Changeset 8781


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Dec 11, 2007, 9:40:50 AM (13 years ago)
Author:
tbretz
Message:
*** empty log message ***
Location:
trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG
Files:
8 added
2 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG/application.bib

    r8777 r8781  
    199199   volume = 119,
    200200    pages = {1-+},
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    441440   volume = 23,
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    443       doi = {10.1016/j.astropartphys.2005.03.005},
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    455453   volume = 641,
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    468465   volume = 603,
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    489485   volume = 61,
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    491       doi = {10.1086/191115},
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    502497   volume = 122,
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    516510   volume = 375,
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    529522   volume = 384,
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    542534   volume = 298,
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    573564   volume = 48,
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    586576   volume = 48,
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    611600   volume = 307,
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    636624   volume = 20,
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    663649   volume = 514,
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    677662   volume = 365,
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    702686   volume = 476,
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    727710   volume = 22,
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    740722   volume = 351,
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    767748   volume = 412,
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    832810   volume = 390,
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    854831   volume = 272,
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    900876   volume = 413,
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    913888   volume = 386,
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    926900   volume = 297,
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    11441116   volume = 444,
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    11941165   volume = 421,
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    12431213   volume = 320,
    12441214    pages = {L81-L85},
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    12571226   volume = 262,
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    13251293   volume = 39,
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    1327       doi = {10.1146/annurev.astro.39.1.249},
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    13401307   volume = 115,
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    13651331   volume = 513,
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    13781343   volume = 348,
    13791344    pages = {937-954},
    1380       doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07415.x},
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    13921356   volume = 98,
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    1394       doi = {10.1086/115207},
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    14171380   volume = 256,
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    14421404   volume = 294,
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    14681429   volume = 5,
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    15191479   volume = 625,
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    15321491   volume = 440,
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    15451503   volume = 94,
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    15581515   volume = 101,
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    15711527   volume = 340,
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    16081563   volume = 509,
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    16541608   volume = 416,
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    16671620   volume = 574,
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    16801632   volume = 421,
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    16931644   volume = 441,
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    17061656   volume = 454,
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    17531702   volume = 47,
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    17661714   volume = 279,
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    17791726   volume = 295,
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    18101756   volume = 358,
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    18481793   volume = 407,
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    18731817   volume = 22,
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     3002
     3003@ARTICLE{Chirkin:2004,
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     3006  journal = {ArXiv High Energy Physics - Phenomenology e-prints},
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    31043013
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    31203028@MISC{Fraunhofer,
    31213029  author = {Braun, S.},
    3122   title  = {Private communication},
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    31233031  school = {IWS Dresden, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology},
    31243032  month  = {Sep},
     
    31673075booktitle = {American Institute of Physics Conference Series},
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  • trunk/Dwarf/Documents/ApplicationDFG/application.tex

    r8777 r8781  
    4242\maketitle
    4343\newpage
    44 x
     44\mbox{}
    4545\thispagestyle{empty}
    4646\cleardoublepage
     
    117117%\subsection[1.6]{Summary}
    118118We propose to set up a robotic imaging air-Cherenkov telescope with low
    119 cost, but a high performance design for remote operation. The goal is to
    120 dedicate this gamma-ray telescope to long-term monitoring observations
    121 of nearby, bright blazars at very high energies. We will (i) search for
    122 orbital modulation of the blazar emission due to supermassive black
    123 hole binaries, (ii) study the statistics of flares and their physical
    124 origin, and (iii) correlate the data with corresponding data from the
    125 neutrino observatory IceCube to search for evidence of hadronic
    126 emission processes. The observations will furthermore trigger follow-up
    127 observations of flares with higher sensitivity telescopes such as
    128 MAGIC, VERITAS and H.E.S.S.\ Joint observations with the Whipple
    129 monitoring telescope will start a future 24\,h-monitoring of selected
    130 sources with a distributed network of robotic telescopes. The telescope
    131 design is based on a complete technological upgrade of one of the former
    132 telescopes of the HEGRA collaboration (CT3) still located at the
    133 Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos on the Canarian Island La Palma
    134 (Spain). After this upgrade, the telescope will be operated
    135 robotically, a much lower energy threshold below 350\,GeV will be
    136 achieved and the observation time required for gaining the same signal
    137 as with CT3 will be reduced by a factor of six.
     119cost, but a high performance design for remote operation. The goal is
     120the long-term monitoring observations of nearby, bright blazars at very
     121high energies. We will (i) search for orbital modulation of the blazar
     122emission due to supermassive black hole binaries, (ii) study the
     123statistics of flares and their physical origin, and (iii) correlate the
     124data with corresponding data from the neutrino observatory IceCube to
     125search for evidence of hadronic emission processes. The observations
     126will furthermore trigger follow-up observations of flares with higher
     127sensitivity telescopes such as MAGIC, \mbox{VERITAS} and H.E.S.S. Joint
     128observations with the Whipple monitoring telescope will start a future
     129\mbox{24\,h-monitoring} of selected sources with a distributed network of
     130robotic telescopes. The telescope design is based on a complete
     131technological upgrade of one of the former telescopes of the HEGRA
     132collaboration (CT3) still located at the Observatorio del Roque de los
     133Muchachos on the Canary Island La Palma (Spain). After this upgrade,
     134the telescope will be operated robotically, a much lower energy
     135threshold below 350\,GeV will be achieved, and the observation time
     136required for gaining the same signal as with CT3 will be reduced by a
     137factor of six.
    138138
    139139\germanTeX
    140140\paragraph{\bf 1.6 Zusammenfassung}~\\
    141141%\subsection[1.6]{Zusammenfassung}
    142 {\bf Unser Vorhaben besteht darin, ein robotisches Luft-Cherenkov-Teleskop
    143 mit geringen Kosten aber hoher Leistung fernsteuerbar in Betrieb zu
    144 nehmen. Das Ziel ist es, dieses Gammastrahlen Teleskop ganz der
    145 Langzeitbeobachtung von nahen, hellen Blazaren bei sehr hohen Energien
    146 zu widmen. Wir werden (i) nach Modulationen der Blazar-Emission durch
    147 Bin"arsysteme von supermassiven Schwarzen L"ochern suchen, (ii) die
    148 Statistik von gamma-Ausbr"uchen und deren physikalischen Ursprung
    149 untersuchen und (iii) die Daten mit entsprechenden Daten von dem
    150 Neutrino-Teleskop IceCube korrelieren, um Nachweise f"ur hadronische
    151 Emissionsprozesse zu finden. Die Beobachtungen werden zus"atzlich
    152 Nachfolgebeobachtungen von gamma-Ausbr"uchen mit h"ohersensitiven
    153 Teleskopen wie MAGIC, VERITAS und H.E.S.S.\ triggern. Aufeinander
    154 abgestimmte Beobachtungen zusammen mit dem Whipple Teleskop werden der
    155 Auftakt zu einer zuk"unftigen 24-Stunden-Beobachtung von selektierten
    156 Quellen mit einem verteilten Netzwerk robotischer Cherenkov-Teleskope
    157 sein. Das Teleskop-Design basiert auf einem kompletten technologischen
    158 Upgrade eines der Teleskope der fr"uheren HEGRA-Kollaboration, welches
    159 noch immer am Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos auf der kanarischen
    160 Insel La Palma (Spanien) gelegen ist. Nach diesem Upgrade wird das
    161 Teleskop robotisch betrieben werden und eine wesentlich geringere
    162 Energieschwelle von unter 350\,GeV aufweisen, w"ahrend gleichzeitig die
    163 notwendige Beobachtungszeit, um dasselbe Signal wie CT3 zu erhalten, um
    164 einen Faktor sechs verringert wird.}
    165 \originalTeX
     142Das Ziel unseres Vorhabens ist es, ein abbildendes
     143Luft-Cherenkov-Teleskop mit geringen Kosten, aber hoher Leistung f"ur
     144den ferngesteuerten Betrieb aufzubauen. Die Motivation ist die
     145kontinuierliche Langzeitbeobachtung von hellen, nahen Blazaren bei sehr
     146hohen Energien. Mit diesen Beobachtungen werden wir nach
     147bahndynamischen Modulationen suchen, welche von Bin"arsystemen
     148supermassiver schwarzer L"ocher in der emittierten Strahlung
     149hervorgerufen werden. Au"serdem werden die gewonnenen Daten mit den
     150entsprechenden Daten des Neutrinoteleskops IceCube korreliert, um nach
     151Hinweisen f"ur hadroninduzierte Emissionsprozesse zu suchen. Die
     152kontinuierliche "Uberwachung ausgew"ahlter Quellen wird zudem besser
     153aufgel"oste Beobachtungen und Nachbeobachtungen von
     154Strahlungsausbr"uchen durch Teleskope h"oherer Sensitivit"at, wie z.B.\
     155MAGIC, VERITAS und H.E.S.S., erlauben. Die zeitversetzten, gemeinsamen
     156Beobachtungen zusammen mit dem Whipple-Teleskop stellen den Beginn
     157ununterbrochener Beobachtungen mit einem weltweiten Netzwerk
     158robotischer Teleskope dar. Unser Teleskopdesign basiert auf einer
     159technischen Runderneuerung eines Teleskops der fr"uheren
     160HEGRA-Kollaboration (CT3), welches noch immer am Observatorio del Roque de
     161los Muchachos auf der Kanarischen Insel La Palma (Spanien) steht. Nach
     162dieser Aufr"ustung wird das Teleskop vollst"andig ferngesteuert
     163betrieben werden, eine viel niedrigere Energieschwelle von unter
     164350\,GeV erreichen und die Beobachtungszeit, um ein gleichstarkes
     165Signal wie mit CT3 zu erhalten, wird um einen Faktor sechs k"urzer
     166sein.
     167\originalTeX
    166168\newpage
    167169
     
    322324exposure simultaneous to the VHE observations, and this is a new
    323325qualitative step for blazar research. For the same reasons, the VERITAS
    324 collaboration keeps the former Whipple telescope alive, albeit its
     326collaboration keeps the Whipple telescope alive, albeit its
    325327performance seems to have strongly degraded. It is obvious that the
    326328large Cherenkov telescopes such as MAGIC, H.E.S.S.\ or VERITAS are mainly
     
    436438model \citep{Haffke:Dipl,Schroeder:PhD} for the local atmosphere of La
    437439Palma. Furthermore the group has developed high precision Monte Carlos
    438 for Lepton propagation in different media
    439 %\citep{hepph0407075}. An
    440 \citep{xxx}.
     440for Lepton propagation in different media \citep{Chirkin:2004}.
    441441An energy unfolding method and program has been adapted for IceCube and
    442442MAGIC data analysis \citep{Curtef:CM,Muenich:ICRC}.
     
    520520targets will be visible any time of the year (see
    521521fig.~\ref{visibility}). For calibration purposes, some time will be
    522 scheduled for observations of the Crab Nebula.\\
     522scheduled for observations of the Crab \mbox{Nebula}.\\
    523523
    524524The blazar observations will allow
     
    573573\begin{center}
    574574 \includegraphics*[width=\textwidth,angle=0,clip]{schedule.eps}
    575 % \caption{Left: The old HEGRA CT3 telescope as operated within the
    576 % HEGRA Sytem. Right: A photomontage how the revised CT3 telescope
    577 % could look like with more and hexagonal mirrors.}
     575 \caption{Work schedule for the expected funding period of three years.
     576  More details about the work distribution is given in the text.}
    578577\label{schedule}
    579578%\label{DWARF}
     
    644643none
    645644
    646 \clearpage
     645\clearpage                                                                 
    647646
    648647\section[4]{Funds requested (Beantragte Mittel)}
     
    668667\subsection[4.2]{Scientific equipment (Wissenschaftliche Ger\"{a}te)}
    669668
    670 At the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site,
     669At the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), at the MAGIC site,
    671670the mount of the former HEGRA telescope CT3 now owned by the MAGIC
    672671collaboration is still serviceable. One hut for electronics close to
     
    677676autonomous robotic operation is the primary goal.
    678677
    679 To achieve the planned sensitivity and threshold
    680 (fig.~\ref{sensitivity}), the following components have to be bought.
    681 To obtain reliable results as fast as possible well known components
    682 have been chosen.
    683678\begin{figure}[hb]
    684679\centering{
    685 \includegraphics[width=0.605\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps}
     680%\includegraphics[width=0.605\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps}
     681\includegraphics[width=0.70\textwidth]{sensitivity.eps}
    686682\caption{Integral flux sensitivity of several telescopes
    687683\citep{Juan:2000,MAGICsensi,Vassiliev:1999}
     
    691687} \label{sensitivity} }
    692688\end{figure}
    693 \clearpage
     689
     690To achieve the planned sensitivity and threshold
     691(fig.~\ref{sensitivity}), the following components have to be bought.
     692To obtain reliable results as fast as possible well known components
     693have been chosen.\\
     694
    694695{\bf Camera}\dotfill 206.450,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
    695696\begin{quote}
     
    787788\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
    788789
     790\newpage
    789791{\bf Data acquisition}\dotfill 61.035,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
    790792\begin{quote}
     
    909911\begin{quote}
    910912   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
    911    On-site\hfill 12.000,-\,\euro\\
    912913   Three PCs\hfill 8.000,-\,\euro\\
    913914   SATA RAID 3TB\hfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\
     
    982983\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
    983984\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.2:\hfill{\bf
    984 340.635,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
     985341.135,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
    985986\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
    986987\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
     
    10501051\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
    10511052\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.4:\hfill{\bf
    1052 72.200,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
     105363.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
    10531054\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
    10541055\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
     
    12311232\thispagestyle{empty}
    12321233\newpage
    1233 x
     1234\mbox{}
    12341235\thispagestyle{empty}
    12351236\newpage
     
    12401241%Schriftenverzeichnis der Antragsteller seit dem Jahr 2000
    12411242List of refereed publications of the applicants since 2000
     1243\item Appendix A: Chapter 4 in German
    12421244\item CV of Karl Mannheim
    12431245\item CV of Wolfgang Rhode
     
    12491251\end{itemize}
    12501252\newpage
    1251 x
     1253\mbox{}
    12521254\thispagestyle{empty}
    12531255\newpage
     1256
     1257\appendix
     1258\germanTeX
     1259\section[4]{Beantragte Mittel}
     1260
     1261Die beantragten Mittel werden durch die Ausgaben f"ur die Kamera und
     1262die Datennahme dominiert. Wir beantragen eine F"orderung von drei Jahren.
     1263
     1264\subsection[4.1]{Personalkosten}
     1265
     1266F"ur diesen Zeitraum beantragen wir die Finanzierung von zwei Postdocs
     1267und zwei Doktoranden, jeweils einer in Dortmund und einer in W"urzburg
     1268(3\,x\,TV-L13). Mit den besetzten Stellen sollen die erw"ahnten Arbeiten
     1269zur Planung und zum Bau des Teleskops durchgef"uhrt werden. Zus"atzlich
     1270wird noch eine schwankende Zahl an Doktoranden und Diplomanden
     1271zur Verf"ugung stehen.
     1272
     1273Interessierte Kandidaten sind Dr.\ Thomas
     1274Bretz, Dr.\ dest.\ Daniela Dorner, Dr.\ dest.\ Kirsten M\"{u}nich,
     1275cand.\ phys.\ Michael Backes, cand.\ phys.\ Daniela Hadasch und cand.\
     1276phys.\ Dominik Neise.
     1277
     1278\subsection[4.2]{Wissenschaftliche Ger\"{a}te}
     1279
     1280Am Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), nahe dem MAGIC
     1281Teleskop, steht noch das ehemalige HEGRA-Teleskop (CT3) zur Verf"ugung.
     1282Es ist noch immer nutzbar und geh"ort jetzt der MAGIC Kollaboration.
     1283Au"serdem ist noch ein Container zur Unterbringung von Elektronik,
     1284sowie weiterer Platz im MAGIC-eignenen Haus vorhanden. Der Memorandum
     1285of Understanding der MAGIC-Kollaboration erlaubt uns den Betrieb des
     1286Teleskops als DWARF (see Anlage). F"ur Notfallsituationen steht die
     1287MAGIC Schichtmannschaft zur Verf"ugung.
     1288
     1289Um die angestrebte Sensitivit"at und Energieschwelle (fig.~\ref{sensitivity})
     1290in m"oglichgst kurzer Zeit zu erreichen, wurden die folgenden
     1291Komponenten ausgew"ahlt. Einzelheiten zu den Auswahlkriterien k"onnen
     1292im Kapitel~4 nachgelesen werden.\\
     1293
     1294{\bf Kamera}\dotfill 206.450,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     1295\begin{quote}
     1296   F"ur eine Kamera mit 313 Pixel werden folgende Komponenten ben"otigt:\\
     1297   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
     1298   Photomultiplier R"ohre EMI\,9083B\hfill 220,-\,\euro\\
     1299   Aktiver Spannungsteiler (EMI)\hfill 80,-\,\euro\\
     1300   Hochspannungsversorgung und -kontrolle\hfill 300,-\,\euro\\
     1301   Vorverst"arker\hfill 50,-\,\euro\\
     1302   Ersatzteile (pauschal)\hfill 3000,-\,\euro\\
     1303   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
     1304%For long-term observations, the stability of the camera is a major
     1305%criterion. To keep the systematic errors small, a good background
     1306%estimation is mandatory. The only possibility for a synchronous
     1307%determination of the background is the measurement from the night-sky
     1308%observed in the same field-of-view with the same instrument. To achieve
     1309%this, the observed position is moved out of the camera center which
     1310%allows the estimation of the background from positions symmetric with
     1311%respect to the camera center (so called Wobble mode). This observation
     1312%mode increases the sensitivity by a factor of $\sqrt{2}$, because
     1313%spending observation time for dedicated background observations becomes
     1314%obsolete, i.e.\ observation time for the source is doubled. This
     1315%ensures in addition a better time coverage of the observed sources.\\
     1316%A further increase in sensitivity can be achieved by better background
     1317%statistics from not only one but several independent positions for the
     1318%background estimation in the camera \citep{Lessard:2001}. To allow for
     1319%this the source position in Wobble mode should be shifted
     1320%$0.6^\circ-0.7^\circ$ out of the camera center.
     1321%
     1322%A camera completely containing the shower images of events in the energy
     1323%region of 1\,TeV-10\,TeV should have a diameter in the order of
     1324%5$^\circ$. To decrease the dependence of the measurements on the camera
     1325%geometry, a camera layout as symmetric as possible will be chosen.
     1326%Consequently a camera allowing to fulfill these requirements should be
     1327%round and have a diameter of $4.5^\circ-5.0^\circ$.
     1328%
     1329%Therefore a camera with 313 pixel camera (see fig.~\ref{camDWARF}) is
     1330%chosen. The camera will be built based on the experience with HEGRA and
     1331%MAGIC. 19\,mm diameter Photomultiplier Tubes (PM, EMI\,9083B/KFLA-UD)
     1332%will be bought, similar to the HEGRA type (EMI\,9083\,KFLA). They have
     1333%a quantum efficiency improved by 25\% (see fig.~\ref{qe}) and ensure a
     1334%granularity which is enough to guarantee good results even below the
     1335%energy threshold (flux peak energy). Each individual pixel has to be
     1336%equipped with a preamplifier, an active high-voltage supply and
     1337%control. The total expense for a single pixel will be in the order of
     1338%650,-\,\euro.
     1339%
     1340%All possibilities of borrowing one of the old HEGRA cameras for a
     1341%transition time have been probed and refused by the owners of the
     1342%cameras.
     1343%
     1344%At ETH~Z\"{u}rich currently test measurements are ongoing to prove the
     1345%ability, i.e.\ stability, aging, quantum efficiency, etc., of using
     1346%Geiger-mode APDs (GAPD) as photon detectors in the camera of a
     1347%Cherenkov telescope. The advantages are an extremely high quantum
     1348%efficiency ($>$50\%), easier gain stabilization and simplified
     1349%application compared to classical PMs. If these test measurements are
     1350%successfully finished until 8/2008, we consider to use GAPDs in favor
     1351%of classical PMs. The design of such a camera would take place at
     1352%University Dortmund in close collaboration with the experts from ETH.
     1353%The construction would also take place at the electronics workshop of
     1354%Dortmund.
     1355\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
     1356\newpage
     1357{\bf Kameraaufh"angung und -geh"ause}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     1358\begin{quote}
     1359%For this setup the camera holding has to be redesigned. (1500,-\,\euro)
     1360%The camera chassis must be water tight and will be equipped with an
     1361%automatic lid, protecting the PMs at daytime. For further protection, a
     1362%plexi-glass window will be installed in front of the camera. By coating
     1363%this window with an anti-reflex layer of magnesium-fluoride, a gain in
     1364%transmission of 5\% is expected. Each PM will be equipped with a
     1365%light-guide (Winston cone) as developed by UC Davis and successfully in
     1366%operation in the MAGIC camera. (3000,-\,\euro\ for all Winston cones). The
     1367%current design will be improved by using a high reflectivity aluminized
     1368%Mylar mirror-foil, coated with a dialectical layer ($Si\,O_2$
     1369%alternated with Niobium Oxide), to reach a reflectivity in the order of
     1370%98\%. An electric and optical shielding of the individual PMs is
     1371%planned.
     1372%
     1373%In total a gain of $\sim$15\% in light-collection
     1374%efficiency compared to the old CT3 system can be achieved.
     1375\end{quote}%\vspace{1ex}
     1376{\bf Datanahme}\dotfill 61.035,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     1377\begin{quote}
     1378313 Pixels\\
     1379   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
     1380   Auslese\hfill 95,-\,\euro\\
     1381   Triggerelektronik\hfill 100,-\,\euro\\
     1382   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
     1383%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
     1384%For the data acquisition system a hardware readout based on an analog
     1385%ring buffer (Domino\ II/IV), currently developed for the MAGIC~II
     1386%readout, will be used \citep{Barcelo}. This technology allows to sample
     1387%the pulses with high frequencies and readout several channels with a
     1388%single Flash-ADC resulting in low costs. The low power consumption will
     1389%allow to include the digitization near the signal source making
     1390%the transfer of the analog signal obsolete. This results in less
     1391%pick-up noise and reduces the signal dispersion. By high sampling rates
     1392%(1.2\,GHz), additional information about the pulse shape can be
     1393%obtained. This increases the over-all sensitivity further, because the
     1394%short integration time allows for almost perfect suppression of noise
     1395%due to night-sky background photons. The estimated trigger-, i.e.\
     1396%readout-rate of the telescope is below 100\,Hz (HEGRA: $<$10\,Hz) which
     1397%allows to use a low-cost industrial solution for readout of the system,
     1398%like USB\,2.0.
     1399%
     1400%Current results obtained with the new 2\,GHz FADC system in the MAGIC
     1401%data acquisition show, that for a single telescope a sensitivity
     1402%improvement of 40\% with a fast FADC system is achievable \citep{Tescaro:2007}.
     1403%
     1404%Like for the HEGRA telescopes a simple multiplicity trigger is
     1405%sufficient, but also a simple neighbor-logic could be programmed (both
     1406%cases $\sim$100,-\,\euro/channel).
     1407%
     1408%Additional data reduction and preprocessing within the readout chain is
     1409%provided. Assuming conservatively a readout rate of 30\,Hz, the storage
     1410%space needed will be less than 250\,GB/month or 3\,TB/year. This amount
     1411%of data can easily be stored and processed by the W\"{u}rzburg
     1412%Datacenter (current capacity $>$80\,TB, $>$40\,CPUs).
     1413\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
     1414
     1415{\bf Spiegel}\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     1416%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
     1417\begin{quote}
     1418%The existing mirrors will be replaced by new plastic mirrors currently
     1419%developed by Wolfgang Dr\"{o}ge's group. The cheap and light-weight
     1420%material has been formerly used for Winston cones in balloon
     1421%experiments. The mirrors are copied from a master and coated with a
     1422%reflecting and a protective material. Tests have given promising
     1423%results. By a change of the mirror geometry, the mirror area can be
     1424%increased from 8.5\,m$^2$ to 13\,m$^2$ (see picture~\ref{CT3} and
     1425%montage~\ref{DWARF}). This includes an increase of $\sim$10$\%$ per
     1426%mirror by using a hexagonal layout instead of a round one. A further
     1427%increase of the mirror area would require a reconstruction of parts of
     1428%the mount and will therefore be considered only in a later phase of the
     1429%experiment.
     1430%
     1431%If the current development of the plastic mirrors cannot be finished in
     1432%time, a re-machining of the old glass mirrors (8.5\,m$^2$) is possible
     1433%with high purity aluminum and quartz coating.
     1434%
     1435%In both cases the mirrors can be coated with the same high reflectivity
     1436%aluminized Mylar mirror-foil and a dialectical layer of $SiO_2$ as for
     1437%the Winston cones. By this, a gain in reflectivity of $\sim10\%$ is
     1438%achieved, see fig.~\ref{reflectivity} \citep{Fraunhofer}. Both
     1439%solutions would require the same expenses.
     1440%
     1441%To keep track of the alignment, reflectivity and optical quality of the
     1442%individual mirrors and the point-spread function of the total mirror
     1443%during long-term observations, the application of an automatic mirror
     1444%adjustment system, as developed by ETH~Z\"{u}rich and successfully
     1445%operated on the MAGIC telescope, is intended.
     1446\end{quote}%\vspace{3ex}
     1447{\bf Kalibrationssystem}\dotfill 9.650,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     1448\begin{quote}
     1449Einzelkomponenten\\
     1450   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
     1451   Absolute Lichtkalibration\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
     1452   Messung der Trigger Rate einzelner Pixel\hfill 3.000,-\,\euro\\
     1453   Wetterstation\hfill 500,-\,\euro\\
     1454   GPS gesteuerte Uhr\hfill 1.500,-\,\euro\\
     1455   CCD Kameras mit Auslese\hfill 2.650,-\,\euro\\
     1456   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
     1457%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
     1458%For the absolute light calibration (gain-calibration) of the PMs a
     1459%calibration box, as successfully used in the MAGIC telescope, will be
     1460%produced.
     1461%
     1462%To ensure a homogeneous acceptance of the camera, essential for
     1463%Wobble mode observations, the trigger rate of the individual pixels
     1464%will be measured and controlled.
     1465%
     1466%For a correction of axis misalignments and possible deformations of the
     1467%structure (e.g.\ bending of camera holding masts) a pointing correction
     1468%algorithm will be applied, as used in the MAGIC tracking system. It is
     1469%calibrated by measurements of the reflection of bright guide stars on
     1470%the camera surface and ensures a pointing accuracy well below the pixel
     1471%diameter. Therefore a high sensitive low-cost video camera, as for
     1472%MAGIC\ I and~II, (300,-\,\euro\ camera, 600,-\,\euro\ optics,
     1473%300,-\,\euro\ housing, 250,-\,\euro\ frame grabber) will be installed.
     1474%
     1475%A second identical CCD camera for online monitoring (starguider) will
     1476%be bought.
     1477%
     1478%For an accurate tracking a GPS clock is necessary. The weather station
     1479%helps judging the data quality.
     1480%}\\[2ex]
     1481\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
     1482
     1483{\bf Computing}\dotfill 12.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     1484\begin{quote}
     1485   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
     1486   Drei PCs\hfill 8.000,-\,\euro\\
     1487   SATA RAID 3TB\hfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\
     1488   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
     1489%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
     1490%For on-site computing three standard PCs are needed ($\sim$8.000,-\,\euro).
     1491%This includes readout and storage, preprocessing and telescope control.
     1492%For safety reasons, a firewall is mandatory. For local cache-storage
     1493%and backup, two RAID\,5 SATA disk arrays with one Terabyte capacity
     1494%each will fulfill the requirement ($\sim$4.000,-\,\euro). The data will be
     1495%transmitted as soon as possible after data taking via Internet to the
     1496%W\"{u}rzburg Datacenter. Enough storage capacity and computing power
     1497%is available there and already reserved for this purpose.
     1498%
     1499%Monte Carlo production and storage will take place at University
     1500%Dortmund.%}\\[2ex]
     1501\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
     1502
     1503{\bf Antrieb und Positionsauslese}\dotfill 17.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     1504\begin{quote}
     1505%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
     1506%The present mount is used. Only a smaller investment for safety,
     1507%corrosion protection, cable ducts, etc. is needed (7.500,-\,\euro).
     1508%
     1509%Motors, shaft encoders and control electronics in the order of
     1510%10.000,-\,\euro\ have to be bought. The costs have been estimated with
     1511%the experience from building the MAGIC drive systems. The DWARF drive
     1512%system should allow for relatively fast repositioning for three
     1513%reasons: (i)~Fast movement might be mandatory for future ToO
     1514%observations. (ii)~Wobble mode observations will be done changing the
     1515%Wobble-position continuously (each 20\,min) for symmetry reasons.
     1516%(iii)~To ensure good time coverage of more than one source visible at
     1517%the same time, the observed source will be changed in constant time
     1518%intervals.
     1519%
     1520%For the drive system three 150\,Watt servo motors are intended to be bought. A
     1521%micro-controller based motion control unit (Siemens SPS L\,20) similar to
     1522%the one of the current MAGIC~II drive system will be used. For
     1523%communication with the readout-system, a standard Ethernet connection
     1524%based on the TCP/IP- and UDP-protocol will be setup.
     1525%}\\[2ex]
     1526\end{quote}%\vspace{3ex}
     1527%
     1528{\bf Sicherheit}\dotfill 4.000,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     1529\begin{quote}
     1530   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
     1531   Unterbrechungsfreie Stromversorgung (UPS)\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
     1532   Sicherheitszaun\hfill 2.000,-\,\euro\\
     1533   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
     1534%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
     1535%A UPS with 5\,kW-10\,kW will be
     1536%installed to protect the equipment against power cuts and ensure a safe
     1537%telescope position at the time of sunrise.
     1538%
     1539%For protection in case of robotic movement a fence will be
     1540%installed.%}\\[2ex]
     1541\end{quote}\vspace{3ex}
     1542
     1543{\bf Andere Ausgaben}\dotfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\[-3ex]
     1544\begin{quote}
     1545%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.6\textwidth}
     1546%   Robotics\hfill 7.500,-\,\euro\\
     1547%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
     1548%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
     1549F"ur den Betrieb in Fernsteuerung
     1550werden verschiedene fernbedienbare Komponenten, wie z.B.\
     1551Ethernet steuerbare Steckdosen und "Uberwachungselektronik, gekauft.
     1552\end{quote}
     1553\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
     1554\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.2:\hfill{\bf
     1555341.135,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
     1556\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
     1557\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
     1558
     1559\subsection[4.3]{Verbrauchsmaterial}
     1560
     1561\begin{quote}
     1562%   \parbox[t]{1em}{~}\begin{minipage}[t]{0.9\textwidth}
     1563   10 LTO\,4 B"ander (8\,TB)\dotfill 750,-\,\euro\\
     1564   Verbrauchsgegenst"ande (pauschal): Werkzeug und Meterialien\dotfill 10.000,-\,\euro
     1565%   \end{minipage}\\[-0.5ex]
     1566\end{quote}
     1567
     1568\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
     1569\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.3:\hfill{\bf
     157010.750,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
     1571\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
     1572\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
     1573
     1574\subsection[4.4]{Reisen}
     1575Die hohen Reisekosten sind in der engen Zusammenarbeit zwischen
     1576Dortmund und W"urzburg, sowie den notwendigen Aufenthalten in La Palma
     1577begr"undet.\\[-2ex]
     1578
     1579\begin{quote}
     1580%\parbox[t]{1em}{~}\parbox[t]{0.955\textwidth}{
     1581Jedes Jahr sollte ein erfahrenes Gruppenmitglied aus Dortmund und
     1582W"urzburg den Status des Projektes bei einer internationalen Konferenz
     1583vorstellen:\\
     15842 x 3\,Jahre x 1.500,-\,\euro\dotfill 9.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
     1585
     1586Teilnahme am MAGIC Kollaborationstreffen (zweimal j"ahrlich):\\
     15872 x 3\,Jahre x 1.000,-\,\euro\dotfill 6.000,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
     1588
     1589Austausch von Doktoranden zwischen W\"{u}rzburg and Dortmund:\\
     15901\,Student x 1\,Woche x 24 (alle sechs Wochen) x 800,-\,\euro\dotfill
     159119.200,-\,\euro\\[-2ex]
     1592
     1593Zum Aufbau des Teleskops vor Ort werden sind Ausgaben n"otig:\\
     15944 x 2\,Wochen auf La Palma x 2\,Personen x 1.800,-\,\euro\dotfill
     159528.800,-\,\euro
     1596%}
     1597\end{quote}
     1598
     1599\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
     1600\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.4:\hfill{\bf
     160163.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
     1602\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
     1603\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
     1604
     1605
     1606\subsection[4.5]{Publikationskosten}
     1607Werden von den beantragenden Universit"aten "ubernommen.
     1608
     1609
     1610\subsection[4.6]{Sonstige Kosten}
     1611\begin{quote}
     1612Euro-Container (zum Versandt der Spiegel)\dotfill 5.000,-\,\euro\\
     1613Transport\dotfill 15.000,-\,\euro\\
     1614Abbau (wird von den Antragstellern "ubernommen)\dotfill n/a
     1615\end{quote}
     1616
     1617\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[0.5ex]
     1618\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hspace{0.5ex}\hfill Sum 4.6:\hfill{\bf
     161920.000,-\,\euro}\hfill\hspace*{0pt}\\[-1ex]
     1620\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\[-1.9ex]
     1621\hspace*{0.66\textwidth}\hrulefill\\
     1622
     1623\newpage
     1624\thispagestyle{empty}
     1625\mbox{}
     1626\newpage
     1627
     1628\originalTeX
    12541629
    12551630%(References of our groups are marked by an asterix *)
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