual MAGIC collaboration meeting:\\ 2 x 3\,years x 1.000,-\,\euro\dotfill 6.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex] PhD student exchange between W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund:\\ 1\,student x 1\,week x 24 (every six weeks) x 800,-\,\euro\dotfill 19.200,-\,\euro\\[-2ex] For setup of the telescope at La Palma the following travel expenses are necessary: 4 x 2 weeks at La Palma x 2 persons x 1800\,\euro\dotfill 28.800,-\,\euro\\ are necessary:\\ 4 x 2\,weeks at La Palma x 2\,persons x 1.800,-\,\euro\dotfill 28.800,-\,\euro %} \end{quote} \subsection[4.5]{Publikationskosten/Publication costs} \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.4:\hfill{\bf 72.200,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\ \subsection[4.5]{Publikationskosten (Publication costs)} Will be covered by the proposing institutes. \subsection[4.6]{Other costs (Sonstige Kosten)} Storage container\dotfill 5.000,00\,\euro\\ dismantling (will be covered by proposing institutes)\dotfill n/a\\ Transport\dotfill 15.000,00\,\euro\\ \section[5]{Voraussetzungen f"ur die Durchf"uhrung des Vorhabens\\Preconditions for carrying out the project} \begin{quote} Storage container (for shipment of the mirrors)\dotfill 5.000,-\,\euro\\ Transport\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\ Dismantling (will be covered by proposing institutes)\dotfill n/a \end{quote} \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.6:\hfill{\bf 20.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex] \hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\ \newpage \germanTeX \section[5]{Preconditions for carrying out the project\\Voraussetzungen f"ur die Durchf"uhrung des Vorhabens} none \item Dipl.-Phys.\ Jens Dreyer (Doktorand (IceCube), Grundausttattung) \item M.Sc.\ Valentin Curtef (Doktorand (MAGIC), Grundausstattung) \item cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes (Diplomand (MAGIC), zum F\"orderbeginn diplomiert) \item cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes (Diplomand (MAGIC), zum F"orderbeginn diplomiert) \item cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch (Diplomand (MAGIC)) \item cand.\ phys.\ Anne Wiedemann (Diplomand (IceCube)) \end{itemize} \paragraph{W"urzburg} \paragraph{W\"{u}rzburg} \begin{itemize} \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt} \item cand.\ phys.\ Tobias Viering \end{itemize} \originalTeX \subsection[5.2]{Co-operation with other scientists (Zusammenarbeit mit Both applying groups co-operate with the international MAGIC-Collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W"urzburg MAGIC-Collaboration and the institutes represented therein. (W\"{u}rzburg funded by the BMBF, Dortmund by means of appointment for the moment). W"urzburg is also in close scientific exchange with the group of W\"{u}rzburg is also in close scientific exchange with the group of Prof.~Dr.~Victoria Fonseca, UCM Madrid and the University of Turku (Finland) operating the KVA optical telescope at La Palma. Other Moreover on the field of phenomenology there do exist good working contacts to the groups of Prof.~Dr.~Reinhard Schlickeiser, Ruhr-Universit"at Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter Biermann, MPIfR Bonn. Ruhr-Universit\"{a}t Bochum and Prof.~Dr.~Peter Biermann, MPIfR Bonn. There are furthermore intense contacts to Prof.~Dr.~Francis Halzen, Madison, Wisconsin. The telescope design will be worked out in close cooperation with the group of Prof.~Dr.~Felicitas Pauss, Dr.~Adrian Biland and Prof.~Dr.~Eckart Lorenz (ETH Z"urich). They will provide help in design Prof.~Dr.~Eckart Lorenz (ETH~Z\"{u}rich). They will provide help in design studies, construction and software development. The DAQ design will be contributed by the group of Prof.~Dr.~Riccardo Paoletti (Università di Siena and INFN sez.\ di Pisa, Italy). The group of the newly appointed {\em Lehrstuhl f"ur Physik und Ihre The group of the newly appointed {\em Lehrstuhl f\"{u}r Physik und Ihre Didaktik} (Prof.~Dr.~Thomas Trefzger) has expressed their interest to join the project. They bring in a laboratory for photo-sensor testing, \subsection[5.4]{Scientific equipment available (Apparative Ausstattung)} In Dortmund and W"urzburg extensive computer capacities for data In Dortmund and W\"{u}rzburg extensive computer capacities for data storage as well as for data analysis are available. modern DAQ. The faculty of physics at the University of W"urzburg comes with a The faculty of physics at the University of W\"{u}rzburg comes with a mechanical and an electronic workshop, as well as a special laboratory of the chair for astronomy suitable for photosensor testing. \subsection[5.5]{The institution's general contribution (Laufende Mittel f"ur Sachausgaben)} Mittel f\"{u}r Sachausgaben)} Current total institute budget from the University Dortmund $\approx$ 20.000\,\euro\ per year.\\ Current total institute budget from the University W"urzburg $\approx$ Current total institute budget from the University W\"{u}rzburg $\approx$ 30.000\,\euro\ per year.\\ %\paragraph{5.6 Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit"aten}~\\ \subsection[5.6]{Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit"aten}~\\ %\paragraph{5.6 Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit\"aten}~\\ \subsection[5.6]{Conflicts of interest in economic activities\\Interessenskonflikte bei wirtschaftlichen Aktivit\"{a}ten}~\\ none \thispagestyle{empty} \paragraph{6 Declarations (Erkl"arungen)} \paragraph{6 Declarations (Erkl\"{a}rungen)} A request for funding this project has not been submitted to The corresponding persons (Vertrauensdozenten) at the Universit"at Dortmund (Prof.\ Dr.\ Gather) and at the Universit"at W"urzburg (Prof.\ Dr.\ G.\ Bringmann) have been informed about the Universit\"{a}t Dortmund (Prof.\ Dr.\ Gather) and at the Universit\"{a}t W\"{u}rzburg (Prof.\ Dr.\ G.\ Bringmann) have been informed about the submission of this proposal. \hfill \begin{minipage}[t]{6cm} W"urzburg,\\[3.0cm] W\"{u}rzburg,\\[3.0cm] \parbox[t]{6cm}{\hrulefill}\\ \parbox[t]{6cm}{~\hfill Prof.\ Dr.\ Karl Mannheim\hfill~}\\ \newpage \section[8]{Verzeichnis der Anlagen/List of appendices} \paragraph{8 List of appendices (Verzeichnis der Anlagen)} \begin{itemize} %Schriftenverzeichnis der Antragsteller seit dem Jahr 2000 List of refereed publications of the applicants since 2000 \item CV of Karl Mannheim \item CV of Wolfgang Rhode \item CV of Karl Mannheim \item CV of Wolfgang Rhode \item Letter of Support from the MAGIC collaboration \item Letter of Support from Mets\"{a}hovi Radio Observatory \item Letter of Support from the IceCube collaboration \item Letter of Support from KVA optical telescope \end{itemize}
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