Version 171 (modified by tbretz, 11 months ago) (diff)

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Spectrum Analysis

The differential flux $$\phi(E)$$ per area, time and energy interval is defined as $\phi(E) = \frac{dN}{dA\cdot dt\cdot dE}$

Often $$\phi(E)$$ is also referred to as $$\frac{dN}{dE}$$ as observation time and effective collection area is a constant. The effective area is then defined as $$A_\textrm{eff}(E)=\epsilon(E)\cdot A_0$$. Note that at large distances $$R_0$$ the efficiency $$\epsilon(R_0)$$ vanishes, so that the effective area is an (energy dependent) constant while $$A_0=\pi R_0^2$$ and the efficiency $$\epsilon(E)$$ are mutually dependent.

For an observation with an effective observation time $$\Delta T=\sum\delta t_i$$, this yields in a given Energy interval $$\Delta E$$: $\phi(\Delta E) = \frac{1}{A_0\cdot \Delta T}\frac{N(\Delta E)}{\epsilon(\Delta E)\cdot \Delta E}$

For simplicity, in the following, $$\Delta E$$ will be replaced by just $$E$$ but always refers to to a given energy interval. If data is binned in a histogram, the relation between the x-value for the bin $$E_\textrm{x}$$ and the corresponding interval $$\Delta E_\textrm{x}$$ is not well defined. Resonable definitions are the bin center (usually in logarithmic bins) or the average energy.

The total area $$A_0$$ and the corresponding efficiency $$\epsilon(E)$$ are of course only available for simulated data. For simulated data, $$A_0$$ is the production area and $$\epsilon(E)$$ the corresponding energy dependent efficiency of the analysis chain. For a given energy bin, the efficiency is then defined as

$\epsilon(E) = \frac{N_\textrm{exc}(E)}{N_0(E)}$

where $$N_0$$ is the number of simulated events in this energy bin and $$N=N_{exc}$$ the number of *excess* events that are produced by the analysis chain.

Note that the exact calculation of the efficiency $$\epsilon(\Delta E)$$ depends on prior knowledge of the correct source spectrum $$N_0(E)$$. Therefore, it is strictly speaking only correct if the simulated spectrum and the real spectrum are identical. As the real spectrum is unknown, special care has to be taken of the systematic introduced by the assumption of $$N_0(E)$$.

Zenith Angle Weights and Spectral Weights

While the source spectrum $$N_0$$ is of course independent of the zenith angle $$\theta$$ of the observation, the efficiency is not, so that

$\epsilon(E) = \epsilon(E, \theta)$

In addition, the observed differential flux depends on the zenith angle. That means that for a correct calculation of the efficiency, the number of simulated events per zenith angle interval has to match the observation time distribution.

$\epsilon(E, \theta) = \epsilon(E, \theta, \Delta T(\theta))$

This can be achieved by applying zenith angle dependent weights $$\omega(\theta)$$ to each simulated event. Similarly, the discussed requirement of the match between result spectrum and simulated spectrum can be achieved applying energy dependent weights $$\omega(E)$$.

As the simulated energy spectrum is independent of zenith angle, it can be expressed as

$\phi(E,\theta) = N_0\cdot \eta(E)\cdot \eta(\theta)$

with the differential energy spectrum $$\eta(E)$$ and the zenith angle distribution $$\eta(\theta)$$ and the normalization

$\int_E\int_\theta\phi(E,\theta)dEd\theta = N_0\cdot \int_E\eta(E)dE\cdot \int_\theta\eta(\theta)d\theta$

The contents of one energy bin $$\Delta E$$ and one zenith angle bin $$\Delta\theta$$ can then be written as

$N(\Delta E, \Delta\theta) = \sum_{\Delta E}\sum_{\Delta\theta} \omega_{i,j}(E, \theta)= \sum_{\Delta E}\sum_{\Delta\theta} \omega_i(E)\cdot\omega_j(\theta)= \sum_{\Delta E} \omega_i(\theta)\cdot\sum_{\Delta\theta}\omega_i(E)$

and the normalization

$\sum_E\sum_\theta N(E,\theta) = N_0 \sum_E\sum_\theta \omega_{i,j}(E,\theta) = N_0 \sum_E\sum_\theta \omega_{i}(E)\omega_j(\theta) = N_0\cdot \sum_E\omega_i(\theta)\cdot \sum_\theta\omega_i(E)$

Excess

The number of excess events, for data and simulations, is defined as

$N_\textrm{exc} = N_\textrm{sig} - \hat N_\textrm{bg}$

where $$N_\textrm{sig}$$ is the number of events identified as potential gammas from the source direction ('on-source') and $$N_\textrm{bg}$$ the number of gamma-like events measured 'off-source'. Note that for Simulations, $$\hat N_\textrm{bg}$$ is not necessarily zero for wobble-mode observations as an event can survive the analysis for on- and off-events, if this is not prevented by the analysis (cuts).

The average number of background events $$\hat N_\textrm{bg}$$ is the total number of background events $$N_\textrm{bg}$$ from all off-regions times the corresponding weight $$\frac{1}{5}$$ (often referred to as $$\alpha$$). For five off-regions, this yields

$\hat N_\textrm{bg} = \frac{N_\textrm{bg}}{5}$

Assuming Gaussian errors, the statistical error is thus

$\sigma^2(N_\textrm{exc}) = \left(\frac{dN_\textrm{exc}}{dN_\textrm{sig}}\right)^2\sigma^2(N_\textrm{sig}) + \left(\frac{dN_\textrm{exc}}{d\hat N_\textrm{bg}}\right)^2\sigma^2(\hat N_\textrm{bg})$

For data this immediately resolves to

$\sigma^2(N_\textrm{exc}) = N_\textrm{sig} + \frac{1}{5^2}N_\textrm{bg}$

with the Poisson (counting) error $$\sigma^2(N_\textrm{sig,bg}) = N_\textrm{sig,bg}$$.

For the simulations, the error on $$N$$ is the error on the weighted sum

$\sigma^2(N_\textrm{sig,bg}) = \sum_i\left[\frac{\sum_j d\omega_j}{d\omega_i}\sigma(\omega_i)\right]^2 = \sum_i\sigma^2(\omega_i)$

<!--With the error $$\sigma^2(\omega_i) = \omega_i^2$$ this provides $\sigma^2(N_\textrm{exc}^\textrm{MC}) = \sum_\textrm{sig}\omega_i^2 + \frac{1}{5^2}\sum_\textrm{bg}\omega_i^2$ -->

Code

In the following $$N$$ refers to a number of simulated events and $$M$$ to a number of measured (excess) events.

$$n(\delta E, \delta\theta)$$ is the number of produced events in the energy interval $$E\in\delta E=[e_\textrm{min};e_\textrm{max}]$$ and the zenith angle interval $$\theta\in\delta\theta=[\theta_\textrm{min};\theta_\textrm{max}]$$. The weighted number of events $$n'(\delta E, \delta\theta)$$ in that interval is then

$n'(\delta E, \delta\theta) = \sum_{i=0...n}^{E\in\delta E}\sum_{j=0...n}^{\theta\in\delta\theta} \omega(E_i, \theta_j)$

Since $$\omega(E, \theta) = \rho(E)\cdot \tau(\theta)$$ with $$\rho(E)$$ the spectral weight to adapt the spectral shape of the simulated spectrum to the real (measured) spectrum of the source and $$\tau(\theta)$$ the weight to adapt to oberservation time versus zenith angle.

$n'(\delta E, \delta\theta) = \sum_{i=0...n}^{E\in\delta E}\sum_{j=0...n}^{\theta\in\delta\theta} \rho(E_i)\cdot\tau(\theta_j) = \sum_{i=0...n}^{E\in\delta E}\rho(E_i)\cdot\sum_{j=0...n}^{\theta\in\delta\theta} \tau(\theta_j)$

The weighted number of produced events $$N'(\Delta E, \Delta\Theta)$$ in the total energy interval $$E\in\Delta E=[E_\textrm{min};E_\textrm{max}]$$ and the total zenith angle interval $$\theta\in\Delta\Theta=[\Theta_\textrm{min};\Theta_\textrm{max}]$$ is then

$N'(\Delta E, \Delta\Theta) = \sum_{i=0...N}^{E\in\Delta E}\sum_{j=0...N}^{\theta\in\Delta\Theta} \rho(E_i)\cdot\tau(\theta_j) = \sum_{i=0...N}^{E\in\Delta E}\rho(E_i)\cdot\sum_{j=0...N}^{\theta\in\Delta\Theta} \tau(\theta_j)$

with $$N(\Delta E, \Delta\Theta)$$ being the total number of produced events.

The weights are defined as follow:

$\rho(E) = \rho_0\frac{\phi_\textrm{src}(E)}{\phi_0(E)}$

where $$\phi_0(E)$$ is the simulated spectrum and $$\phi_\textrm{src}$$ the (unknown) real source spectrum. $$\rho_0$$ is a normalization constant. The zenith angle weights $$\tau(\delta\theta)$$ in the interval $$\delta\theta$$ are defined as

$\tau(\delta\theta) = \tau_0\frac{\Delta T(\delta\theta)}{N(\delta\theta)}$

where $$N(\delta\theta)$$ is the number of produced events in the interval $$\delta\theta$$ and $$\Delta T(\delta\theta)$$ is the total observation time in the same zenith angle interval. $$\tau_0$$ is the normalization constant.

As the efficiency $$\epsilon(\delta E)$$ for an energy interval $$\delta E$$ is calculated as

$\epsilon(\delta E) = \epsilon(\delta E, \Delta\Theta) = \frac{N'_\textrm{exc}(\delta E, \Delta\Theta)}{N'_\textrm{src}(\delta E,\Delta\Theta)}$

and $$N'_\textrm{exc}(\delta E,\Delta\Theta)$$ and $$N'_\textrm{src}(\delta E,\Delta\Theta)$$ are both expressed as the sum given above, the constants $$\rho_0$$ and $$\tau_0$$ cancel.

The differential flux in an energy interval $$\delta E$$ is then given as

$\phi(\delta E) = \phi(\delta E,\Delta\Theta) = \frac{1}{A_0\cdot \Delta T}\frac{M_\textrm{exc}(\delta E)}{\epsilon(\delta E)\cdot \delta E} = \frac{M_\textrm{exc}(\delta E)}{N'_\textrm{exc}(\delta E)}\cdot \frac{N'_\textrm{src}(\delta E)}{A_0\cdot\Delta T\cdot \delta E}$

Where $$A_0$$ is total area of production and $$\Delta T$$ the total observation time. The number of measured excess events is in that energy interval is $$M_\textrm{exc}(\delta E)=M_\textrm{exc}(\delta E, \Delta\Theta)$$.

Using Gaussian error propagation, the error in a given energy interval $$\delta$$ is then given by

$\sigma^2(\phi) = \left(\frac{1}{A_0\cdot \Delta T\cdot\delta E}\right)^2\cdot\left[\left(\frac{d\phi'}{dM_\textrm{exc}}\right)^2\sigma^2(M_\textrm{exc}) + \left(\frac{d\phi'}{dN'_\textrm{exc}}\right)^2\sigma^2(N'_\textrm{exc}) + \left(\frac{d\phi'}{dN'_\textrm{src}}\right)^2\sigma^2(N'_\textrm{src})\right]$

with $$\phi'=\phi/A_0/\Delta T/\delta E$$.

$\frac{d\phi'}{dM_\textrm{exc}} = \frac{N'_\textrm{src}}{N'_\textrm{src}}$ $\frac{d\phi'}{dN'_\textrm{src}} = \frac{M_\textrm{exc}}{N'_\textrm{src}}$ $\frac{d\phi'}{dN'_\textrm{exc}} = -\frac{M_\textrm{exc}\cdot N'_\textrm{src}}{\left(N'_\textrm{exc}\right)^2}$

Monte Carlo

$\omega_i(E) = \frac{\phi_\textrm{src}(E)}{\phi_0(E)}=\frac{E^{-\gamma}}{E^{-2.7}}$

$\omega_i(\Delta \theta) = \frac{\sum_{\Delta\theta}\Delta T_i}{\sum_\theta\Delta T_i} \cdot \frac{M_0}{M_0(\Delta \theta)}$

$\epsilon(E) = \frac{N_\textrm{exc}(E)}{N_0(E)}$

$\phi(E) = \frac{N_\textrm{exc}(E)}{A_0\epsilon(E)\cdot\Delta T} = \frac{N_\textrm{exc}(E)}{N_\textrm{exc}^\textrm{MC}(E)}\cdot \frac{N_0(E)}{A_0\cdot\Delta T}$

$\phi(E) = \frac{N_\textrm{sig}(E) - \hat N_\textrm{bg}(E)}{N_\textrm{sig}^\textrm{MC}(E) - \hat N_\textrm{bg}^\textrm{MC}(E)}\cdot \frac{N_0(E)}{A_0\cdot\Delta T}$

$N_\textrm{sig}^\textrm{MC} = \sum_\textrm{sig}^\textrm{MC}\omega_i(E)\omega_i(\theta)$ $N_\textrm{bg}^\textrm{MC} = \sum_\textrm{bg}^\textrm{MC}\omega_i(E)\omega_i(\theta)$ $N_0(E) = \sum_\textrm{corsika}^\textrm{MC}\omega_i(E)\omega_i(\theta)$

$\sigma^2(\phi(E)) = \left(\frac{d\phi(E)}{dN_0}\right)^2\sigma^2(N_0) + \left(\frac{d\phi(E)}{dN_\textrm{exc}^\textrm{MC}}\right)^2\sigma^2(N_\textrm{exc}^\textrm{MC}) + \left(\frac{d\phi(E)}{dN_\textrm{exc}}\right)^2\sigma(N_\textrm{exc})^2$

$\sigma^2(N_0) = \sum_\textrm{corsika}\omega_i^2(E)\omega_i^2(\theta)$

$\sigma^2(N_\textrm{exc}^\textrm{MC}) = \left(\frac{dN_\textrm{exc}^\textrm{MC}}{dN_\textrm{sig}^\textrm{MC}}\right)^2\sigma^2(N_\textrm{sig}^\textrm{MC}) + \left(\frac{dN_\textrm{exc}^\textrm{MC}}{d\hat N_\textrm{bg}^\textrm{MC}}\right)^2\sigma^2(\hat N_\textrm{bg}^\textrm{MC})$

$\sigma^2(N_\textrm{sig}) = N_\textrm{sig}$

$\sigma^2(\hat N_\textrm{bg}) = \frac{1}{5^2}\sigma^2(N_\textrm{bg}) = \frac{1}{5^2} N_\textrm{bg}$

$\sigma^2(N_\textrm{sig}^\textrm{MC}) = \sum_\textrm{sig}^\textrm{MC}\omega^2_i(E)\omega^2_i(\theta)$

$\sigma^2(\hat N_\textrm{bg}^\textrm{MC}) = \frac{1}{5^2}\sigma^2(N_\textrm{bg}^\textrm{MC}) = \frac{1}{5^2}\sum_\textrm{bg}^\textrm{MC}\omega^2_i(E)\omega^2_i(\theta)$

$\frac{dN_\textrm{exc}}{dN_\textrm{sig}}=1$ $\frac{dN_\textrm{exc}}{d\hat N_\textrm{bg}}=1$

Theta and Spectral Weights

While the source spectrum $$N_0$$ is of course independent of the zenith angle $$\theta$$ of the observation, the efficiency is not, so that

$\epsilon(E) = \epsilon(E, \theta)$

In addition, the observed differential flux depends on the zenith angle, so that

$\epsilon(E, \theta) = \epsilon(E, \theta, \Delta T(\theta))$

That means that for a correct calculation of the efficiency, the number of simulated events per zenith angle interval has to match the observation time distribution. This can be achieved by applying zenith angle dependent weights $$\omega(\theta)$$ to each simulated event. Similarly, the discussed requirement of the match between result spectrum and simulated spectrum can be achieved applying energy dependent weights $$\omega(E)$$.

As the simulated energy spectrum is independent of zenith angle, it can be expressed as

$N_0(E,\theta) = N_0\cdot \fract{\eta(E)}{\int_E\eta(E)dE}\cdot \fract{\eta(\theta)}{\int_\theta\eta(\theta)d\theta}$

with the differential energy spectrum $$\eta(E)$$ and the zenith angle distribution $$\eta(\theta)$$.

$dN_0(E,\theta) = N_0\cdot d\eta(E)\cdot d\eta(\theta)$

$N_0 = \int_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}}\int_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}} dN_0(E,\theta) = N_0\int_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}}\int_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}}\eta(E) dE \cdot \eta(\theta) d\theta= N_0\int_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}}\eta(E) dE\cdot \int_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}}\eta(\theta) d\theta$

consequently

$\int_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}}\eta(E) dE = \int_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}}\eta(\theta) d\theta = 1$

or

$N_0 = N_0\cdot \sum_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}}\omega_i(E) \cdot \sum_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}}\omega_i(\theta)$

with

$\sum_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}}\omega_i(E) =\sum_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}}\omega_i(\theta) = 1$

$\int_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}}\int_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}}\eta(E)\eta(\theta) dE d\theta =\int_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}}\eta(E) dE = \int_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}}\eta(\theta) d\theta = 1$

and $$N_0$$ the total number of generated Monte Carlo events. For the generated number of events $$n_0$$ in the energy interval $$\Delta E=E_\textrm{max}-E_\textrm{min}$$ and zenith angle interval $$\Delta \theta=\theta_\textrm{max}-\theta_\textrm{min}$$ this is

$n_0(\Delta E) = \frac{\sum_{\Delta E}\sum_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}} \omega_i(E)\cdot\omega_i(\theta)}{\sum_{E}\sum_{\theta} \omega_i(E)\omega_i(\theta)}$

$n_0(\Delta E) = \frac{\sum_{\Delta E}\sum_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}} \omega_i(E)\cdot\omega_i(\theta)}{\sum_{\Delta E}\sum_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}} \omega_i(E) \cdot \sum_{\Delta \theta}\sum_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}} \omega_i(\theta)}$

with the weights chosen such that the sum over all intervals

$\sum_{\Delta E}\sum_{E_\textrm{min}}^{E_\textrm{max}} \omega_i(E)=\sum_{\Delta \theta}\sum_{\theta_\textrm{min}}^{\theta_\textrm{max}} \omega_i(\theta)=1$